Publications by authors named "Jae-Kwan Jun"

138 Publications

A nationwide survey on the effectiveness of training on endoscope reprocessing within the national cancer screening program in Korea.

Am J Infect Control 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea; Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The National Cancer Center has provided nationwide endoscope reprocessing training to hospitals annually performing national gastric and colorectal cancer screening in Korea since 2012. This study aimed to evaluate the adherence of past participants of endoscope reprocessing training to the reprocessing guidelines and their satisfaction with the current training.

Methods: Training on endoscope reprocessing was implemented 18 times across the country, from June 2019 to November 2019. Immediately after the training, participants filled a paper questionnaire related to reprocessing practices and satisfaction with the current training anonymously.

Results: A total of 1,132 participants trained responded to the survey (response rate, 95.4%). Of the study participants, 45.7% participated in the past endoscope reprocessing training, and 94.6% of them answered that they have adhered to the endoscope reprocessing guidelines. Experience of participation in endoscope reprocessing training was significantly associated with practical adherence to endoscope reprocessing guidelines (aOR, 6.55; 95% CI, 3.93 to 10.91). And, 91% of study participants were satisfied with the current endoscope reprocessing training.

Conclusions: The current training on endoscope reprocessing provided at the national level could help ensure adherence to reprocessing guidelines, resulting in obtaining quality control for endoscopy. However, about half of practitioners currently working in endoscopy units had not received sufficient reprocessing training, and thus more training is needed for them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2021.02.005DOI Listing
February 2021

Korean colonoscopy screening pilot study (K-cospi) for screening colorectal cancer: study protocol for the multicenter, community-based clinical trial.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jan 26;21(1):36. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, Korea.

Background: The Korean National Cancer Screening Program has been providing annual fecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer (CRC) to adults aged 50 years and older since 2004. The Korean Colonoscopy Screening Pilot Study was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of colonoscopy screening for CRC incidence and mortality, screening-related complications, and acceptability of colonoscopy as a primary modality for the national CRC screening program.

Methods: This study and its protocols have been approved by the Korean Public Institutional Review Board and the National Cancer Center Institutional Review Board. We obtain written informed consent from all participants. The target population is males and females aged 50-74 years living within the pilot sites. A total of 26,640 participants will be recruited for colonoscopy screening. Subjects who have been diagnosed with CRC, who are currently undergoing treatment for CRC, or who have undergone colonoscopy screening within the past 5 years are not allowed to participate. All participants need to complete baseline questionnaires. This pilot study is currently conducted by 104 endoscopists from 57 national cancer screening institutions (42 primary, 10 secondary, and 5 tertiary institutions) located in Goyang-si, Gimpo-si, and Paju-si. The number of endoscopists, medical institutions, and districts participating in the pilot study will be expanded, if necessary. Participating endoscopists at each medical institution perform colonoscopy and report the colonoscopy results to a centralized electronic case report system. We conduct a telephone survey after 7 days and 4 weeks post-colonoscopy to assess for procedure-related complications and satisfaction of the participants. In case of abnormal findings from colonoscopy screening, we track the results from follow-up diagnostic tests. Data from this pilot study will be linked to the diagnostic workup results, the Korean Cancer Registry, and death certificate data for analysis of the performance, long-term effects, and cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy.

Discussion: The results will provide critical information to determine whether the introduction of colonoscopy as the primary modality of the Korean National Cancer Screening Program would be acceptable and feasible. Trial registration Korean Clinical Research Information Service registry, KCT0004142. Registered on 15 July 2019, http://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/en/search/search_result_st01.jsp?seq=16227.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01610-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836193PMC
January 2021

Trends in Participation Rates of the National Cancer Screening Program among Cancer Survivors in Korea.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 30;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Goyang 10408, Korea.

The study aimed to describe the participation rates of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) among cancer survivors in Korea. The NCSP protocol recommends that all Korean men and women should be screened for cancer. Cancer survivors were defined as those registered for any cancer in the Korea Central Cancer Registry by December 31 of the year prior to being included in the target population of the NCSP. In this study, the participation rates for the NCSP were calculated as the percentage of people who participated in four kinds of cancer screening programs, independently. The average annual percentage change was assessed. The participation rates of the general population and cancer survivors were higher than 40% in stomach, breast, and cervical cancer screening. These rates were higher than that of colorectal cancer screening in 2014. In addition, the participation rates in the NCSP in 2002-2014 increased for all cancer types. The NCSP participation rates of the cancer survivors indicate the high demand for cancer screening. Further research may investigate the effect of the NCSP on second cancer occurrence or mortality in cancer survivors and the significance of cancer screening guidelines for cancer survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13010081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796127PMC
December 2020

Trend analysis of process quality indicators for the Korean National Cervical Cancer Screening Program from 2005 to 2013.

J Gynecol Oncol 2021 Jan 7;32(1):e14. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Objective: This study sought to examine changes in trends for quality indicators of the population-based Korean National Cancer Screening Program (KNCSP) for cervical cancer from years 2005 to 2013.

Methods: Our study data were derived from the KNCSP database. Cervical cancer diagnosis information was ascertained through linkage with the Korean National Cancer Registry and the KNCSP database. Performance measures for cervical cancer screening were estimated, including participation rate, positive rate, crude detection rate (CDR), interval cancer rate (ICR), positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, and specificity. Joinpoint analysis was applied to calculate annual percentage changes (APCs) in all indicators according to socio-demographic factors.

Results: A significant increasing trend was noted in participation rates (APC=13.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=10.5, 16.4). PPV and specificity increased from years 2005 to 2009 and remained stable till 2013. An increasing trend was discovered in CDRs for cervical cancer in situ (APC=3.9%; 95% CI=1.0, 6.9), whereas a decreasing trend was observed in ICRs for invasive cervical cancer (APC=-2.5%; 95% CI=-4.5, -0.5). Medical Aid recipients and women older than 70 years showed the lowest participation rates, but higher CDRs and ICRs, compared to other groups. In general, most of the quality indicators for cervical cancer screening improved from 2005 to 2009 and remained stable to 2013.

Conclusion: The KNCSP for cervical cancer in Korea has improved in terms of participation rate and accuracy of the screening test. These results may be attributed to the National Quality Improvement Program for KNCSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2021.32.e14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767658PMC
January 2021

Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results of the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, 2004-2018.

Cancer Res Treat 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a nationwide annual cross-sectional survey conducted for the past 15 years. This study aimed to report trends in the overall screening rates of both organized and opportunistic cancer screening programs from 2004-2018.

Materials And Methods: KNCSS data were collected using a structured questionnaire. For five major cancers (i.e., stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer), we evaluated both the lifetime screening rate and the screening rate with recommendations. The study population included men aged 40-74 years and women aged 20-74 years with no cancer histories.

Results: Screening rate with recommendations increased from 2004 annually by 4.4% and 1.5% until 2013 for stomach and liver cancers, respectively, by 4.0% until 2012 for breast cancer, and by 3.6% and 1.2% until 2014 for colorectal and cervical cancers, respectively, followed by nonsignificant trends thereafter. In 2018, screening rates with recommendations for these cancers were 72.8, 26.2, 63.1, 58.4, and 55.6%, respectively.

Conclusion: Screening rates for the five types of cancer demonstrated a marked increase between 2004 and 2018. However, many recent screening rates have been flattened with nonsignificant trends, and there are lower rates for cervical cancer screening among young age groups. Steady efforts are needed to achieve higher screening participation rates overall, especially for the cervical cancer screening of young women in their 20s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.263DOI Listing
October 2020

Elimination of oral contrast leads to faster scans in the workup of abdominal pain in the emergency setting without compromising diagnostic accuracy.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2020 Aug 7;64(4):496-498. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Medical Imaging Department, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to study how the effect of eliminating oral contrast for computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) in the workup of abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED) would affect the time from patient review to scan and time from review to discharge.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we analysed all ED presentations with abdominal pain to our university affiliated tertiary hospital before and after a protocol that eliminated oral contrast-enhanced CTAPs were implemented in September 2018. Two equivalent periods between September and November of 2017 and 2018 were analysed. Patients were excluded if they had a history of anatomy-altering gastrointestinal surgery, history of inflammatory bowel disease, trauma, suspicion of foreign body ingestion or suspected gastrointestinal bleeding.

Results: A total of 176 pre-protocol and 197 post-protocol patients were included in the study. We found that the elimination of oral contrast was associated with a decrease in mean time between ED review and scan by 110 min (379 vs. 269 min). We also found that the elimination of oral contrast did not significantly alter the pattern of radiological diagnoses seen between the two study periods, suggesting the absence of oral contrast does not affect diagnostic accuracy.

Conclusion: Thus, eliminating the use of oral contrast in the workup of abdominal pain in the ED can lead to increased throughput and more timely patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1754-9485.13053DOI Listing
August 2020

Association of Screening by Thyroid Ultrasonography with Mortality in Thyroid Cancer: A Case-Control Study Using Data from Two National Surveys.

Thyroid 2020 03 23;30(3):396-400. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

National Cancer Control Institute; National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide due to an increased detection of small well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinomas. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of screening with ultrasonography on deaths from thyroid cancer. We conducted a matched case-control study using data from two sources representative of the adult Korean population. Cases were selected from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Thyroid Cancer database, and controls were selected from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey database. Controls were individually matched to case patients with respect to age, sex, and area with a ratio of 10:1. The primary outcome was death from thyroid cancer. Controls were required to have been alive on the date of thyroid cancer diagnosis in the corresponding case. The analysis included 120 patients who died from thyroid cancer and 1184 controls. Compared with those who had never been screened, the odds ratios for death from thyroid cancer among those who had been screened were 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-3.05) if cases with missing information on screening were excluded and 1.13 [CI 0.49-2.63] if all cases were included, and missing information was imputed. Stratification by sex, year of diagnosis, and histological type did not show any statistically significant relationships between screening with ultrasonography and death from thyroid cancer, regardless of the statistical model used. Screening for thyroid cancer with ultrasonography does not prevent death from thyroid cancer; therefore, screening asymptomatic adults for thyroid cancer is unwarranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2019.0460DOI Listing
March 2020

Effect of Different Types of Mammography Equipment on Screening Outcomes: A Report by the Alliance for Breast Cancer Screening in Korea.

Korean J Radiol 2019 12;20(12):1638-1645

Department of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Objective: To investigate the effects of different types of mammography equipment on screening outcomes by comparing the performance of film-screen mammography (FSM), computed radiography mammography (CRM), and digital mammography (DM).

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 128756 sets of mammograms from 10 hospitals participating in the Alliance for Breast Cancer Screening in Korea between 2005 and 2010. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the types of mammography equipment by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with a 95% confidence interval (CI); performance indicators, including recall rate, cancer detection rate (CDR), positive predictive value₁ (PPV₁), sensitivity, specificity, and interval cancer rate (ICR); and the types of breast cancer pathology.

Results: The AUCs were 0.898 (95% CI, 0.878-0.919) in DM, 0.860 (0.815-0.905) in FSM, and 0.866 (0.828-0.903) in CRM ( = 0.150). DM showed better performance than FSM and CRM in terms of the recall rate (14.8 vs. 24.8 and 19.8%), CDR (3.4 vs. 2.2 and 2.1 per 1000 examinations), PPV₁ (2.3 vs. 0.9 and 1.1%), and specificity (85.5 vs. 75.3 and 80.3%) ( < 0.001) but not in terms of sensitivity (86.3 vs. 87.4 and 86.3%) and ICR (0.6 vs. 0.4 and 0.4). The proportions of carcinoma (CIS) were 27.5%, 13.6%, and 11.8% for DM, CRM, and FSM, respectively ( = 0.003).

Conclusion: In comparison to FSM and CRM, DM showed better performance in terms of the recall rate, CDR, PPV₁, and specificity, although the AUCs were similar, and more CISs were detected using DM. The application of DM may help to improve the quality of mammography screenings. However, the overdiagnosis issue of CIS using DM should be evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2019.0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923210PMC
December 2019

Effect of Digital Mammography for Breast Cancer Screening: A Comparative Study of More than 8 Million Korean Women.

Radiology 2020 02 3;294(2):247-255. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

From the National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang 10408, Republic of Korea (S.H., S.Y.S., B.P., M.S., K.S.C., J.K.J.); Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea (K.S.C., J.K.J.); Department of Radiology, Eunpyeong St Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea (S.E.J.); Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea (M.J.K.); Department of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Republic of Korea (E.H.L.); and Department of Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea (C.W.L.).

Background Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) has been accepted as a superior modality for breast cancer screening compared with conventional screen-film mammography (SFM), especially in women younger than 50 years or with dense breasts. Purpose To evaluate the accuracy of FFDM for breast cancer screening. Materials and Methods Data from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 in the database from a nationwide breast cancer screening program linked with the national cancer registry were retrospectively analyzed. The study included Korean women aged 40-79 years who had undergone screening mammography with SFM, computed radiography (CR), or FFDM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and absolute and relative differences among these modalities were calculated, followed by pairwise comparison tests with multiple testing corrections. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were also estimated and compared by using the DeLong method with Bonferroni correction. Results Among the 8 482 803 women included (mean age, 55 years ± 10), 34.4% (2 920 279 of 8 482 803), 51.7% (4 385 807 of 8 482 803), and 13.9% (1 176 717 of 8 482 803) underwent SFM, CR, and FFDM, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV were higher for FFDM than for SFM (adjusted odds ratio, 1.77 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.62, 1.95] for sensitivity and 1.36 [95% CI: 1.29, 1.43] for PPV) and CR (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.85] for sensitivity and 1.26 [95% CI: 1.20, 1.32] for PPV), whereas specificity was lower with FFDM. The overall AUC for FFDM was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.81), which was higher than that for SFM (0.75 [95% CI: 0.75, 0.76]) and CR (0.76 [95% CI: 0.75, 0.76]). < .05 was found for differences in sensitivity, PPV, and AUC among modalities overall and in most of the subgroups of age, breast density, and screening round. Conclusion Full-field digital mammography allows better discrimination or prediction of breast cancer in the general female population than screen-film mammography or computed radiography, regardless of age, breast density, or screening round. © RSNA, 2019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019190951DOI Listing
February 2020

Increase in the Colorectal Cancer Screening Rate by a Round-Mailed Fecal Immunochemical Testing Kit and Associated Factors in Underserved Regions of Korea: A Community-Based Intervention Study.

Gut Liver 2020 05;14(3):323-330

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Background/aims: Postal distribution of a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kit has been recommended as an effective method of increasing participation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The present study was performed to assess the impact of the round-mailed FIT kit on screening participation in underserved regions of Korea and to identify factors related to nonparticipation.

Methods: Residents were recruited from three rural regions of Korea that lack screening units for the National Cancer Screening Program. A package containing a FIT kit for stool self-sampling and a return envelope addressed to the local health center was postally distributed to each subject. Thirty days after the kits were mailed, nonresponders were reminded via telephone as the second intervention. The participation rates and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each intervention response were calculated to evaluate the effect of the interventions and factors related to screening participation in response to the interventions.

Results: CRC screening participation rates increased from 24.5% (95% CI, 21.6% to 27.4%) to 42.6% (95% CI, 39.3% to 46.0%) as a result of postal screening and increased further to 51.4% (95% CI, 48.0% to 54.9%) after the telephone reminder. After controlling for the sex, age, and household type of each subject, factors associated with poor response to postal screening were identified as low educational attainment and poor previous participation in the National Cancer Screening Program.

Conclusions: Round-mailed FIT kits with phone call reminders were an effective intervention, nearly doubling the screening rate in underserved regions of Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl19124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7234883PMC
May 2020

Risk of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study.

Mult Scler 2020 01 9;26(1):79-90. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

CORe, Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia/Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia/L4 Centre, Melbourne Brain Centre at Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Background: The risk factors for conversion from relapsing-remitting to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis remain highly contested.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the demographic, clinical and paraclinical features that influence the risk of conversion to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Methods: Patients with adult-onset relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and at least four recorded disability scores were selected from MSBase, a global observational cohort. The risk of conversion to objectively defined secondary progressive multiple sclerosis was evaluated at multiple time points per patient using multivariable marginal Cox regression models. Sensitivity analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 15,717 patients were included in the primary analysis. Older age (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.02,  < 0.001), longer disease duration (HR = 1.01,  = 0.038), a higher Expanded Disability Status Scale score (HR = 1.30,  < 0.001), more rapid disability trajectory (HR = 2.82,  < 0.001) and greater number of relapses in the previous year (HR = 1.07,  = 0.010) were independently associated with an increased risk of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Improving disability (HR = 0.62,  = 0.039) and disease-modifying therapy exposure (HR = 0.71,  = 0.007) were associated with a lower risk. Recent cerebral magnetic resonance imaging activity, evidence of spinal cord lesions and oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid were not associated with the risk of conversion.

Conclusion: Risk of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis increases with age, duration of illness and worsening disability and decreases with improving disability. Therapy may delay the onset of secondary progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458519868990DOI Listing
January 2020

Evaluation of satisfaction with three different cervical cancer screening modalities: clinician-collected Pap test vs. HPV test by self-sampling vs. HPV test by urine sampling.

J Gynecol Oncol 2019 Sep;30(5):e76

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Objective: Human papillomavirus testing by self-sampling and urine sampling might be alternatives to Papanicolaou test (Pap test) for cervical cancer screening (CCS), and may increase compliance and adherence thereto. The present study aimed to explore satisfaction and preferences for cervical screening modalities among Korean women.

Methods: In total, 732 women aged between 20 and 69 years responded to a questionnaire designed to survey the women's perceived satisfaction for the 3 CCS modalities: clinician-collected Pap test, self-collected vaginal sampling (self-sampling) and urine sampling.

Results: Overall satisfaction was significantly higher with both the self-sampling and urine sampling than the clinician-collected Pap test (odds ratio [OR]=2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.48-3.00 and OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.75-3.48, respectively). Psychological distress, including embarrassment, pain, anxiety, discomfort, and stress, with self-sampling and urine sampling were significantly lower than that with the Pap test. 52% of participants reported preferences for self-sampling in the next screening round.

Conclusions: Korean women were more likely to report satisfaction with alternative modalities (self-sampling and urine sampling) for CCS in comparison to the Pap test. This suggests that self-collected modalities may help with improving CCS uptake rates by eliminating burden related with the Pap test. However, further studies for test accuracy and cost-effective analysis of the alternative modalities should be conducted in order to apply CCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2019.30.e76DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6658592PMC
September 2019

Comparison of Digital and Screen-Film Mammography for Breast-Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Breast Cancer 2019 Jun 13;22(2):311-325. Epub 2019 May 13.

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: Digital mammography (DM) has replaced screen-film mammography (SFM). However, findings of comparisons between the performance indicators of DM and SFM for breast-cancer screening have been inconsistent. Moreover, the summarized results from studies comparing the performance of screening mammography according to device type vary over time. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the performance of DM and SFM using recently published data.

Methods: The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for paired studies, cohorts, and randomized controlled trials published through 2018 that compared the performance of DM and SFM. All studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of DM and SFM in asymptomatic, average-risk women aged 40 years and older were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the study quality and extracted the data.

Results: Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity (DM, 0.76 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.70-0.81]; SFM, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81]), specificity (DM, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.94-0.97]; SFM, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.94-0.98]), and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (DM, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.92-0.96]; SFM, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.89-0.94]) were similar for both DM and SFM. The pooled screening performance indicators reinforced superior accuracy of full-field DM, which is a more advanced type of mammography, than SFM. The advantage of DM appeared greater among women aged 50 years or older. There was high heterogeneity among studies in the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy estimates. Stratifying by study design (prospective or retrospective) and removing studies with a 2-year or greater follow-up period resulted in homogeneous overall diagnostic accuracy estimates.

Conclusion: The breast-cancer screening performance of DM is similar to that of SFM. The diagnostic performance of DM depends on the study design, and, in terms of performance, full-field DM is superior to SFM, unlike computed radiography systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4048/jbc.2019.22.e24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6597401PMC
June 2019

Effects of a cancer prevention education program on elementary school students' knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, and intentions in South Korea.

Epidemiol Health 2019 16;41:e2019027. Epub 2019 Jun 16.

Cancer Information and Education Branch, National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Objectives: Most children and adolescents have low levels of cancer knowledge and awareness, and infrequently engage in preventive behaviors. This study examined the effects of a short classroom-based intervention for cancer prevention on knowledge, attitude toward cancer preventability, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions of fifth-grade elementary school students.

Methods: The study was based on a pre-post-follow-up, 2-group, quasi-experimental design. Participants in the intervention group attended two 40-minute sessions on cancer prevention education and watched a music video about cancer prevention, while participants in the control group were only exposed to the music video. Self-reported knowledge, attitude toward cancer preventability, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions were assessed 1 week pre-intervention and post-intervention, as well as 3 months post-intervention.

Results: The 3-month post-intervention results revealed partial effects, indicating that the education intervention improved knowledge and attitudes toward cancer preventability; however, no effects were observed on self-efficacy and behavioral intentions 3 months after the intervention.

Conclusions: Long-term regular booster sessions are required to improve not only social-cognitive factors, but also behavioral intentions, which could result in behavior changes promoting cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6635661PMC
July 2019

Employment conditions and use of gastric cancer screening services in Korea: a nationwide survey.

BMC Public Health 2019 May 2;19(1):485. Epub 2019 May 2.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although it is well known that employment conditions exert considerable effects on health and health equity, the association between employment conditions and the use of preventative health services has rarely been studied. We explored whether inequities in the use of preventative services were associated with employment conditions. We used gastric cancer screening as a surrogate for the use of preventative health services.

Methods: The study population was derived from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey IV (2007-2009), which included data on 5626 individuals over 40 years of age. Employment conditions were grouped by employment status, work hours, employment contract term, and salary source. Participants who had undergone gastroscopy or an upper gastrointestinal series within the past 2 years were considered to have used cancer screening services according to the National Cancer Screening Program guidelines. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis. As the survey procedure incorporated sample weights, we adjusted our calculations to consider the complex sample design.

Results: Self-employed workers were less likely to participate in regular cancer screening than were wage workers (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68-0.92), and part-time workers were less likely to participate than were full-time workers (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67-0.99). Among wage workers, temporary workers and daily workers exhibited lower participation rates than did regular workers (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.63-1.05 and OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.44-0.76, respectively). Dispatched workers also exhibited lower participation rates (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.25-0.80).

Conclusions: We found obvious inequities in the use of preventative health services associated with various employment conditions. Self-employed, irregular, and dispatched workers were significantly less likely to participate in cancer screening than were other workers. Political efforts should be made to reduce employment insecurity and to improve participation in preventative screening services by vulnerable employees so as to resolve the evident health inequities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-6841-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6498697PMC
May 2019

Pleural talcomas present pitfalls in workup of pleural masses.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2019 06 25;63(3):355. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Medical Imaging Department, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1754-9485.12876DOI Listing
June 2019

Prevalence of Women with Dense Breasts in Korea: Results from a Nationwide Cross-sectional Study.

Cancer Res Treat 2019 Oct 29;51(4):1295-1301. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: Women with dense breast are known to be at high risk for breast cancer, but their prevalence and number of Korean women are unknown. The current study was to investigate the distribution of mammographic breast density by age of women undergoing screening mammography, and to estimate the prevalence of Korean women with dense breasts, quantitatively.

Materials And Methods: For obtaining a nationwide representative sample, 6,481 mammograms were collected from 86 screening units participated in the National Cancer Screening Program for breast cancer. Based on the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System classification, breast density was evaluated by six breast radiologists, qualitatively. We applied these breast density distributions to age-specific counts of the Korean women population derived to mid-year 2017 to estimate the number of Korean women with dense breasts.

Results: Overall, 54.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.9% to 55.8%) of women 40 to 69 years of age had heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts, and this proportion was inversely associated with age. Based on the age distribution of Korean women, we estimated that 6,083,000 women (95% CI, 5,919,600 to 6,245,600) age 40-69 years in Korean have dense breasts. Women aged 40-49 years (n=3,450,000) accounted for 56.7% of this group.

Conclusion: More than half of Korean women aged 40 and over have dense breasts. To prevent breast cancer effectively and efficiently, it is necessary to develop a new personalized prevention strategy considering her status of breast density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2018.297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790853PMC
October 2019

Increasing Trend in Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer in Asia: More Cancers in Men and More Rectal Cancers.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 02;114(2):322-329

Institute of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Background: The incidence of young-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is reported to be increasing in the Western world. There are no population-based studies assessing the trend across Asia.

Methods: We performed a multinational cohort study involving four Asian countries/regions, namely Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and Hong Kong. The magnitude and direction of trend in the incidence of young-onset CRC (age < 50) were quantified using Joinpoint Regression Program to estimate average annual percentage change (AAPC).

Results: In Taiwan (1995-2014), incidence of young-onset CRC significantly increased in both men (colon cancer: 4.9-9.7 per 100,000; rectal cancer: 4.0-8.3 per 100,000) and women (colon cancer: 5.1-9.7 per 100,000; rectal cancer: 3.8-6.4 per 100,000). In Korea (1999-2014), incidence of young-onset CRC significantly increased in both men (colon cancer: 5.0-10.4 per 100,000; rectal cancer: 4.9-14.0 per 100,000) and women (colon cancer: 4.1-9.6 per 100,000; rectal cancer: 4.1-9.1 per 100,000). The most pronounced change was observed with male rectal cancer, increasing by 3.9% per year in Taiwan (AAPC + 3.9, 95% confidence interval + 3.3 to +4.5, P < 0.05) and 6.0% per year in Korea (AAPC +6.0, 95% confidence interval + 4.5 to +7.6, P < 0.05). Only a significant increase in rectal cancer was noted in Japan (male rectal cancer: 7.2-10.1 per 100,000, female rectal cancer 4.7-6.7 per 100,000) and Hong Kong (male rectal cancer: 4.4-7.0 per 100,000).

Conclusions: Increasing trend in young-onset CRC is not limited to the Western world. This finding may have implications on screening program for CRC in these countries/regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000133DOI Listing
February 2019

Interpretive Performance and Inter-Observer Agreement on Digital Mammography Test Sets.

Korean J Radiol 2019 02;20(2):218-224

Department of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea.

Objective: To evaluate the interpretive performance and inter-observer agreement on digital mammographs among radiologists and to investigate whether radiologist characteristics affect performance and agreement.

Materials And Methods: The test sets consisted of full-field digital mammograms and contained 12 cancer cases among 1000 total cases. Twelve radiologists independently interpreted all mammograms. Performance indicators included the recall rate, cancer detection rate (CDR), positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate (FPR), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Inter-radiologist agreement was measured. The reporting radiologist characteristics included number of years of experience interpreting mammography, fellowship training in breast imaging, and annual volume of mammography interpretation.

Results: The mean and range of interpretive performance were as follows: recall rate, 7.5% (3.3-10.2%); CDR, 10.6 (8.0-12.0 per 1000 examinations); PPV, 15.9% (8.8-33.3%); sensitivity, 88.2% (66.7-100%); specificity, 93.5% (90.6-97.8%); FPR, 6.5% (2.2-9.4%); and AUC, 0.93 (0.82-0.99). Radiologists who annually interpreted more than 3000 screening mammograms tended to exhibit higher CDRs and sensitivities than those who interpreted fewer than 3000 mammograms ( = 0.064). The inter-radiologist agreement showed a percent agreement of 77.2-88.8% and a kappa value of 0.27-0.34. Radiologist characteristics did not affect agreement.

Conclusion: The interpretative performance of the radiologists fulfilled the mammography screening goal of the American College of Radiology, although there was inter-observer variability. Radiologists who interpreted more than 3000 screening mammograms annually tended to perform better than radiologists who did not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2018.0193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342756PMC
February 2019

Interobserver agreement in breast ultrasound categorization in the Mammography and Ultrasonography Study for Breast Cancer Screening Effectiveness (MUST-BE) trial: results of a preliminary study.

Ultrasonography 2019 Apr 22;38(2):172-180. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate interobserver agreement as quality control for the modified categorization of screening breast ultrasound developed by the Alliance for Breast Cancer Screening in Korea (ABCS-K) for the Mammography and Ultrasonography Study for Breast Cancer Screening Effectiveness (MUST-BE) trial.

Methods: Eight breast radiologists with 4-16 years of experience participated in 2 rounds of quality control testing for the MUST-BE trial. Two investigators randomly selected 125 and 100 cases of breast lesions with different ratios of malignant and benign lesions. Two versions of the modified categorization were tested. The initially modified classification was developed after the first quality control workshop, and the re-modified classification was developed after the second workshop. The re-modified categorization established by ABCS-K added size criteria and the anterior-posterior ratio compared with the initially modified classification. After a brief lecture on the modified categorization system prior to each quality control test, the eight radiologists independently categorized the lesions using the modified categorization. Interobserver agreement was measured using kappa statistics.

Results: The overall kappa values for the modified categorizations indicated moderate to substantial degrees of agreement (initially modified categorization and re-modified categorization: κ=0.52 and κ=0.63, respectively). The kappa values for the subcategories of category 4 were 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24 to 0.52) and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.49), respectively. The overall kappa values for both the initially modified categorization and the re-modified categorization indicated a substantial degree of agreement when dichotomizing the interpretation as benign or suspicious.

Conclusion: The preliminary results demonstrated acceptable interobserver agreement for the modified categorization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14366/usg.18012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443585PMC
April 2019

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in Korea, 2005-2015: After the Introduction of the National Cancer Screening Program.

Yonsei Med J 2018 Nov;59(9):1034-1040

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate inequalities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in Korea and trends therein using the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) across income and education groups.

Materials And Methods: Data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, an annually conducted, nationwide cross-sectional survey, were utilized. A total of 17174 men and women aged 50 to 74 years were included for analysis. Prior experience with CRC screening was defined as having either a fecal occult blood test within the past year or a lifetime colonoscopy. CRC screening rates and annual percentage changes (APCs) were evaluated. Then, SII and RII were calculated to assess inequality in CRC screening for each survey year.

Results: CRC screening rates increased from 23.4% in 2005 to 50.9% in 2015 (APC, 7.8%; 95% CI, 6.0 to 9.6). Upward trends in CRC screening rates were observed for all age, education, and household income groups. Education inequalities were noted in 2009, 2014, and overall pooled estimates in both indices. Income inequalities were inconsistent among survey years, and overall estimates did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: Education inequalities in CRC screening among men and women aged 50 to 74 years were observed in Korea. No apparent pattern, however, was found for income inequalities. Further studies are needed to thoroughly outline socio-economic inequalities in CRC screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2018.59.9.1034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192887PMC
November 2018

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening among Women in Korea, 2005-2015.

Yonsei Med J 2018 Nov;59(9):1026-1033

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: Consistent evidence indicates that cervical and breast cancer screening rates are low among socioeconomically deprived women. This study aimed to assess trends in cervical and breast cancer screening rates and to analyze socioeconomic inequalities among Korean women from 2005 to 2015.

Materials And Methods: Data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, an annual nationwide cross-sectional survey, were utilized. A total of 19910 women were finally included for analysis. Inequalities in education and household income status were estimated by slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII), along with calculation of annual percent changes (APCs), to show trends in cancer screening rates.

Results: Cervical and breast cancer screening rates increased from 54.8% in 2005 to 65.6% in 2015 and from 37.6% in 2005 to 61.2% in 2015, respectively. APCs in breast cancer screening rates were significant among women with higher levels of household income and education status. Inequalities by household income in cervical cancer screening uptake were observed with a pooled SII estimate of 10.6% (95% CI: 8.1 to 13.2) and RII of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3 to 1.6). Income inequalities in breast cancer screening were shown to gradually increase over time with a pooled SII of 5.9% (95% CI: 2.9 to 9.0) and RII of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9 to 1.3). Educational inequalities appeared to diminish over the study period for both cervical and breast cancer screening.

Conclusion: Our study identified significant inequalities among socioeconomically deprived women in cervical and breast cancer screening in Korea. Especially, income-related inequalities were greater than education-related inequalities, and these were constant from 2005 to 2015 for both cervical and breast cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2018.59.9.1026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192888PMC
November 2018

Estimating age group-dependent sensitivity and mean sojourn time in colorectal cancer screening.

J Med Screen 2019 03 27;26(1):19-25. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

1 Department of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: In evaluating the efficacy of cancer screening programmes, sojourn time (duration of the preclinical detectable phase) and sensitivity of the screening test are the two key parameters. Studies suggest that in breast cancer screening, both parameters may vary depending on age at the time of screening, but few studies have examined other cancers. We expanded an existing probability model for periodic screening by performing simultaneous estimation of age group-dependent and sensitivity at preclinical onset time, and tested the expanded model using data from the Korean National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme.

Methods: Simulation studies were conducted to assess the performance of the proposed probability model. The method was then applied to the analysis of 376,542 participants aged 50 or over who underwent fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) as part of the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme between 2004 and 2007. Age group-dependent mean sojourn time and screening sensitivity of FOBT for colorectal cancer were derived using maximum likelihood estimation.

Results: The method performed well in terms of bias, standard deviation, and coverage probability. National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme data results indicated that the sensitivity of FOBT to detect colorectal cancer increases with age, while mean sojourn time decreases with age (approximately 4.3 years for participants aged 50-54, 3.9 years at age 55-59, 3.4 years at age 60-64, and 3.6 years at age 65-69, with corresponding sensitivity estimates around 41%, 47%, 45%, and 51%, respectively).

Conclusion: Simulation studies showed that the proposed stochastic model considering both mean sojourn time and sensitivity yields highly accurate results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0969141318790775DOI Listing
March 2019

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Stomach Cancer Screening in Korea, 2005-2015: After the Introduction of the National Cancer Screening Program.

Yonsei Med J 2018 Oct;59(8):923-929

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in stomach cancer screening in Korea and trends therein across income and education groups.

Materials And Methods: Data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional survey, were utilized. A total of 28913 men and women aged 40 to 74 years were included for analysis. Prior experience with stomach cancer screening was defined as having undergone either an endoscopy or gastrointestinal series within the past two years. The slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were evaluated to check inequalities.

Results: Stomach cancer screening rates increased from 40.0% in 2005 to 74.8% in 2015, with an annual percent change of 5.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2 to 7.5]. Increases in stomach cancer screening rates were observed for all age, education, and household income groups. Inequalities in stomach cancer screening were noted among individuals of differing levels of education, with a pooled SII estimate of 6.14% (95% CI, 3.94 to 8.34) and RII of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.12 to 1.40). Also, income-related inequalities were observed with an SII of 6.93% (95% CI, 4.89 to 8.97) and RII of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.43). The magnitude of inequality was larger for income than for education.

Conclusion: Both education and income-related inequalities were found in stomach cancer screening, despite a continuous increase in screening rate over the study period. Income-related inequality was greater than education-related inequality, and this was more apparent in women than in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2018.59.8.923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6127424PMC
October 2018

Comparison of cervical cancer screening among women with and without hysterectomies: a nationwide population-based study in Korea.

BMC Cancer 2018 Aug 11;18(1):810. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, 10408, Republic of Korea.

Background: Cervical cancer screening is not recommended for women who underwent hysterectomy with no history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) of grade 2 or higher. We aimed to determine the cervical cancer screening rate in Korean women who underwent hysterectomies and compare it to that in women with intact uteri.

Methods: We used data from the 2014-2016 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey; 6807 women aged 30-74 years were included in the study. Participants were asked about their experiences with cervical cancer screening, hysterectomy status, and other variables associated with cancer screening.

Results: The screening rates among women who have undergone a hysterectomy vs. those who have not during the past 2 years were 61.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.8-64.9) and 64.7% (95% CI, 64.1-65.3), respectively. Among younger women (30-44 years) and women with a family history of cancer, those with hysterectomies showed a higher cervical cancer screening rate than those without (77.8% vs. 57.1% and 75.0% vs. 67.1%, respectively).

Conclusions: Despite available evidence and clinical recommendations, a considerable number of Korean women who no longer have a cervix continue to undergo unnecessary cervical cancer screening. It is necessary to identify the exact underlying causes for this phenomenon, and systematic efforts are required to prevent unnecessary screening for women who have undergone a hysterectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4723-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6087535PMC
August 2018

Association of Inflammation and Disability Accrual in Patients With Progressive-Onset Multiple Sclerosis.

JAMA Neurol 2018 11;75(11):1407-1415

CORe, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Importance: The role of inflammatory disease activity as a determinant of disability in progressive-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) remains contested.

Objective: To examine the association of superimposed relapses in progressive-onset MS on disease outcomes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Observational cohort study from MSBase, a prospectively collected, international database. Data were collected between January 1995 and February 2017. Analyses began in February 2017. From 44 449 patients at time of extraction, 1419 eligible patients (31.9%) were identified for analysis. Inclusion criteria consisted of primary progressive MS (PPMS) or progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS), adult-onset disease, and minimum data set (including ≥3 visits with disability recorded, ≥3 months between second and last visit). Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models (Andersen-Gill) with mixed effects. Two sensitivity analyses to exclude both relapse-related disability progression and bout-onset progressive MS were performed.

Exposures: Grouped according to presence or absence of relapse, defined as an acute episode of clinical worsening. Quantifiable disability change or correlation on imaging was not required to confirm relapse.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Cumulative hazard of disability progression.

Results: Patients with PRMS were younger than those with PPMS (mean [SD] age, 46 [15] vs 51 [10] years, Cohen d = 0.40) and demonstrated a mean lower Expanded Disability Status Scale score (mean [SD] score, 4.0 [3] vs 4.5 [2.5], Cohen d = 0.28) at inclusion. The ratio of men to women was similar in the PRMS and PPMS groups (252:301 vs 394:472). The overall mean (SD) age was 48 (11) years for men and 50 (10) years for women. Likelihood of confirmed disability progression was lower in patients with superimposed relapses (hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.94; P = .003). Proportion of follow-up time spent on disease-modifying therapy significantly reduced the hazard of confirmed disability progression in the cohort with relapse (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99; P = .01) but not in those without relapse (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99-1.05; P = .26). When accounting for relapse-related progression, the association of disease-modifying therapy in the cohort with superimposed relapse was no longer observed (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.96-1.24; P = .16).

Conclusions And Relevance: In progressive-onset MS, superimposed relapses are associated with a lower risk of confirmed disability progression. This is most likely attributed to the association of disease-modifying therapy with the prevention of relapse-related disability accrual in patients with superimposed relapse. These findings suggest that inflammatory relapses are an important and modifiable determinant of disability accrual in progressive-onset disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.2109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6248114PMC
November 2018

A prospective pilot evaluation of vaginal and urine self-sampling for the Roche cobas 4800 HPV test for cervical cancer screening.

Sci Rep 2018 06 13;8(1):9015. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, 10408, Republic of Korea.

This pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing vaginal self-swabs and urine samples for HPV-based cervical cancer screening in 700 women who had undergone conventional Pap smear screening via the national cervical cancer program in Korea. The cobas 4800 HPV test was utilized to detect HPV in the self-samples. Pap smear results revealed three cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 649 cases of negative for an intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, and 48 non-specific inflammatory findings. High-risk HPV was detected in 6.7% of urine samples and 9.6% of vaginal self-swab samples. The overall agreement for HPV 16/18 between urine and vaginal self-swab samples was 99.1% (95%CI 98.1% to 99.6%). Colposcopic biopsy revealed one cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 lesion, 12 CIN1 lesions, and 23 normal or chronic cervicitis lesions. In conclusion, urine and vaginal self-swab sampling was feasible and deemed a potential alternative for HPV detection in women who hesitate to participate in cervical cancer screening programs. Meanwhile, due to overall lower rates of abnormal cytology and sexual risk behaviors in Korea, a larger sample size than expected is needed to assess the sensitivity of CIN2+ detection via self-samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27390-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998027PMC
June 2018

Effect of mammography screening on stage at breast cancer diagnosis: results from the Korea National Cancer Screening Program.

Sci Rep 2018 06 11;8(1):8882. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, 323, Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 10408, Republic of Korea.

In Asian countries, breast densities and the proportion of younger women with breast cancer are higher than those in Western countries. This study was designed to determine differences in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer among Korean women according to screening history. The study population was derived from the Korea National Cancer Screening Program (KNCSP). The study cohort comprised 17,689 women who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2011 and were invited to undergo breast cancer screening via the KNCSP between 2002 and 2011. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and localized breast cancer were most frequent in both ever-screened and never-screened patients. Late stage cancer was significantly more frequent in never-screened patients, compared with ever-screened patients. Compared to never-screened women, the odds ratio (OR) for being diagnosed with early stage breast cancer among screened women was 1.41 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.28-1.55). The OR for being diagnosed with early stage breast cancer was highest among patients who underwent screening three times or more (aOR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.57-2.29). Screening by mammography was associated with diagnosis of early stage breast cancer in Korean women. However, significant increases in the diagnosis of DCIS and localized breast cancers among ever-screened patients suggest the possibility of overdiagnosis due to screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27152-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995898PMC
June 2018

Physician's awareness of lung cancer screening and its related medical radiation exposure in Korea.

Epidemiol Health 2018 20;40:e2018002. Epub 2018 Jan 20.

National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Objectives: Through a survey on perception of lung cancer screening and accompanying medical radiation exposure in Korea, the present study was to investigate its current situations and evaluate various perception of physicians regarding it in order to propose measures for improvements.

Methods: Medical specialists in national cancer screening institutions selected through stratified random sampling were subjected to face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. We investigated physicians' perception on effectiveness of lung cancer screening depending on screening modality, selection criteria for subjects of screening, types of equipment used to screen, and perception for seriousness of adverse effects following the test. In addition, odds ratios to underestimate risk of radiation exposure from screening were calculated through logistic regression analysis.

Results: Each response that chest X-ray is effective for lung cancer screening and that smoking history is not considered prior to screening recommendation accounted for more than 60% of respondents, suggesting the chance of unnecessary screening tests. Regarding adverse effects of lung cancer screening, about 85% of respondents replied that false positive, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis could be ignored. About 70% of respondents underestimated radiation dose from lung cancer screening, and a low proportion of physicians informed patients of radiation exposure risk.

Conclusions: It was found that most physicians underestimated harms of lung cancer screening including radiation exposure and were lack of awareness regarding lung cancer screening. It should be noted that physicians need to have proper perceptions about screening recommendation and accompanying possible harms, for successful implementation of the screening program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060336PMC
April 2018

Risk of Interval Cancer in Fecal Immunochemical Test Screening Significantly Higher During the Summer Months: Results from the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea.

Am J Gastroenterol 2018 04 6;113(4):611-621. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of seasonal variations in climate on the performance of the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in screening for colorectal cancer in the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea.

Methods: Data were extracted from the National Cancer Screening Program databases for participants who underwent FIT between 2009 and 2010. We compared positivity rates, cancer detection rates, interval cancer rates, positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity for FIT during the spring, summer, fall, and winter seasons in Korea.

Results: In total, 4,788,104 FIT results were analyzed. FIT positivity rate was lowest during the summer months. In the summer, the positive predictive value of FIT was about 1.1 times (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.16) higher in the overall FIT group and about 1.3 times (aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.50) higher in the quantitative FIT group, compared to those in the other seasons. Cancer detection rates, however, were similar regardless of season. Interval cancer risk was significantly higher in the summer for both the overall FIT group (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07-1.27) and the quantitative FIT group (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.12-1.52). In addition, interval cancers in the rectum and distal colon were more frequently detected in the summer and autumn than in the winter.

Conclusions: The positivity rate of FIT was lower in the summer, and the performance of the FIT screening program was influenced by seasonal variations in Korea. These results suggest that more efforts to reduce interval cancer during the summer are needed in population-based screening programs using FIT, particularly in countries with high ambient temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2018.23DOI Listing
April 2018