Publications by authors named "Jae-Suk Choi"

75 Publications

Nutrition, Safety, Health Functional Effects, and Availability of Honeybee ( L.) Drone Pupae.

Authors:
Jae-Suk Choi

Insects 2021 Aug 27;12(9). Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Food Biotechnology, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, Busan 46958, Korea.

Since ancient times, honeybee drone pupae have been used as food and for medicinal purposes in Asia, the United States, and Europe. Honeybee ( L.) drone pupae have been registered as food ingredients in Korea. This material is promising as an alternative food source. It has carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and contains various amino acids and fatty acids as well as minerals and vitamins. Prior studies have empirically demonstrated the microbiological and chemical safety of honeybee drone pupae. The health functional effects of this material have been documented as well. However, to the best of my knowledge, no review has been conducted on the published studies to date. This review aimed to summarize the research findings on honeybee drone pupae thus far. Online databases were searched according to the selection criteria, duplicate reports were excluded, and 22 eligible articles were reviewed. Conclusionally, it was confirmed that honeybee drone pupae have various nutritional components, safety as a food and cosmetic material, and various available possibilities, but more systematic studies are needed to increase their consumption. Therefore, it is believed that this synopsis will help guide future research on honeybee drone pupae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12090771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468450PMC
August 2021

Effects of Vacuum Frying on the Preparation of Ready-to-Heat Batter-Fried and Sauced Chub Mackerel ().

Foods 2021 Aug 23;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Seafood Research Center, IACF, Silla University, 606, Advanced Seafood Processing Complex, Wonyang-ro, Amnam-dong, Seo-gu, Busan 49277, Korea.

Chub mackerel (CM) is a commercial fish in Korea, owing to its availability and nutritional values. This study aimed to develop a ready-to-heat (RTH) Korean preparation of CM, known as We utilized vacuum frying technology to fry the CM and evaluated its quality. Conventional frying with a deep fryer was performed in parallel to assess the superiority of the vacuum fryer. We optimized the frying conditions of vacuum frying (VBF) and deep frying (DBF) using response surface methodology. At optimum conditions of 95 °C for 7 min 42 s, VBF produced better sensory, chemical, and microbial properties than DBF at 190 °C for 5 min 30 s. The nutritional values, including amino acid and fatty acid contents, were investigated and found to be higher in VBF than in DBF. Sensory properties also showed better scores on VBF than DBF, especially in appearance, aroma, taste, and overall acceptability. The VBF produced lower volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total bacterial count (TBC) than DBF. The findings confirmed that vacuum frying is a better option to produce RTH , since it provides less oxidation and maintains the product quality. Using the Arrhenius approach, the product was concluded to preserve both quality and safety for 9 months of storage at -18 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393352PMC
August 2021

Sensory Quality Evaluation of Superheated Steam-Treated Chicken Leg and Breast Meats with a Combination of Marination and Hot Smoking.

Foods 2021 Aug 19;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Seafood Research Center, Industry-Academic Cooperation Foundation, Silla University, Busan 46958, Korea.

As the sensory qualities of meat processed using methods such as superheated steam, marination, and hot smoking have not been examined, this study analyzed the sensory quality of chicken meats (leg, breast) and its chemical correlation by determining optimal processing conditions (superheated steam treatment, marination, and hot smoking). Chicken meats were defrosted using room temperature, running tap water, or high-frequency defroster. Marinated meats with herbal extract solution were treated with superheated steam and then hot smoked with wood sawdust; sensory evaluations were performed at each processing step. The products were analyzed for fatty acids and nutrients, along with storage tests under different conditions. High-frequency defrosting showed the lowest drip loss and thawing time compared to other methods. Bay leaves and oak wood were selected as the best sub-materials for higher sensory scores. Optimal superheated steam conditions showed higher overall acceptance (8.86, 8.71) and were set as follows; leg meat (225 °C; 12 min 20 s), breast meat (223 °C; 8 min 40 s). The final meat products possessed good nutritional composition and no severe sensory spoilages were detected during storage despite microbial and chemical degradations. Thus, regular sensory evaluations at each processing step and storage condition were effective for developing superior chicken meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392690PMC
August 2021

: Pharmacological and Nutritional Properties.

Foods 2021 Jul 19;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Seafood Research Center, Industry Academy Cooperation Foundation (IACF), Silla University, 606, Advanced Seafood Processing Complex, Wonyang-ro, Amnam-dong, Seo-gu, Busan 49277, Korea.

The brown seaweed (syn. ), commonly known as "Hijiki", has been utilized in traditional cuisine and medicine in East Asian countries for several centuries. has attracted much attention owing to its rich nutritional and pharmacological properties. However, there has been no comprehensive review of the nutritional and pharmacological properties of . The aim of this systematic review was to provide detailed information from the published literature on the nutritional and pharmacological properties of . A comprehensive online search of the literature was conducted by accessing databases, such as PubMed, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar, for published studies on the nutritional and pharmacological properties of between 2010 and 2021. A total of 916 articles were screened from all the databases using the method. Screening based on the setdown criteria resulted in 59 articles, which were used for this review. In this review, we found that there has been an increase in the number of publications on the pharmacological and nutritional properties of over the last 10 years. In the last 10 years, studies have focused on the proximate, mineral, polysaccharide, and bioactive compound composition, and pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, photoprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, osteoprotective, and gastroprotective properties of extracts. Overall, further studies and strategies are required to develop as a promising resource for the nutrition and pharmacological industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306711PMC
July 2021

Development of a Home Meal Replacement Product Containing Braised Mackerel () with Radish ().

Foods 2021 May 19;10(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Seafood Research Center, IACF, Silla University, 606, Advanced Seafood Processing Complex, Wonyang-ro, Amnam-dong, Seo-gu, Busan 49277, Korea.

The coronavirus disease pandemic has contributed to increasing convenience in food preferences. Home meal replacement (HMR) products are ready-to-eat, -cook, or -heat foods, providing convenience for consumers. We developed a HMR product containing mackerel as a protein- and lipid-rich source using various food-processing technologies to maintain its nutritional content and prolong shelf life. The HMR product contained mackerel, radish, and sauce in a ratio of 5:1:4. Raw frozen mackerels were thawed by using a high-frequency defroster before being braised using a superheated steam roaster. Response surface methodology was employed to obtain the optimal heating conditions of 181 °C for 9 min. The final test HMR product was packed in a polypropylene plastic bowl prior to freezing at -35 °C for 1 h using a quick freezing system. The HMR product developed using these technologies exhibited stable microbiological and chemical properties for 90 days of storage. Sensory scores gradually decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Protein content in the HMR product was 13%, 40% of which comprised essential amino acids; lipid content was 13.4%, 18% of which was composed of docosahexaenoic acid. The HMR product can preserve its quality and is considered safe for consumption for up to 40 months of storage at -18 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10051135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161259PMC
May 2021

Tart Cherry (Fruit of ) Concentrated Powder (TCcp) Ameliorates Glucocorticoid-Induced Muscular Atrophy in Mice.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 May 12;57(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Food Biotechnology, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 140, Baegyang-daero 700beon-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan 46958, Korea.

: The present study investigated the beneficial effects of tart cherry (fruit of ) concentrated powder (TCcp) on glucocorticoid (GLU)-induced catabolic muscular atrophy in the skeletal muscle of mice. Furthermore, its potential mechanism was also studied. : Changes in calf thickness, calf muscle weight, calf muscle strength, body weight, gastrocnemius muscle histology, immunohistochemistry, serum creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant defense systems were measured. Malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, glutathione content, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities in the gastrocnemius muscle, and muscle-specific mRNA expressions were evaluated. : After 24 days, GLU control mice showed muscular atrophy at all criteria of indexes. The muscular atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of TCcp through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory modulated expression of genes involved in muscle protein degradation (myostatin, atrogin-1, SIRT1, and MuRF1) and synthesis (A1R, Akt1, TRPV4, and PI3K). : This study shows that the TCcp (500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg) could improve muscular atrophies caused by various etiologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57050485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151970PMC
May 2021

Antifungal and Larvicidal Activities of Phlorotannins from Brown Seaweeds.

Mar Drugs 2021 Apr 16;19(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Seafood Research Center, Industry-Academic Cooperation Foundation, Silla University, 606, Advanced Seafood Processing Complex, Wonyang-ro, Amnam-dong, Seo-gu, Busan 49277, Korea.

Phlorotannins are secondary metabolites produced by brown seaweeds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and larvicidal activities. Phlorotannins' structures are formed by dibenzodioxin, ether and phenyl, ether, or phenyl linkages. The polymerization of phlorotannins is used to classify and characterize. The structural diversity of phlorotannins grows as polymerization increases. They have been characterized extensively with respect to chemical properties and functionality. However, review papers of the biological activities of phlorotannins have focused on their antibacterial and antiviral effects, and reviews of their broad antifungal and larvicidal effects are lacking. Accordingly, evidence for the effectiveness of phlorotannins as antifungal and larvicidal agents is discussed in this review. Online databases (ScienceDirect, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) were used to identify relevant articles. In total, 11 articles were retrieved after duplicates were removed and exclusion criteria were applied. Phlorotannins from brown seaweeds show antifungal activity against dermal and plant fungi, and larvicidal activity against mosquitos and marine invertebrate larvae. However, further studies of the biological activity of phlorotannins against fungal and parasitic infections in aquaculture fish, livestock, and companion animals are needed for systematic analyses of their effectiveness. The research described in this review emphasizes the potential applications of phlorotannins as pharmaceutical, functional food, pesticide, and antifouling agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19040223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073715PMC
April 2021

Anti-inflammatory, expectorant, and antitussive properties of in ICR mice.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):321-334

Department of in Food Biotechnology, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Context: (KOG) is a traditional mixed herb preparation consisting of CA Meyer (Araliaceae), Wolf (Polyporaceae), (Gaertner) Liboschitz ex Steudel (Orobanchaceae), and honey. Various pharmacological effects of KOG are reported, but the efficacy on respiratory diseases has not been evaluated.

Objective: The anti-inflammatory, expectorant, and antitussive properties of KOG were examined using animal models of respiratory diseases.

Materials And Methods: KOG (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) was orally administered to ICR mice ( = 8) once a day for 11 days. Anti-inflammatory effects of vehicle, xylene, KOG and DEXA (1 mg/kg) were determined by monitoring edoema and redness of treated ears, and measuring the relative and absolute weight of each ear. Expectorant properties of vehicle, KOG and AM (250 mg/kg) were evaluated by observing body surface redness, and the amount of mucous secreted by the trachea. The antitussive potential of vehicle, NHOH, KOG and TB (50 mg/kg) was evaluated by monitoring changes in the number of coughs (for 6 min).

Results: KOG (400 mg/kg) treated mice showed 31.29% and 30.72% ( < 0.01) decreases in the relative and absolute weights of each ear relative to xylene control mice, 39.06% increases ( < 0.01) in TLF OD values relative to intact vehicle control mice, and 59.53% decrease ( < 0.01) in coughing compared to NHOH control mice. Dose-dependent changes were observed in all experimental models.

Conclusions: KOG may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of various respiratory diseases, particularly those caused by environmental toxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2021.1892155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008926PMC
December 2021

Effects of Phlorotannins on Organisms: Focus on the Safety, Toxicity, and Availability of Phlorotannins.

Foods 2021 Feb 19;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Seafood Research Center, IACF, Silla University, 606, Advanced Seafood Processing Complex, Wonyang-ro, Amnam-dong, Seo-gu, Busan 49277, Korea.

Phlorotannins are polyphenolic compounds produced via polymerization of phloroglucinol, and these compounds have varying molecular weights (up to 650 kDa). Brown seaweeds are rich in phlorotannins compounds possessing various biological activities, including algicidal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities. Many review papers on the chemical characterization and quantification of phlorotannins and their functionality have been published to date. However, although studies on the safety and toxicity of these phlorotannins have been conducted, there have been no articles reviewing this topic. In this review, the safety and toxicity of phlorotannins in different organisms are discussed. Online databases (Science Direct, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science) were searched, yielding 106 results. Following removal of duplicates and application of the exclusion criteria, 34 articles were reviewed. Phlorotannins from brown seaweeds showed low toxicity in cell lines, invertebrates, microalgae, seaweeds, plants, animals (fish, mice, rats, and dogs), and humans. However, the safety and toxicity of phlorotannins in aquaculture fish, livestock, and companion animals are limited. Further studies in these organisms are necessary to carry out a systematic analysis of the safety and toxicity of phlorotannins and to further identify the potential of phlorotannins as functional foods, feeds, and pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922789PMC
February 2021

Improvement of Sensorial, Physicochemical, Microbiological, Nutritional and Fatty Acid Attributes and Shelf Life Extension of Hot Smoked Half-Dried Pacific Saury ().

Foods 2020 Jul 27;9(8). Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Seafood Research Center, Silla University, #605, Advanced Seafood Processing Complex, Wonyang-ro, Amnam-dong, Seo-gu, Busan 49277, Korea.

Half-dried Pacific saury of (HDPS) is a fatty fish of high nutritional value with remarkable consumer interest in the Asia Pacific region, however, it undergoes various deteriorative changes associated with browning, bacterial contamination, oxidation, and decreased sensory attributes while marketed in various processed forms. To withstand these complications, research aimed to investigate the hot smoking technology to improve physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory attributes of HDPS with prolonged shelf life in storage conditions. The HDPS fillets were processed with hot smoking (70 °C) using various sawdust materials of Apple, Chestnut, Oak, Cherry, and Walnut, wherein the smoke time was set at different time points of 0, 20, 25, and 30 min. The results indicated that 25 min of smoking time with the selective Oak sawdust showed better sensorial characteristics, physicochemical properties, and microbiological qualities. Moreover, HDPS possessed higher nutritional value and valuable functional fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, having a storage ability of up to 30 days at 10 °C. The processed HDPS offered a reduced level of Trimethylamine-N-oxide and Benzo[a]pyrene contents, indicating the acceptable and safe for human consumption. Therefore, HDPS with hot smoking could likely be a promising technique for preserving the premium quality of the product by providing desired characteristics of health and nutrition to end-point consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9081009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466296PMC
July 2020

Effect of hot smoking treatment in improving Sensory and Physicochemical Properties of processed Japanese Spanish Mackerel .

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Jul 11;8(7):3957-3968. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Seafood Research Center IACF Silla University Busan Korea.

Japanese Spanish Mackerel (JSM) (Cuvier 1832) is an important commercial fish species in South Korea. The postharvest handling, preservation, and storage of JSM have not been clearly understood, and therefore, it is very often oxidized to produce off-flavor while marketed as the raw or frozen state. To overcome these problems, the present study was designed to adapt the hot smoke processing technique for improving the sensorial, physicochemical, and microbial qualities of JSM with extended shelf life. The hot smoking (70°C) with different sawdusts at the different smoke times (0, 20, 25, and 30 min) was applied to process JSM fillet. The smoked JSM obtained higher sensory attributes (appearance, odor, taste, color, texture, and overall preferences) and suppressed bacterial growth, pH, volatile base nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species, and trimethylamine N-oxide at an optimum smoking time of 25 min using oak sawdust. Moreover, it possessed higher nutritional value and beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 4.19 g/100 g, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), 1.82 g/100 g. The smoked JSM product extended shelf life up to 42 days at 10°C storage temperature. The overall findings indicate that the hot smoking technology with JSM could be effective in achieving good sensorial, nutritional, and functional attributes to the consumer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382142PMC
July 2020

Identification and characterization of novel antioxidant peptides from mackerel (Scomber japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysates.

Food Chem 2020 Apr 15;323:126809. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Seafood Research Center, IACF, Silla University, 606, Advanced Seafood Processing Complex, Wonyang-ro, Amnam-dong, Seo-gu, Busan 49277, Republic of Korea; Department of Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 140, Baegyang-daero 700 beon-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan 46958, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Antioxidant peptides are commonly used as functional ingredient in the pharmaceutical industries. Here, we characterized the antioxidant peptides from mackerel muscle protein hydrolysates (MPHs). MPHs showing higher bioactivities were separated into seven groups by FPLC. MPH-3 which exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) DPPH scavenging activity (32.12 ± 3.01%) was fractionated using RP-HPLC to obtain purified fractions A and B, which were further subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS for mass fingerprinting. Fraction A exhibited the highest (p < 0.05) DPPH scavenging activity (34.11 ± 1.52%), and it contained 21 peptides characterized by LC-MS/MS-. Ten peptides were synthesized, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated; one of the peptides, ALSTWTLQLGSTSFSASPM, showed the highest (p < 0.05) DPPH scavenging activity (36.34 ± 4.64%) and another peptide, LGTLLFIAIPI, exhibited the highest (p < 0.05) SOD-like activity (28.94 ± 4.19%). The results of this study indicate that MPHs could serve as a suitable source of antioxidant peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126809DOI Listing
April 2020

Spinogenesis and Synaptogenesis Effects of the Red Seaweed and Its Isolated Cholesterol on Hippocampal Neuron Cultures.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2019 Dec 31;24(4):418-425. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea.

Neurotrophic factors promote the formation of spines and synapses in neuron development and maintenance. Synaptic connections enhance memory in the brain. In this study, the effects of ethanolic extract (EKA) and its isolated cholesterol (iCHOL) on spinogenesis and synaptogenesis of hippocampal neurons were evaluated. Compared with the vehicle, both EKA and iCHOL significantly promoted generation of dendritic filopodia (2.4- and 2.2-fold, respectively) and spine (1.7- and 1.4-fold) formations in spinogenesis; they also increased presynaptic (3.6- and 2.6-fold), postsynaptic (2.5- and 2.9-fold), and cocolonized (3.8- and 3.0-fold) puncta, which enhances synaptic function (< 0.05). Further, EKA- and iCHOL-treated neurons showed significantly improved functional presynaptic plasticity (1.6- and 1.4-fold, respectively, at 17 days ; <0.05). These results indicate that facilitates neuronal development, and support its use as a functional food to reduce neurological disorders and prevent brain aging via helping to reconstruct partially damaged neural networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2019.24.4.418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941723PMC
December 2019

Anti-diabetic effects of blue honeyberry on high-fed-diet-induced type II diabetic mouse.

Nutr Res Pract 2019 Oct 12;13(5):367-376. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Republic of Korea.

Background/objective: The blue honeysuckle berry ( var. L.) is a small deciduous shrub belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family that is native to Russia, China, Japan, and Korea. The berry of this shrub is edible, sweet and juicy and is commonly known as the blue honeyberry (BHB). This study examined the anti-diabetic potential of BHB on high-fat-diet-induced mild diabetic mice. The hypoglycemic, and nephroprotective effects of the 12-week oral administration of blue honeyberry extract were analyzed.

Materials/methods: The hypoglycemic effects were based on the observed changes in insulin, blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Furthermore, the changes in the weight of the pancreas, including its histopathology and immunohistochemical investigation were also performed. Moreover, the nephroprotective effects were analyzed by observing the changes in kidney weight, its histopathology, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine levels.

Results: The results showed that the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced control mice showed a noticeable increase in blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, BUN, and creatinine levels. Furthermore, growth was observed in lipid droplet deposition related to the degenerative lesions in the vacuolated renal tubules with the evident enlargement and hyperplasia of the pancreatic islets. In addition, in the endocrine pancreas, there was an increase in the insulin-and glucagon-producing cells, as well as in the insulin/glucagon cell ratios. On the other hand, compared to the HFD-treated mice group, all these diabetic and related complications were ameliorated significantly in a dose-dependent manner after 84 days of the continuous oral administration of BHBe at 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg, and a dramatic resettlement in the hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities was observed.

Conclusions: By assessing the key parameters for T2DM, the present study showed that the BHBe could act as a potential herbal agent to cure diabetes (type II) and associated ailments in HFD-induced mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2019.13.5.367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760985PMC
October 2019

The ethanol extract from the rhodophyta Gloiopeltis furcata and its active ingredient docosahexaenoic acid improve exercise performance in mice.

J Food Biochem 2019 09 15;43(9):e12980. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

The effectiveness of natural bioresources at enhancing exercise performance is of interest to those in sports and health care. The use of 29 common seaweed species as supplements to enhance exercise performance and the recovery from physical fatigue was evaluated. The ethanol extract of the red seaweed Gloiopeltis furcata (GFE) had the greatest effect on forelimb grip strength and swimming endurance in mice. The optimal daily dose of GFE was 0.1 mg per 10 μl per g of body weight. GFE significantly increased muscle mass but had little effect on body weight and fatty deposits. The extract also significantly raised the blood superoxide dismutase and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, while reducing the lactate and urea levels (p < 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from GFE made the greatest contribution to improving physical exercise performance. These results support the use of GFE and DHA in health food products for enhancing physical performance. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The study shows the exercise enhancement and anti-fatigue activities of GFE using the forelimb grip strength test, forced swimming endurance test, muscle mass measurement, and blood biochemical parameters. These results support the use of GFE and its active constituent DHA in functional foods or nutraceuticals for enhancing physical performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12980DOI Listing
September 2019

The hot water extract and active components nicotinamide and guanosine of the leather carp Cyprinus carpio nudis improve exercise performance in mice.

J Food Biochem 2019 11 31;43(11):e13004. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea.

We identified the main active, exercise performance-enhancing compounds in a hot water extract of the leather carp, Cyprinus carpio nudus, as nicotinamide and guanosine. Mice were fed casein (30 mg/ml) enriched with nicotinamide (0.1 mg/ml) and guanosine (0.05 mg/ml) once daily for a week at 10 µl/g body weight. Swimming endurance (57%) and forelimb grip strength (21%) were increased significantly. The diet had little effect on body weight. After the swimming exercise, the blood glucose and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly higher (137% and 131%, respectively) than in the saline controls. The blood lactate level was 90% of that in the controls. The estimated amount of nicotinamide in the carp fillet was 26.2 mg/kg. These results suggest that the triple combination of casein with nicotinamide and guanosine improves exercise performance and delays the onset of fatigue, supporting the traditional use of carp extract in healthcare as a tonic soup. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The triple-combination of casein (30 mg/ml) + nicotinamide (0.1 mg/ml) + guanosine (0.05 mg/ml) significantly enhanced the exercise performance and anti-fatigue in mice, supporting the traditional use of carp extract in healthcare as a tonic soup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13004DOI Listing
November 2019

Protective effects of a mixed plant extracts derived from Astragalus membranaceus and Laminaria japonica on PTU-induced hypothyroidism and liver damages.

J Food Biochem 2019 07 1;43(7):e12853. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Seafood Research Center, IACF, Silla University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Protective effects of a mixed hot water extracts of Astragalus membranaceus (AWE) and Laminaria japonica (LWE), AWE: LWE 85:15 (g/g; AL mix), were investigated against propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Rats were challenged with PTU, resulting in, increased thyroid gland weight, decreased liver weight and antioxidant activities, reduced serum tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine levels with increased thyroid stimulating hormone levels, and elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase level. However, orally administered AL mix with 100, 200, and 400 mg kg  day , significantly inhibited such abnormalities, dose-dependently. Moreover, PTU-induced abnormal histological architecture of the rat thyroid gland and liver were also significantly ameliorated by an AL mix. The results suggested that, therapeutic use of AL mix for treating hypothyroidism can be characterized by its diversified active ingredients particularly iodine and ferulic acid as confirmed by phytochemical analyses. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The AL mix has synergistic effects in modulating thyroid hormone synthesis and preventing liver damages in PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. These effects of AL mix are mainly related to its richness specifically in iodine and ferulic acid. The growing interests of iodine and ferulic acid in AL mix are principally due to their beneficial effects in releasing sufficient thyroid hormones in hypothyroid conditions and promoting liver-protective functions through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials, respectively. Moreover, the results of AL mix are well-matched with the effects of standard drug levothyroxine in the present study. Therefore, appropriate dosage of AL mix will be promising as new medicinal food for preventing thyroid dysfunctions and its related liver damages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12853DOI Listing
July 2019

A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled 12-Week Follow-Up Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Polycan in Combination with Glucosamine for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 24;2019:9750531. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 140 Baegyang-daero, 700 Beon-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan 46958, Republic of Korea.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy and safety of Polycan, a -glucan produced from the black yeast SM-2001, in combination with glucosamine in reducing knee osteoarthritis-associated symptoms.

Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of a formulated product composed of 16.7 mg of Polycan and 250 mg of glucosamine (Group A), 16.7 mg of Polycan and 500 mg of glucosamine (Group B), or 500 mg of glucosamine (control group) per capsule, administered as three capsules once per day over a period of 12 weeks, conducted with 100 osteoarthritis patients, aged 35-80 years. The primary outcome measure was osteoarthritis symptoms assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. The secondary outcome measures included rescue medication use (according to data from a patient-reported diary) and other safety indices (body weight, blood pressure, hematological, and biochemistry markers).

Results: Compared with the control group, Group B demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the total WOMAC score after 12 weeks of treatment ( < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in the frequency of rescue medication used in Groups A and B compared with the control group ( < 0.05). There were no significant changes in hematology and biochemistry parameters or health indices between the active and the control group.

Conclusion: Among patients with mild or moderate osteoarthritis, a daily oral dose of Polycan (50 mg) in combination with glucosamine (750 mg or 1500 mg; Group A or B, respectively) resulted in a better treatment outcome than treatment with glucosamine (1500 mg) alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9750531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612958PMC
June 2019

Patents on Insect-based Feeds for Animals Including Companion Animals, and Terrestrial and Aquatic Livestock in Korea.

Authors:
Jae-Suk Choi

Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric 2020 ;11(1):3-12

Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 140, Baegyang-daero 700beon-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan, 46958, Korea.

The demand for alternative protein sources by the livestock industry has increased substantially. Therefore, insects are being promoted as a novel nutrient source in animal feed. As detailed in this review, eleven patents related to feeding insects to terrestrial animals including livestock and companion animals have been commercially applied. Six and eight of the patents have been used to produce poultry and fish, and crustacean feed, respectively. The most promising species for industrial feed production was the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), the mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), and the two-spotted cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus). Regarding research areas of the patents reviewed here, studies on the composition and optimal mixing ratio of feeds and on insect rearing, harvesting, and post-harvest technologies were mainly performed for the industrial mass production of safe and functional animal feeds containing insects. Continuous scientific innovations and improved processing technologies will aid further advancements in this field. Therefore, this review offers insights to identify directions of future research and provides information on different insect-based feedstuffs for animals including terrestrial livestock, fish and shellfish, and companion animals, as also discussed in various patents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2212798410666190617160844DOI Listing
March 2021

Laxative effects of triple fermented barley extracts (FBe) on loperamide (LP)-induced constipation in rats.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Jun 21;19(1):143. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 140 Baegyang-daero, 700 beon-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan, 46958, Republic of Korea.

Background: Constipation, a common health problem, causes discomfort and affects the quality of life. This study intended to evaluate the potential laxative effect of triple fermented barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) extract (FBe), produced by saccharification, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Weissella cibaria, on loperamide (LP)-induced constipation in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, a well-established animal model of spastic constipation.

Methods: Spastic constipation was induced via oral treatment with LP (3 mg/kg) for 6 days 1 h before the administration of each test compound. Similarly, FBe (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats once a day for 6 days. The changes in number, weight, and water content of fecal, motility ratio, colonic mucosa histology, and fecal mucous contents were recorded. The laxative properties of FBe were compared with those of a cathartic stimulant, sodium picosulfate. A total of 48 (8 rats in 6 groups) healthy male rats were selected and following 10 days of acclimatization. Fecal pellets were collected one day before administration of the first dose and starting from immediately after the fourth administration for a duration of 24 h. Charcoal transfer was conducted after the sixth and final administration of the test compounds.

Results: In the present study, oral administration of 100-300 mg/kg of FBe exhibited promising laxative properties including intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thicknesses and mucous producing goblet cells of colonic mucosa with decreases of fecal pellet numbers and mean diameters remained in the lumen of colon, mediated by increases in gastrointestinal motility.

Conclusion: Therefore, FBe might act as a promising laxative agent and functional food ingredient to cure spastic constipation, with less toxicity observed at a dose of 100 mg/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2557-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587300PMC
June 2019

Antitussive, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory effects of Adenophorae Radix powder in ICR mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Jul 27;239:111915. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 140, Baegyang-daero 700beon-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan, 46958, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Adenophora triphylla var. japonica is frequently used as an oriental medicinal plant in Korea, China, and Japan for its anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and hepatoprotective effects.

Aim Of The Study: In the present study, the antitussive, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory effects of AR powder were investigated using animal models to evaluate their potential to treat respiratory disorders.

Materials And Methods: AR powder was administered orally to mice once daily for 11 days, at dose levels of 400, 200, and 100 mg/kg. Theobromine (TB), ambroxol (AM) and dexamethasone (DEXA) were used as standard drugs for antitussive effects, expectorant effects and anti-inflammatory effects, respectively. Evaluations of antitussive effects were based on changes in body weight, the number of cough responses and the histopathology of the lung and trachea. Expectorant effects were based on changes in the body weight, macroscopic observations of body surface redness, the mucous secretion of the trachea and histopathology of lung (secondary bronchus). Anti-inflammatory effects were based on changes in the body weight, macroscopic observations involving redness and edema of the treated ear, absolute and relative ear weights and histopathology of the treated ears.

Results: Allergic acute inflammation and coughing induced by exposure to NHOH and symptoms of xylene-induced contact dermatitis were significantly inhibited by treatment with AR powder in a dose-dependent manner. Histological analyses revealed that AR powder decreased the OD values in trachea lavage fluid, reduced body surface redness, thicknesses of intrapulmonary secondary bronchus mucosa, and the number of PAS-positive mucous producing cells. Overall, AR powder administered at 200 mg/kg displayed superior antitussive and expectorant effects as compared to TB (50 mg/kg), and AM (250 mg/kg). At the highest concentration (400 mg/kg) AR powder displayed only moderately improved anti-inflammatory activities as compared to DEXA (1 mg/kg).

Conclusion: The results obtained in this study suggest that AR powder exerts dose-dependent, favorable antitussive, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory activities achieved through modulation of the activity of mast cells and respiratory mucous production. Therefore, AR powder may serve as a therapeutic agent in various respiratory disorders, especially those that occur as a result of environmental toxicants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.111915DOI Listing
July 2019

Protective effects of triple fermented barley extract (FBe) on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Feb 20;19(1):49. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Research Center for Life Science Technologies in Medicine and Environment, 31, Gwahaksandan 1-ro, 60 beon-gil, Gangseo-gu, Busan, 46742, Republic of Korea.

Background: Hordeum vulgare L (barley) contains numerous phenolic substances with proven anticancer, antioxidant and gastroprotective activities. Saccharification increases the functionality and bioavailability of these compounds thus can aid in the development of a natural product based medicine. This study aimed to investigate the possible gastroprotective effects of saccharification on the indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric ulcers in rats using Weissella cibaria- and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-triple fermented H. vulgare extract (FBe).

Methods: In total, 60 healthy male 6-week old Sprague-Dawley SD (SPF/VAF Outbred CrljOri:CD1) rats were commercially purchased. The FBe extract (100, 200, and 300 mg kg) was orally administered 30 min before an oral treatment of IND (25 mg kg). Six hours after IND treatment, variations in the histopathology, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, gross lesion scores, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense system component (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH)) levels were measured.

Results: FBe treatment showed significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) and dose-dependent decrease in gastric mucosal damage. In the present study hemorrhagic gross lesions, gastric MPO activity, and histopathological gastric ulcerative lesions were observed in IND-treated rats compared to the IND control rats. In particular, FBe, in a dose-dependent manner, strengthened the antioxidant defense systems, decreased lipid peroxidation and CAT activity by increasing the GSH levels and SOD activity, respectively. The 200 mg kg dose of FBe was similarly gastroprotective as the 10 mg kg dose of omeprazole in rats with IND-induced gastric mucosal damage.

Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that an oral administration of FBe had positive gastroprotective effects through strengthening the body antioxidant defense system and anti-inflammatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2457-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383278PMC
February 2019

Hepatoprotective effects of blue honeysuckle on CCl-induced acute liver damaged mice.

Food Sci Nutr 2019 Jan 27;7(1):322-338. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Food and Nutrition College of BioNano Technology Gachon University Seongnam-si Gyeonggi-do Korea.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of blue honeysuckle (BH) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced acute hepatic damage in mice. The experiment used a total of 60 ICR mice, which were divided into six groups. Except for the intact control groups, all groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl after a 7 day pre-treatment period with distilled water, BH extracts, or silymarin. Twenty-four hours after the CCl injection, the following observations, representative of classical oxidative stress-mediated centrolobular necrotic acute liver injuries, were observed: decreased body weight; small nodule formation and enlargement on the gross inspections with related liver weight increase; elevation of serum AST and ALT, increases in hepatic lipid peroxidation and related depletion of endogenous antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes; centrolobular necrosis; increases in apoptotic markers, lipid peroxidation markers, and oxidative stress markers. However, liver damage was significantly inhibited by the pre-treatment with BH extracts. The present study demonstrated that oral administration of BH extracts prior to exposure to CCl conferred favorable hepatoprotective effects. These results demonstrated that BHe possessed suitable properties for use as a potent hepatoprotective medicinal food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341158PMC
January 2019

antioxidant activity of mackerel () muscle protein hydrolysate.

PeerJ 2018 21;6:e6181. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Seafood Research Center, IACF, Silla University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Pacific chub mackerel () is an important fish throughout the world, especially in East Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan. Protein hydrolysates from marine sources are commonly used as nutritional supplements, functional ingredients, and flavor enhancers in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants isolated from fish are relatively easy to prepare, are cost effective, and have no reported side effects. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant activities of mackerel muscle protein hydrolysate (MMPH) prepared using Protamex. The bioactivities of MMPH were investigated in alcoholic fatty liver mice (C57BL/6). Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were comparable in test and control mice, whereas serum triglyceride and lipid peroxidation levels significantly ( < 0.05;  < 0.001) decreased after administration of MMPH (100-500 mg kg), especially at a concentration of 100 mg kg. A significant ( < 0.05) reduction in xanthine oxidase activity was observed in all groups treated with MMPH (100-500 mg kg), as compared with the control group. Significantly ( < 0.05) higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/protein expression and regulated catalase (CAT) activity/protein expression levels were observed in groups administered MMPH (100-500 mg kg), especially at a concentration of 100 mg kg. These results show that the abundant amino acids of play an important role in the cytosol of the liver cells by directly participating in the expression of xanthine oxidase and the detoxifying SOD and CAT proteins, thereby enhancing antioxidant ability and ultimately, inhibiting lipid peroxidation. This study demonstrated that muscle protein hydrolysate from has strong antioxidant activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305115PMC
December 2018

Protective effects of a triple-fermented barley extract (FBe) against HCl/EtOH-induced gastric mucosa damage in mice.

Food Sci Nutr 2018 Nov 1;6(8):2036-2046. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Seafood Research Center, IACF Silla University Seo-gu Busan Korea.

This study was designed to observe the possible protective effects of a triple-fermented barley ( L.) extract (FBe) obtained by saccharification and using and in alleviating gastric damage induced by a hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ethanol (EtOH) mixture in mice. After oral administration of FBe (300, 200, and 100 mg/kg) followed by 1 hr before and after the single treatment of HCl/EtOH (H/E) mixture, the hemorrhagic lesion scores, histopathology of the stomach, gastric nitrate/nitrite content, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defense systems including catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were observed. Following a single oral treatment of H/E-induced gastric damages as measured by hemorrhagic gross lesions and histopathological gastric, ulcerative lesions were significantly and dose-dependently ( < 0.01 or  < 0.05) inhibited in mice, when all three different doses of FBe were administered as compared to those in H/E control mice. In particular, FBe also increased gastric nitrate/nitrite content and strengthened the antioxidant defense, with a decrease in the level of gastric lipid peroxidation, but increased the activities of CAT and SOD. Moreover, the effects of FBe are comparable to that of ranitidine, a reference drug. The obtained results suggest that this fermented barley extract prevented mice from H/E-induced gastric mucosal damages through the suppression of inflammatory responses and oxidative stress-responsive free radicals. Thus, FBe can be useful to treat patients suffering from gastric mucosal disorders as a potent food supplement, and thereby, it would increase the necessity of application in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261165PMC
November 2018

Strategies for Rot Control of Soybean Sprouts.

Authors:
Jae-Suk Choi

Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric 2019 ;10(2):93-105

Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 140, Baegyang-daero 700beon-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan, 46958, Korea.

Soybean sprouts are nutrient-rich, contain plentiful proteins, vitamin C, and minerals and are packed in small numbers after production. As soybean sprouts were mass produced in a factory, the occurrence of rotting in soybean sprouts has become a serious problem. To overcome these problems, many efforts have been made to provide healthy soybean sprouts in Korea. This paper reviewed the physicochemical techniques used for supplying water with antibacterial properties and the natural antimicrobial materials developed for soybean sprout cultivation. On the basis of this review, 11 of the antimicrobial agents and/or techniques currently used originated from mineral, non-metal ions, and metal ions, 4 from antagonistic microorganisms, 7 from agents originating from animals, 31 from medicinal and herbal plants, and 11 from physicochemical agents and/or techniques. In addition, these agents and/or techniques showed potential not only for the inhibition of spoilage and rot of soybean sprouts but also for the extension of product shelf life, the enhancement of taste and aroma, the enhancement of nutrition and functional components, growth promotion, and/or the reduction of production costs. Continuous scientific innovations and improved processing technology will aid in further advancements and improvements in this area. Therefore, this study offers useful insights suggesting direction for future research and provides information on the different anti-rotting agents and/or techniques for soybean sprouts developed to date, also as discussed in various patents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2212798410666181116121957DOI Listing
February 2020

Anti-osteoporotic effects of mixed compositions of extracellular polymers isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans and Textoria morbifera in ovariectomized mice.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Nov 6;18(1):295. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 140, Baegyang-daero 700beon-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan, 46958, Republic of Korea.

Background: Extracellular polymeric substances isolated from Aureobasidium pullulans (EAP), containing specifically 13% β-1,3/1,6-glucan, have shown various favorable bone-preserving effects. Textoria morbifera Nakai (TM) tree has been used as an ingredient in traditional medicine and tea for various pharmacological purposes. Thus, the present study was aimed to examine the synergistic anti-osteoporotic potential of mixtures containing different proportions of EAP and TM compared with that of the single formulations of each herbal extract using bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) mice, a renowned rodent model for studying human osteoporosis.

Methods: Thirty five days after bilateral-OVX surgery, 9 combinations of EAP:TM (ratios = 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9, 3:1, 5:1, 7:1, 9:1) and single separate formulations of EAP or TM were supplied orally, once a day for 35 days at a final concentration of 200 mg/kg. Variations in body weight gains during the experimental periods, as well as femur weights, bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength (failure load), and mineral content (calcium [Ca] and inorganic phosphorus [IP]) following sacrifice were measured. Furthermore, histomorphometric and histological profile analyses of serum biochemical parameters (osteocalcin content and bone specific alkaline phosphatase [bALP] activity) were conducted following sacrifice. Femurs histomorphometric analyses were also conducted for bone resorption, structure and mass. The results for the mixed formulations of EAP:TM and separate formulations were compared with those of risedronate sodium (RES).

Results: The EAP:TM (3:1) formulation synergistically enhanced the anti-osteoporotic potential of individual EAP or TM formulations, possibly due to enhanced variety of the active ingredients. Furthermore, the effects of EAP:TM were comparable to those of RES (2.5 mg/kg) treatment.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that, the EAP:TM (3:1) combination might act as a new pharmaceutical agent and/or health functional food substance for curing osteoporosis in menopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2362-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220464PMC
November 2018

Anti-obesity and fatty liver-preventing activities of Lonicera caerulea in high-fat diet-fed mice.

Int J Mol Med 2018 Dec 14;42(6):3047-3064. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Republic of Korea.

Blue honeysuckle (BH, Lonicera caerulea) is used as a traditional medicine in Russia, Japan and China, but is not commonly considered as an edible berry in Europe, USA or Korea. BH has been revealed to decrease serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol (triglyceride or TG) levels through the activation of AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK), thus it is expected to be a health functional food and pharmaceutical agent for the prevention of non‑alcoholic liver damage, in addition to effects as a suppressor of hyperlipidemia and as an anti‑obesity agent. In the present study, the pharmacological activity of BH extract (BHe) was observed in high‑fat diet (HFD)‑fed mice. Significant increases in fat pad weight, body weight, fat accumulation (body and abdominal fat density, and thickness of the periovarian and abdominal wall) and serum biochemical levels (aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ‑glutamyltransferase, total cholesterol, low‑density lipoprotein and TG, with the exception of high‑density lipoprotein) were observed in HFD‑fed mice. In addition, increases in adipocyte hypertrophy, the area of steatohepatitis and hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed, whereas decreased zymogen content was identified upon histopathological observation. Increased deterioration of the endogenous antioxidant defense system (liver catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase) and hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed. In addition, there were decreases in hepatic glucokinase activity, AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 mRNA expression, adipose tissue uncoupling protein 2 expression, and adiponectin mRNA expression, increases in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose‑6‑phosphatase activity, hepatic acetyl‑CoA carboxylase 1 mRNA expression, and the expression of leptin, CCAAT/enhancer‑binding protein (C/EBP) α, C/EBPβ and sterol‑regulatory‑element‑binding protein 1c mRNA in the periovarian tissue. Furthermore, non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obesity were significantly inhibited by the continuous administration of BHe for 84 days. These results revealed that BHe may be a promising novel drug or functional food candidate for the treatment of obesity and NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2018.3879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202101PMC
December 2018

Processed Gingers: Current and Prospective Use in Food, Cosmetic, and Pharmaceutical Industry.

Authors:
Jae-Suk Choi

Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric 2019 ;10(1):20-26

Major in Food Biotechnology, Division of Bioindustry, College of Medical and Life Sciences, Silla University, 140, Baegyang-daero 700beon-gil, Sasang-gu, Busan, 46958, Korea.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used in traditional medicine, and as raw material for cosmetics, beverages, and health functional foods. However, some adverse effects of ginger have been reported. In addition, the hot and pungent taste of ginger leads to reduced consumption. To overcome these problems, methods for the production of fermented, steamed (or steamed-dried), aged, roasted and beopje ginger have been developed. This review provides an overview and summary of new ginger processing procedures, including methods to reduce the pungent flavor of ginger, extend shelf-life, increase the health-functional compound content, and improve safety. These attempts might improve the consumption of ginger as well as prospective applications of processed ginger for food, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical industry, also as discussed in various patents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/2212798410666180806150142DOI Listing
March 2019

Effect of superheated steam roasting with hot smoking treatment on improving physicochemical properties of the adductor muscle of pen shell ().

Food Sci Nutr 2018 Jul 24;6(5):1317-1327. Epub 2018 May 24.

Seafood Research Center IACF Silla University Seo-gu Busan Korea.

The adductor muscle of the pen shell (AMPS) is a popular protein-enriched food item in Asian Pacific countries, and has only been marketed in the frozen condition, as a result browning and decreased sensory attributes occur. To overcome these problems, superheated steam roasting (at 270°C for 4 min) combined with the hot smoke (10 min) using a selective Oak sawdust was employed to develop a new AMPS product yielding high physicochemical properties during storage periods (0-13 days) especially at 10°C. The processed AMPS showed high sensory preferences because of good odor, color, and textural properties. It also significantly inhibited bacterial growth, volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species, and pH changes, and eventually possessed higher nutritional composition with low trimethylamine N-oxide level. Results indicate that saturated steam allows AMPS at good physicochemical conditions, whereas hot smoke-derived aroma compounds prolong its shelf life through antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060899PMC
July 2018
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