Publications by authors named "Jaeseung C Kim"

11 Publications

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Transcription phenotypes of pancreatic cancer are driven by genomic events during tumor evolution.

Nat Genet 2020 02 13;52(2):231-240. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma presents as a spectrum of a highly aggressive disease in patients. The basis of this disease heterogeneity has proved difficult to resolve due to poor tumor cellularity and extensive genomic instability. To address this, a dataset of whole genomes and transcriptomes was generated from purified epithelium of primary and metastatic tumors. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that molecular subtypes are a product of a gene expression continuum driven by a mixture of intratumoral subpopulations, which was confirmed by single-cell analysis. Integrated whole-genome analysis uncovered that molecular subtypes are linked to specific copy number aberrations in genes such as mutant KRAS and GATA6. By mapping tumor genetic histories, tetraploidization emerged as a key mutational process behind these events. Taken together, these data support the premise that the constellation of genomic aberrations in the tumor gives rise to the molecular subtype, and that disease heterogeneity is due to ongoing genomic instability during progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0566-9DOI Listing
February 2020

A renewed model of pancreatic cancer evolution based on genomic rearrangement patterns.

Nature 2016 Oct 12;538(7625):378-382. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

Pancreatic cancer, a highly aggressive tumour type with uniformly poor prognosis, exemplifies the classically held view of stepwise cancer development. The current model of tumorigenesis, based on analyses of precursor lesions, termed pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanINs) lesions, makes two predictions: first, that pancreatic cancer develops through a particular sequence of genetic alterations (KRAS, followed by CDKN2A, then TP53 and SMAD4); and second, that the evolutionary trajectory of pancreatic cancer progression is gradual because each alteration is acquired independently. A shortcoming of this model is that clonally expanded precursor lesions do not always belong to the tumour lineage, indicating that the evolutionary trajectory of the tumour lineage and precursor lesions can be divergent. This prevailing model of tumorigenesis has contributed to the clinical notion that pancreatic cancer evolves slowly and presents at a late stage. However, the propensity for this disease to rapidly metastasize and the inability to improve patient outcomes, despite efforts aimed at early detection, suggest that pancreatic cancer progression is not gradual. Here, using newly developed informatics tools, we tracked changes in DNA copy number and their associated rearrangements in tumour-enriched genomes and found that pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis is neither gradual nor follows the accepted mutation order. Two-thirds of tumours harbour complex rearrangement patterns associated with mitotic errors, consistent with punctuated equilibrium as the principal evolutionary trajectory. In a subset of cases, the consequence of such errors is the simultaneous, rather than sequential, knockout of canonical preneoplastic genetic drivers that are likely to set-off invasive cancer growth. These findings challenge the current progression model of pancreatic cancer and provide insights into the mutational processes that give rise to these aggressive tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5446075PMC
October 2016

Truncating Erythropoietin Receptor Rearrangements in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Cancer Cell 2016 Feb;29(2):186-200

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Chromosomal rearrangements are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are important ALL initiating events. We describe four different rearrangements of the erythropoietin receptor gene EPOR in Philadelphia chromosome-like (Ph-like) ALL. All of these rearrangements result in truncation of the cytoplasmic tail of EPOR at residues similar to those mutated in primary familial congenital polycythemia, with preservation of the proximal tyrosine essential for receptor activation and loss of distal regulatory residues. This resulted in deregulated EPOR expression, hypersensitivity to erythropoietin stimulation, and heightened JAK-STAT activation. Expression of truncated EPOR in mouse B cell progenitors induced ALL in vivo. Human leukemic cells with EPOR rearrangements were sensitive to JAK-STAT inhibition, suggesting a therapeutic option in high-risk ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2015.12.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4750652PMC
February 2016

Purification and interaction analyses of two human lysosomal vitamin B12 transporters: LMBD1 and ABCD4.

Mol Membr Biol 2014 Nov-Dec;31(7-8):250-61

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University , Montreal , Canada .

Mutations in human LMBRD1 and ABCD4 prevent lysosomal export of vitamin B(12) to the cytoplasm, impairing the vitamin B(12)-dependent enzymes methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. The gene products of LMBRD1 and ABCD4 are implicated in vitamin B(12) transport at the lysosomal membrane and are proposed to act in complex. To address the mechanism for lysosomal vitamin B(12) transport, we report the novel recombinant production of LMBD1 and ABCD4 for detailed biophysical analyses. Using blue native PAGE, chemical crosslinking, and size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS), we show that both detergent-solubilized LMBD1 and detergent-solubilized ABCD4 form homodimers. To examine the functional binding properties of these proteins, label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) provides direct in vitro evidence that: (i) LMBD1 and ABCD4 interact with low nanomolar affinity; and (ii) the cytoplasmic vitamin B(12)-processing protein MMACHC also interacts with LMBD1 and ABCD4 with low nanomolar affinity. Accordingly, we propose a model whereby membrane-bound LMBD1 and ABCD4 facilitate the vectorial delivery of lysosomal vitamin B(12) to cytoplasmic MMACHC, thus preventing cofactor dilution to the cytoplasmic milieu and protecting against inactivating side reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09687688.2014.990998DOI Listing
August 2015

Late onset of symptoms in an atypical patient with the cblJ inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism: diagnosis and novel mutation revealed by exome sequencing.

Mol Genet Metab 2012 Dec 16;107(4):664-8. Epub 2012 Oct 16.

Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Inborn errors of vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) metabolism are characterized by decreased production of active cobalamin cofactors and subsequent deficiencies in the activities of methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. With the recent discovery of the cblJ defect in two patients with phenotypes mimicking the cblF defect, there are nine genes known to be involved in cobalamin metabolism. The new defect is caused by mutations in the ABCD4 gene, encoding an ABC transporter. At the moment, there is no clear distinction between the cblJ and cblF defects either clinically or biochemically, and both defects result in blocks in the transport of cobalamin from the lysosome to the cytoplasm. A patient was diagnosed with hyperhomocysteinemia and methylmalonic aciduria at the age of 8 years. Incorporations of both [(14)C]propionate and [(14)C]methyltetrahydrofolate in cultured fibroblasts were within reference ranges and thus too high to allow for complementation analysis. We observed decreased synthesis of both adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin and accumulation of unmetabolized cyanocobalamin. Exome sequencing was performed to identify causative mutation(s) and Sanger re-sequencing was performed to validate segregation of mutation in the family. By this approach, a homozygous mutation, c.423C>G, in the ABCD4 gene was identified. Here, we report the successful application of exome sequencing for diagnosis of a rare inborn error of vitamin B(12) metabolism in a patient whose unusual presentation precluded diagnosis using standard biochemical and genetic approaches. The patient represents only the third known patient with the cblJ disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.10.005DOI Listing
December 2012

Mutations in ABCD4 cause a new inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism.

Nat Genet 2012 Oct 26;44(10):1152-5. Epub 2012 Aug 26.

Division of Metabolism, Children's Research Center (CRC), University Children's Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland.

Inherited disorders of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) have provided important clues to how this vitamin, which is essential for hematological and neurological function, is transported and metabolized. We describe a new disease that results in failure to release vitamin B12 from lysosomes, which mimics the cblF defect caused by LMBRD1 mutations. Using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and exome sequencing, we identified causal mutations in ABCD4, a gene that codes for an ABC transporter, which was previously thought to have peroxisomal localization and function. Our results show that ABCD4 colocalizes with the lysosomal proteins LAMP1 and LMBD1, the latter of which is deficient in the cblF defect. Furthermore, we show that mutations altering the putative ATPase domain of ABCD4 affect its function, suggesting that the ATPase activity of ABCD4 may be involved in intracellular processing of vitamin B12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2386DOI Listing
October 2012

Structural features of recombinant MMADHC isoforms and their interactions with MMACHC, proteins of mammalian vitamin B12 metabolism.

Mol Genet Metab 2012 Nov 11;107(3):352-62. Epub 2012 Jul 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The genes MMACHC and MMADHC encode critical proteins involved in the intracellular metabolism of cobalamin. Two clinical features, homocystinuria and methylmalonic aciduria, define inborn errors of these genes. Based on disease phenotypes, MMADHC acts at a branch point for cobalamin delivery, apparently exerting its function through interaction with MMACHC that demonstrates dealkylase and decyanase activities. Here we present biophysical analyses of MMADHC to identify structural features and to further characterize its interaction with MMACHC. Two recombinant tag-less isoforms of MMADHC (MMADHCΔ1-12 and MMADHCΔ1-61) were expressed and purified. Full length MMACHC and full length MMADHC were detected in whole cell lysates of human cells; by Western blotting, their molecular masses corresponded to purified recombinant proteins. By clear-native PAGE and by dynamic light scattering, recombinant MMADHCs were stable and monodisperse. Both species were monomeric, adopting extended conformations in solution. Circular dichroism and secondary structure predictions correlated with significant regions of disorder within the N-terminal domain of MMADHC. We found no evidence that MMADHC binds cobalamin. Phage panning against MMADHC predicted four binding regions on MMACHC, two of which overlap with predicted sites on MMACHC at which it may self-associate. Specific, concentration-dependent responses were observed for MMACHC binding to itself and to both MMADHC constructs. As estimated in the sub-micromolar range, the binding of MMACHC to itself was weaker compared to its interaction with either of the MMADHC isoforms. We propose that the function of MMADHC is exerted through its structured C-terminal domain via interactions with MMACHC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2012.07.001DOI Listing
November 2012

Mutations in KAT6B, encoding a histone acetyltransferase, cause Genitopatellar syndrome.

Am J Hum Genet 2012 Feb 19;90(2):282-9. Epub 2012 Jan 19.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) is a skeletal dysplasia with cerebral and genital anomalies for which the molecular basis has not yet been determined. By exome sequencing, we found de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in KAT6B (lysine acetyltransferase 6B, formerly known as MYST4 and MORF) in three subjects; then by Sanger sequencing of KAT6B, we found similar mutations in three additional subjects. The mutant transcripts do not undergo nonsense-mediated decay in cells from subjects with GPS. In addition, human pathological analyses and mouse expression studies point to systemic roles of KAT6B in controlling organismal growth and development. Myst4 (the mouse orthologous gene) is expressed in mouse tissues corresponding to those affected by GPS. Phenotypic differences and similarities between GPS, the Say-Barber-Biesecker variant of Ohdo syndrome (caused by different mutations of KAT6B), and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (caused by mutations in other histone acetyltransferases) are discussed. Together, the data support an epigenetic dysregulation of the limb, brain, and genital developmental programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.11.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276659PMC
February 2012