Publications by authors named "Jae Young Jang"

259 Publications

Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-related Factor 2 Knockout Suppresses the Development of Aggressive Colorectal Cancer Formation Induced by Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treatment in Female Mice.

J Cancer Prev 2021 Mar;26(1):41-53

Laboratory of Immunology, Division of Biotechnology Review and Research-III, Office of Biotechnology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Colon tumors develop more frequently in male than in female. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays differential roles in the stage of tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 on colitis-associated tumorigenesis using Nrf2 knockout (KO) female mice. Azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 KO female mice were sacrificed at week 2 and 16 after AOM injection. Severity of colitis, tumor incidence, and levels of inflammatory mediators were evaluated in AOM/DSS-treated WT and Nrf2 KO mice. Furthermore, qRT-PCR, Western blot abnalysis, and ELISA were performed in colon tissues. At week 2, AOM/DSS-induced colon tissue damages were significantly greater in Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. At week 16, tumor numbers (> 2 mm size) were significantly lower in both the proximal and distal colon in Nrf2 KO compared to WT. The overall incidences of adenoma/cancer of the proximal colon and submucosal invasive cancer of the distal colon were reduced by Nrf2 KO. The mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB-related mediators (i.e., iNOS and COX-2) and Nrf2-related antioxidants (i.e., heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit) were significantly lower in the Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Interestingly, the protein level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) was higher in AOM/DSS-treated Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Our results support the oncogenic effect of Nrf2 in the later stage of carcinogenesis and upregulation of tumor suppressor 15-PGDH might contribute to the repression of colitis-associated tumorigenesis in Nrf2 KO female mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15430/JCP.2021.26.1.41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020176PMC
March 2021

Long-term outcomes of endoscopic resection followed by additional surgery after non-curative resection in undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer: a nationwide multi-center study.

Surg Endosc 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Center for Gastric Cancer, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, Gyeonggi, 10408, South Korea.

Background: Undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) shows lower curative resection rates after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Additional surgery is recommended after non-curative resection. We evaluated the long-term outcomes of ESD followed by additional surgery after non-curative resection in UD EGC compared to those for surgery as initial treatment.

Methods: We reviewed 1139 UD EGC patients who underwent ESD at 18 hospitals and 1956 patients who underwent surgery at two hospitals between February 2005 and May 2015. We enrolled 636 patients with non-curative ESD and 1429 surgery subjects beyond the curative ESD criteria. Among them, 133 patients with additional surgery after ESD (ESD + OP group) and 252 patients without additional surgery (ESD-only group) were matched 1:1 using propensity scores to patients with surgery as initial treatment (surgery group). Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were compared.

Results: Signet ring cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PDA) were observed in 939 and 1126 cases, respectively. OS was significantly longer in the surgery group than in the ESD + OP group, especially for PDA. However, RFS was shorter in the ESD-only group than those in the ESD + OP and surgery groups. RFS did not differ significantly between the ESD + OP and surgery groups. Compared to the surgery group, the ESD-only and ESD + OP groups had an overall hazard ratio for RFS of 3.58 (95% confidence interval 1.44-8.88) and 0.46 (0.10-2.20), respectively.

Conclusions: ESD followed by additional surgery after non-curative resection showed comparable cancer-specific outcomes to initial surgery in UD EGC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08464-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-term Outcomes of Undifferentiated-Type Early Gastric Cancer with Positive Horizontal Margins after Endoscopic Resection.

Gut Liver 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Center for Gastric Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Background/aims: This study examined the long-term outcomes of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (UD EGC) with positive horizontal margins (HMs) after endoscopic resection (ER) and compared them between additional surgery and nonsurgical management.

Methods: From 2005 to 2015, a total of 1,124 patients with UD EGC underwent ER at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea. Of them, 92 patients with positive HMs as the only noncurative factor (n=25) or with both positive HMs and tumor size >2 cm (n=67) were included. These patients underwent additional surgery (n=40), underwent additional endoscopic treatment (n=6), or were followed up without further treatment (n=46).

Results: No lymph node (LN) metastasis was found in patients who underwent additional surgery. During a median follow-up of 57.7 months (interquartile range, 27.6 to 68.8 months), no LN or distant metastases or gastric cancer-related deaths occurred in the overall cohort. At baseline, the residual cancer rate was 57.8% (26/45) after additional surgery or ER. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 33.6% among patients who were followed up without additional treatment. The 5-year overall survival rates were 95.0% and 87.8% after additional surgery and nonsurgical management (endoscopic treatment or close follow-up), respectively (log-rank p=0.224). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, nonsurgical management was not associated with an increased risk of mortality.

Conclusions: UD EGC with positive HMs after ER may have favorable long-term outcomes and a very low risk of LN metastasis. Nonsurgical management may be suggested as an alternative, particularly for patients with old age or chronic illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl20291DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of antiviral therapy in patients with low HBV DNA level on transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Viral Hepat 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, South Korea.

Antiviral therapy improves survival in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the effect of antiviral therapy in patients with low-level viremia HBV-HCC receiving non-curative therapy remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the role of antiviral therapy in patients with low-level viremia and treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). This retrospective study evaluated 206 patients with HBV-HCC who underwent TACE as an initial treatment. Of those, 135 patients received antiviral therapy (antiviral group), and 71 did not (non-antiviral group). The definition of low-level viremia was an HBV DNA level <2000 IU/ml. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and Cox regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. The median follow-up duration was 39 months (1-174 months). Overall survival (OS) did not differ between groups (P = .227). Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage (BCLC), Child-Pugh (CP) class and α-fetoprotein level were independent prognostic factors for OS. Antiviral therapy (hazard ratio [HR], 0.503, P = .022) was a prognostic factor for 2-year survival. On subgroup analysis, antiviral therapy improved short-term survival in patients with BCLC stage 0 and A (P = .037) and CP class A (P = .04). In patients with low-level viremia, antiviral therapy yielded short-term survival benefits, particularly in patients with early-stage HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13508DOI Listing
March 2021

Cost-Effectiveness of Empirical Bismuth-Based Quadruple Therapy and Tailored Therapy After Clarithromycin Resistance Tests for Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, 23 Kyung Hee Dae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, Korea.

Background: The eradication rate of clarithromycin-based standard triple therapy (STT) for Helicobacter pylori infection has decreased due to clarithromycin resistance (CR). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of tailored therapy according to CR test results, and compared the results of STT with those of empirical bismuth quadruple therapy (BQT).

Methods: The prospectively collected data of 490 H. pylori-positive patients with chronic gastritis or peptic ulcer disease were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 292 patients underwent CR testing using dual-priming oligonucleotide-based polymerase chain reaction. The tailored group (n = 282) consisted of patients treated with STT for 7 days and BQT for 10 days as per their CR test results. The remaining patients were assigned to the empirical group (n = 198) and received BQT for 10 days without a CR test. The eradication rate, adverse events and medical costs associated with H. pylori eradication therapy were investigated.

Results: In the tested patients (tailored group), the CR-positive rate was 32.2% (n = 94/292). The eradication rate according to an intention-to-treat analysis was 87.7% in the tailored group and 91.8% in the empirical group (P = 0.124); the respective rates were 94.4% and 97.9% by per-protocol analysis (P = 0.010). The frequency of adverse events was lower in the empirical group than the tailored group (35.1% vs. 52.7%, P < 0.001). Total per capita medical costs were $406.50 and $503.50, respectively.

Conclusions: Ten-day empirical BQT was more effective, safer, and less expensive than tailored therapy based on a CR test for H. pylori eradication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06938-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Prediction model for curative endoscopic submucosal dissection of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer.

Surg Endosc 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Center for Gastric Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an effective treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC); however, its curative resection rate is low for undifferentiated-type EGC. We developed and externally validated a prediction model for curative ESD of undifferentiated-type EGC.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 448 patients who underwent ESD for undifferentiated-type EGC at 18 hospitals in Korea between 2005 and 2015 in the development cohort and 1342 patients who underwent surgery at two hospitals in the validation cohort. A prediction model was developed using the logistic regression model.

Results: Endoscopic tumor size 1-2 cm (odds ratio [OR], 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.54-3.73), tumor size > 2 cm (OR, 14.00; 95% CI 6.81-28.77), and proximal tumor location from the lower to upper third of the stomach (OR, 1.45; 95% CI 1.03-2.04) were independent predictors of non-curative ESD. A six-score prediction model was developed by assigning points to endoscopic tumor size > 2 cm (five points), tumor size 1-2 cm (two points), upper third location (two points), and middle third location (one point). The rate of curative ESD ranged from 70.6% (score 0) to 11.6% (score 5) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.720 (95% CI 0.673-0.766). The model also showed good performance in the validation cohort (AUC, 0.775; 95% CI 0.748-0.803).

Conclusions: This six-score prediction model may help in predicting curative ESD and making informed decisions about the treatment selection between ESD and surgery for undifferentiated-type EGC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08426-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Palliative endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage for malignant biliary obstruction in Korea: A nationwide assessment.

Saudi J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

Background: Malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) is usually caused by biliary tract cancer or pancreatic cancer. This study was performed to summarize the current situation regarding palliative endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) for MBO in Korea and to determine its clinical significance by analyzing representative nationwide data.

Methods: Patients that underwent palliative ERBD for MBO between 2012 and 2015 were identified using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment database, which covers the entire Korean population. We assessed clinical characteristics and complications and compared the clinical impacts of initial metal and plastic stenting in these patients.

Results: A total of 9,728 subjects (mean age, 65 ± 11.4 years; male, 61.4%) were identified and analyzed. The most common diagnosis was malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (32.1%) and this was followed by extrahepatic or Ampulla of Vater cancer and pancreatic cancer. Initial plastic stent(s) placement was performed in 52.9% of the study subjects, and metal stent(s) placement was performed in 23.3%. The number of sessions of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) was significantly higher in patients that underwent initial plastic stenting than in patients that underwent metal stenting (2.2 ± 1.7 vs 1.8 ± 1.4, P < 0.0001), but rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis, hospital days, and time to second ERCP or PTBD were not significantly different.

Conclusion: This nationwide assessment study suggests that initial metal stenting is associated with fewer sessions of total ERCP or PTBD following the initial procedure, despite the preference for initial plastic stenting in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sjg.sjg_589_20DOI Listing
March 2021

Continuing besifovir dipivoxil maleate versus switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for treatment of chronic hepatitis B: Results of 192-week phase 3 trial.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2021 Apr 25;27(2):346-359. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV), an acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, shows potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. Our previous 48-week trial revealed that BSV has comparable antiviral efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and better safety profiles in terms of improved renal and bone safety. This extension study evaluated the prolonged efficacy and safety of BSV in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients.

Methods: Patients continued to participate in an open-label BSV study after an initial 48-week double-blind comparison of BSV and TDF treatment. The antiviral efficacy and drug safety was evaluated up to 192 weeks in two groups: patients continuing BSV treatment (BSV-BSV) and patients switching from TDF to BSV after 48 weeks (TDF-BSV).

Results: Among 197 patients receiving randomized treatments, 170 (86%) entered the open-label phase and 152 (77%) entered the 192-week extension study. Virological response rates over 192 weeks were 92.50% and 93.06% in the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups, respectively (P=0.90). Hepatitis B envelop antigen seroconversion and alanine aminotransferase normalization rates were similar between the groups (P=0.75 and P=0.36, respectively). There were no drug-resistant mutations to BSV. Bone mineral density and renal function were well preserved in the BSV-BSV group, whereas these initially worsened then recovered after switching therapy in the TDF-BSV group.

Conclusion: BSV maintained potent antiviral efficacy after 192 weeks and showed no evidence of drug resistance. BSV was safe, well tolerated, and effective in patients who switched from TDF to BSV. Trial Registration Number: NCT01937806 (date: 10 Sep 2013).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2020.0307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046633PMC
April 2021

Diode Laser-Can It Replace the Electrical Current Used in Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection? (with Video).

Clin Endosc 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam, Korea.

Background/aims: A new medical fiber-guided diode laser system (FDLS) is expected to offer high-precision cutting with simultaneous hemostasis. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using the 1,940-nm FDLS to perform endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the gastrointestinal tract of an animal model.

Methods: In this prospective animal pilot study, gastric and colorectal ESD using the FDLS was performed in ex vivo and in vivo porcine models. The completeness of en bloc resection, the procedure time, intraprocedural bleeding, histological injuries to the muscularis propria (MP) layer, and perforation were assessed.

Results: The en bloc resection and perforation rates in the ex vivo study were 100% (10/10) and 10% (1/10), respectively; those in the in vivo study were 100% (4/4) and 0% for gastric ESD and 100% (4/4) and 25% (1/4) for rectal ESD, respectively. Deep MP layer injuries tended to occur more frequently in the rectal than in the gastric ESD cases, and no intraprocedural bleeding occurred in either group.

Conclusions: The 1,940-nm FDLS was capable of yielding high en bloc resection rates without intraprocedural bleeding during gastric and colorectal ESD in animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5946/ce.2020.229DOI Listing
January 2021

The cut-off value of transient elastography to the value of hepatic venous pressure gradient in alcoholic cirrhosis.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2021 01 3;27(1):197-206. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

UB Songdo Hospital, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Background/aims: The hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) reflects portal hypertension, but its measurement is invasive. Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive method for evaluating liver stiffness (LS). We investigated the correlation between the value of LS, LS to platelet ratio (LPR), LS-spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio score (LSPS) and HVPG according to the etiology of cirrhosis, especially focused on alcoholic cirrhosis.

Methods: Between January 2008 and March 2017, 556 patients who underwent HVPG and TE were consecutively enrolled. We evaluated LS, LPR, and LSPS according to the etiology of cirrhosis and analyzed their correlations with HVPG.

Results: The LS value was higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than viral cirrhosis based on the HVPG (43.5 vs. 32.0 kPa, P<0.001). There were no significant differences in the LPR or LSPS between alcoholic and viral cirrhosis groups, and the areas under the curves for the LPR and LSPS in subgroups according to HVPG levels were not superior to that for LS. In alcoholic cirrhosis, the LS cutoff value for predicting an HVPG ≥10 mmHg was 32.2 kPa with positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.5% and 36.6 kPa for HVPG ≥12 mmHg with PPV of 91.0%.

Conclusion: The LS cutoff value should be determined separately for patients with alcoholic and viral cirrhosis. In alcoholic cirrhosis, the LS cutoff values were 32.2 and 36.6 kPa for predicting an HVPG ≥10 and ≥12 mmHg, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the LPR or LSPS between alcoholic and viral cirrhosis groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2020.0171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820198PMC
January 2021

Endoscopic retrieval of a huge gastric trichobezoar using an electrosurgical knife.

Endoscopy 2020 Nov 19. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1293-6677DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison between endoscopic submucosal resection and surgery for the curative resection of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer within expanded indications: a nationwide multi-center study.

Gastric Cancer 2021 May 19;24(3):731-743. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Center for Gastric Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Background And Aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for undifferentiated early gastric cancer (UD EGC) has debate due to the risk of lymph node metastasis. We investigated the outcomes of ESD compared to those of surgery for the UD EGC within expanded indication.

Methods: We reviewed 971 UD EGC patients performed ESD across 18 hospitals in Korea and 1812 patients who underwent surgical resection in two hospitals between February 2005 and May 2015. Of these cases, we enrolled a curative resected ESD group of 328 patients and surgery group of 383 cases within an expanded indication. Overall outcomes and one-to-one propensity score-matched (218 ESD group vs 218 surgery group cases) outcomes for these two groups were analyzed.

Results: Over the 75.6 month median follow-up period for the 711 enrolled cases, recurrences occurred in 22 patients (6.7%) in the ESD group but not in the surgery group. Overall survival (OS) was higher in the surgery group (p = 0.0316) in all cases, but there was no significant difference after propensity score matching (p = 0.069). According to the histologic type in propensity score matching, the OS of signet ring cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated carcinoma patients did not differ between the ESD and surgery groups (p = 0.1189 and p = 0.3087, respectively). In the surgery group involving expanded criteria, lymph node metastasis was found in six cases (1.56%).

Conclusions: Although ESD shows comparable outcomes to surgery for the UD EGC within expanded indications, appropriate patient selection is needed for the ESD due to the possibility of lymph node metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-020-01140-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Recent Updates of Transarterial Chemoembolilzation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 31;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul 04401, Korea.

Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a standard treatment for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we summarize recent updates on the use of TACE for HCC. TACE can be performed using two techniques; conventional TACE (cTACE) and drug-eluting beads using TACE (DEB-TACE). The anti-tumor effect of the two has been reported to be similar; however, DEB-TACE carries a higher risk of hepatic artery and biliary injuries and a relatively lower risk of post-procedural pain than cTACE. TACE can be used for early stage HCC if other curative treatments are not feasible or as a neoadjuvant treatment before liver transplantation. TACE can also be considered for selected patients with limited portal vein thrombosis and preserved liver function. When deciding to repeat TACE, the ART (Assessment for Retreatment with TACE) score and ABCR (AFP, BCLC, Child-Pugh, and Response) score can guide the decision process, and TACE refractoriness needs to be considered. Studies on the combination therapy of TACE with other treatment modalities, such as local ablation, radiation therapy, or systemic therapy, have been actively conducted and are still ongoing. Recently, new prognostic models, including analysis of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, radiomics, and deep learning, have been developed to help predict survival after TACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662786PMC
October 2020

Robotic limited local resection of duodenal juxta-ampullary neoplasms.

Int J Med Robot 2021 Apr 23;17(2):e2192. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreas, Department of Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: The unique and complex anatomical location of duodenal juxta-ampullary neoplasms complicates selection of the appropriate surgical strategy. For benign or borderline tumours, surgical local resection can be an appropriate treatment option, and robotic surgical systems can help perform minimally invasive local resection of these lesions.

Methods: Between December 2014 and December 2019, 10 patients who underwent robotic local resections for duodenal juxta-ampullary tumours were reviewed.

Results: All patients successfully underwent robotic local resection of the duodenum, preserving the ampulla of Vater without conversion. The mean tumour size was 2.2 cm. Final pathology consisted of gastrointestinal stromal tumour, neuroendocrine tumour, low grade and high grade dysplasia, ectopic pancreas, and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (T1a). There were no postoperative complications or recurrences.

Conclusion: With accurate preoperative diagnosis and careful selection of patients, local resection of the duodenum for juxta-ampullary benign or borderline tumours using robotic surgical system is an attractive treatment option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcs.2192DOI Listing
April 2021

Application of Hepatic Venous Pressure Gradient to Predict Prognosis in Cirrhotic Patients with a Low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Oct 10;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Institute for Digestive Research, Digestive Disease Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul 04401, Korea.

Background/aim: We aimed to derive a model representing the dynamic status of cirrhosis and to discriminate patients with poor prognosis even if the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is low.

Methods: This study retrospectively enrolled 700 cirrhotic patients with a MELD score of less than 20 who underwent hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement. A model named H6C score (= HVPG + 6 × CTP score) to predict overall survival was derived and internal and external validations were conducted with the derivation and validation cohorts.

Results: The H6C score using the HVPG was developed based on a multivariate Cox regression analysis. The H6C score showed a great predictive power for overall survival with a time-dependent AUC of 0.733, which was superior to that of a MELD of 0.602. In patients with viral etiology, the performance of the H6C score was much improved with a time-dependent AUC of 0.850 and was consistently superior to that of the MELD (0.748). Patients with an H6C score below 45 demonstrated an excellent overall survival with a 5-year survival rate of 91.5%. Whereas, patients with an H6C score above 64 showed a dismal prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of 51.1%. The performance of the H6C score was further verified to be excellent in the validation cohort.

Conclusion: This new model using the HVPG provides an excellent predictive power in cirrhotic patients, especially with viral etiology. In patients with H6C above 64, it would be wise to consider early liver transplantation to positively impact long-term survival, even when the MELD score is low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599657PMC
October 2020

Acute-on-chronic liver failure as a major predictive factor for mortality in patients with variceal bleeding.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2020 10 17;26(4):540-553. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Institute for Digestive Research and Digestive Disease Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: This study examined the risk factors associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding, and evaluated the effects of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) on the prognosis of these patients.

Methods: This study was retrospectively conducted on patients registered in the Korean acute-on-chronic liver failure study cohort, and on 474 consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding from January 2013 to December 2013 at 21 university hospitals. ACLF was defined as described by the European Association for the Study of Liver-Chronic Liver Failure Consortium.

Results: Among a total of 474 patients, 61 patients were diagnosed with ACLF. The cumulative overall survival (OS) rate was lower in the patients with ACLF than in those without (P<0.001), and patients with higher ACLF grades had a lower OS rate (P<0.001). The chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score was identified as a significant prognostic factor in patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.50; P<0.001), even in ACLF patients with variceal bleeding (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.46, P<0.001). Concerning the prediction of the mortality risk at 28- and 90-day using CLIF-SOFA scores, c-statistics were 0.895 (95% CI, 0.829-0.962) and 0.897 (95% CI, 0.842-0.951), respectively, and the optimal cut-off values were 6.5 and 6.5, respectively.

Conclusion: In cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding, the prognosis was poor when accompanied by ACLF, especially depending upon CLIF-SOFA score. CLIF-SOFA model well predicted the 28-day or 90-day mortality for cirrhotic patients who experienced variceal bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2020.0034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641565PMC
October 2020

Image Enhancement of Computational Reconstruction in Diffraction Grating Imaging Using Multiple Parallax Image Arrays.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Sep 9;20(18). Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Electronics Engineering, Sangmyung University, 20 Hongjimoon-2gil, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03015, Korea.

This paper describes an image enhancement method of computational reconstruction for 3-D images with multiple parallax image arrays in diffraction grating imaging. A 3-D imaging system via a diffraction grating provides a parallax image array (PIA) which is a set of perspective images of 3-D objects. The parallax images obtained from diffraction grating imaging are free from optical aberrations such as spherical and chromatic aberrations that are always involved in the 3-D imaging via a lens array. The diffraction grating imaging system for 3-D imaging also can be made at a lower cost system than a camera array system. However, the parallax images suffer from the speckle noise due to a coherent source; also, the noise degrades image quality in 3-D imaging. To remedy this problem, we propose a 3-D computational reconstruction method based on multiple parallax image arrays which are acquired by moving a diffraction grating axially. The proposed method consists of a spatial filtering process for each PIA and an overlapping process. Additionally, we provide theoretical analyses through geometric and wave optics. Optical experiments are conducted to evaluate our method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is superior to the existing method in 3-D imaging using a diffraction grating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20185137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7570608PMC
September 2020

Clinical outcomes of endoscopic resection for undifferentiated intramucosal early gastric cancer larger than 2 cm.

Gastric Cancer 2021 Mar 24;24(2):435-444. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Center for Gastric Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Background: This study investigated the long-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic resection (ER) for undifferentiated-type (UD) early gastric cancer (EGC), with tumor size > 2 cm as the only non-curative factor.

Methods: From among 1123 patients who underwent ER for UD EGC at 18 tertiary hospitals in Korea between 2005 and 2014, we identified 216 patients with UD intramucosal EGC > 2 cm, which was completely resected, with negative resection margins, and absence of ulceration and lymphovascular invasion. The patients were divided into the additional surgery (n = 40) or observation (n = 176) groups, according to post-ER management and were followed up for a median duration of 59 months for recurrence and 90 months for overall survival.

Results: Lymph node (LN) or distant metastasis or cancer-related mortality was not observed in the surgery group. In the observation group, two (1.1%) patients developed LN or distant metastasis with a 5-year cumulative risk of 0.7%, and one (0.6%) patient died of gastric cancer. The 5- and 8-year overall survival rates were 94.1% and 89.9%, respectively, in the observation group and 100.0% and 95.2%, respectively, in the surgery group (log-rank P = 0.159). Cox regression analysis did not reveal an association between the observation group and increased mortality.

Conclusion: The risk of LN or distant metastasis was not negligible, but as low as 1% for patients undergoing non-curative ER for UD EGC, with tumor size > 2 cm as the only non-curative factor. Close observation may be an alternative to surgery, especially for older patients or those with poor physical status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-020-01115-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Efficacy and Safety of DWJ1252 Compared With Gasmotin in the Treatment of Functional Dyspepsia: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind, Active-controlled Study.

J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Jan;27(1):87-96

Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Prokinetics such as mosapride citrate CR (conventional-release; Gasmotin) are commonly used in functional dyspepsia (FD). This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-a-day mosapride citrate SR (DWJ1252), a sustained-release formulation of mosapride citrate, compared with mosapride citrate CR 3 times a day, in patients with FD.

Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study, 119 patients with FD (by the Rome III criteria, 60 for mosapride citrate SR and 59 for mosapride citrate CR) were randomly allocated to mosapride citrate SR once daily or mosapride citrate CR thrice daily for 4 weeks in 16 medical institutions. Primary end point was the change in gastrointestinal symptom (GIS) score from baseline, assessed by GIS questionnaires on 5-point Likert scale after 4-week treatment. Secondary end points and safety profiles were also analyzed.

Results: The study included 51 and 49 subjects in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively. GIS scores at week 4 were significantly reduced in both groups (mean ± SD: -10.04 ± 4.45 and -10.86 ± 5.53 in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively; < 0.001), and the GIS changes from baseline did not differ between the 2 groups (difference, 0.82 point; 95% CI, -1.17, 2.81; = 0.643). Changes in GIS at weeks 2 and 4 and quality of life at week 4, and the improvement rates of global assessments at weeks 2 and 4, did not differ between the groups. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups, and there were no serious adverse events.

Conclusion: In patients with FD, mosapride citrate SR once daily is as effective as mosapride citrate CR thrice daily, with a similar safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5056/jnm20061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786082PMC
January 2021

Clinical Outcomes of Endoscopic Resection for Low-Grade Dysplasia and High-Grade Dysplasia on Gastric Pretreatment Biopsy: Korea ESD Study Group.

Gut Liver 2021 Mar;15(2):225-231

Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon, Korea.

Background/aims: Some cases of gastric low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and high-grade dysplasia (HGD) on forceps biopsy (FB) are diagnosed as gastric cancer (GC) after endoscopic resection (ER). This study aims to evaluate the clinical outcomes of ER for gastric LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB and to identify the factors that predict pathologic upstaging to GC.

Methods: Patients who underwent ER for LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB from March 2005 to February 2018 in 14 hospitals in South Korea were enrolled, and the patients' medical records were reviewed retrospectively.

Results: This study included 2,150 cases of LGD and 1,534 cases of HGD diagnosed by pretreatment FB. In total, 589 of 2,150 LGDs (27.4%) were diagnosed as GC after ER. infection, smoking history, tumor location in the lower third of the stomach, tumor size >10 mm, depressed lesion, and ulceration significantly predicted GC. A total of 1,115 out of 1,534 HGDs (72.7%) were diagnosed with GC after ER. Previous history of GC, infection, smoking history, tumor location in the lower third of the stomach, tumor size >10 mm, depressed lesion, and ulceration were significantly associated with GC. As the number of risk factors predicting GC increased in both LGD and HGD on pretreatment FB, the rate of upstaging to GC after ER increased.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of LGDs and HGDs on pretreatment FB were diagnosed as GC after ER. Accurate ER procedures such as endoscopic submucosal dissection should be recommended in cases of LGD and HGD with factors predicting pathologic upstaging to GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5009/gnl19275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960976PMC
March 2021

Prognosis predictability of serum and urine renal markers in patients with decompensated cirrhosis: A multicentre prospective study.

Liver Int 2020 12;40(12):3083-3092

Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Aims: This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate the best serum and urine markers to assess predictability for the prognosis of patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Methods: Serum creatinine and cystatin C (CysC), and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D glucosaminidase (uNAG) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) levels were measured from hospitalized patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Results: In total, 328 patients (mean age, 57.2 ± 12.0 years; 237 men) with decompensated cirrhosis were included. Alcoholic liver disease was the most frequent underlying liver disease (68.0%). Acute kidney injury (AKI) was concomitantly present in 41 patients (12.5%) at baseline. INR, serum creatinine and CysC levels, and uNAG and uNGAL levels were significantly higher in patients with AKI. During hospitalization, AKI had progressed in 37 patients (11.3%). In 287 patients without AKI, the incidence of AKI at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months was 15.4%, 22.2%, 28.6% and 32.5% respectively. On multivariate analysis, serum CysC and uNAG levels were independent predictors of AKI, and their optimal cut-off values were 1.055 mg/L and 23.1 U/g urinary Cr respectively. When patients were classified into three groups with these cut-off values of serum CysC and uNAG levels (group 1, both low; group 2, one of two high; and group 3, both high), progression of AKI during hospitalization (P = .001), incidence of AKI in patients without AKI at baseline (P = .001) and mortality rate (P < .001) differed significantly according to serum CysC and uNAG levels.

Conclusion: Serum CysC and uNAG levels are useful prognostic markers for renal outcomes and mortality in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14631DOI Listing
December 2020

Real-world systemic sequential therapy with sorafenib and regorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter retrospective study in Korea.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Feb 4;39(1):260-268. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background/Aims Regorafenib has been approved as a second-line systemic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after the phase III RESORCE trial. This study analyzed real-world data to assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of regorafenib compared to the RESORCE trial. Methods This multicenter cohort study included HCC patients treated with regorafenib after sorafenib (n = 133). We evaluated the time to progression (TTP), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety in patients receiving regorafenib along with the predictors of prognosis. Results The median age was 60 years and 81.2% patients were men. Hepatitis B virus infection (68.4%) was the commonest etiology. Most patients were classified as Child-Pugh A (98.5%) and had extrahepatic metastasis (84%) and vascular invasion (45.1%). This study demonstrated similar characteristics apart from more frequent hepatitis B etiology and more vascular or extrahepatic involvement compared with the RESORCE trial. An objective response rate of 12.5% was obtained for response assessment (n = 112); the disease control rate was 34.8%. Thirty-eight patients died during follow-up. With regorafenib, the median OS, PFS, and TTP were 10.0, 2.7, and 2.6 months, respectively. In the exploratory analysis after sorafenib administration, the median OS was 25.8 months. The rate of response and survival were comparable to those in the RESORCE trial. Child-Pugh score > 5, alpha-fetoprotein > 400 ng/ml, and TTP for sorafenib ≥ median were independently associated with OS. Conclusions This real-word regorafenib study showed comparable effectiveness and safety to the RESORCE trial. Regorafenib improves the prognosis of patients with prolonged TTP during previous sorafenib therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-00977-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Tenofovir-based combination therapy or monotherapy for multidrug-resistant chronic hepatitis B: Long-term data from a multicenter cohort study.

J Viral Hepat 2020 12 20;27(12):1306-1318. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul, Korea.

The treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is challenging. Herein, we report a multicenter prospective cohort study for the evaluation of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based therapy for MDR CHB in a real-life setting. The inclusion criteria comprised patients with resistance to more than two nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) classes and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level of ≥200 IU/mL. The primary end-point was virologic response (VR), defined as undetectable HBV DNA (<20 IU/mL) after 60 months. A total of 236 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean HBV DNA level was 4.16 ± 1.44 log IU/mL; 26.7% of patients had liver cirrhosis. Before the initiation of TDF, 33.5%, 44.9% and 21.6% of patients had mutations resistant to L-NA + adefovir, L-NA + entecavir (ETV) and L-NA + adefovir + ETV, respectively. A total of 184 patients received TDF-based combination therapy [TDF + ETV (n = 178) or TDF + L-NA (n = 6)], and 52 patients received TDF monotherapy. In the entire cohort, the VR rates were 77.2%, 89.9% and 92.2% at 12, 36 and 60 months, respectively. The VR rates were not significantly different between the combination therapy and the monotherapy group after 12 (76.2% vs 80.4%, P = .533), 36 (89.8% vs 90.3%, P = 1.000) or 60 (92.9% vs 87.5%, P = .499) months. Also, there was no significant difference in the cumulative VR rates for 5 years between the treatment groups (P = .910). Newly developed antiviral resistance was not observed. TDF-based therapy was effective for the treatment of MDR CHB. The efficacy of TDF monotherapy was not different from that of the TDF-based combination therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13363DOI Listing
December 2020

Adenocarcinoma and Neuroendocrine Collision Tumor in a Giant Gastric Hyperplastic Polyp.

J Nippon Med Sch 2020 ;87(3):157-161

Department of Pathology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine.

Screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy of a 65-year-old man revealed a 4.7-cm polypoid in the gastric high body. Clinical and laboratory findings, including serum gastrin level (460 pg/mL) and biopsy findings, were consistent with a diagnosis of type I neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Histologically, the mass consisted of dilated tortuous glands at the surface and grade 1 NET in deeper tissue. Some hyperplastic glands exhibited a transition to adenocarcinoma, which invaded the NET, simulating a "tumor in tumor" appearance. Next-generation sequencing revealed that the adenocarcinoma component harbored a TP53 mutation, whereas the NET component showed no pathogenic mutation. To our knowledge, this unusual collision of adenocarcinoma and NET within a single gastric hyperplastic polyp has not been previously described. This case suggests that large gastric hyperplastic polyps should be carefully examined because of the possibility of underlying NET and malignant transformation of surface epithelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1272/jnms.JNMS.2020_87-306DOI Listing
September 2020

Risk factors of lymph node metastasis after non-curative endoscopic resection of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer.

Gastric Cancer 2021 Jan 4;24(1):168-178. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Center for Gastric Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Background: This study aimed to investigate risk factors for lymph node (LN) or distant metastasis after non-curative endoscopic resection (ER) of undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (EGC).

Methods: Of 1124 patients who underwent ER for undifferentiated-type gastric cancer at 18 tertiary hospitals across six geographic areas in Korea between 2005 and 2014, 634 with non-curative ER beyond the expanded criteria were retrospectively enrolled. According to the treatment after ER, patients were divided into additional surgery (n = 270) and follow-up (n = 364) groups. The median follow-up duration was 59 months for recurrence and 84 months for mortality.

Results: LN metastasis was found in 6.7% (18/270) of patients at surgery. Ulcer [odds ratio (OR) 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-12.13; p = 0.022] and submucosal invasion (OR 10.35; 95% CI 1.35-79.48; p = 0.025) were independent risk factors. In the follow-up group, seven patients (1.9%) developed LN or distant recurrence. Ulcer [hazard ratio (HR) 7.60; 95% CI 1.39-35.74; p = 0.018], LVI (HR 6.80; 95% CI 1.07-42.99; p = 0.042), and positive vertical margin (HR 6.71; 95% CI 1.28-35.19; p = 0.024) were independent risk factors. In the overall cohort, LN metastasis rates were 9.6% in patients with two or more risk factors and 1.2% in those with no or one risk factor.

Conclusions: LVI, ulcer, submucosal invasion, and positive vertical margin are independently associated with LN or distant metastasis after non-curative ER of undifferentiated-type EGC. Surgical resection is strongly recommended for patients with two or more risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-020-01103-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Dynamics of liver stiffness-based risk prediction model during antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun;33(6):885-893

Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Bundang.

Objective: The liver stiffness-based risk prediction models predict hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. We investigated the influence of antiviral therapy (AVT) on liver stiffness-based risk prediction model in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

Methods: Patients with CHB who initiated AVT were retrospectively recruited from 13 referral Korean institutes. The modified risk estimation for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B (mREACH-B) model was selected for the analysis.

Results: Between 2007 and 2015, 1034 patients with CHB were recruited. The mean age of the study population (639 men and 395 women) was 46.8 years. During AVT, the mREACH-B score significantly decreased from the baseline to 3 years of AVT (mean 9.21 → 7.46, P < 0.05) and was maintained until 5 years of AVT (mean 7.23, P > 0.05). The proportion of high-risk patients (mREACH-B score ≥11) was significantly reduced from the baseline to 2 years of AVT (36.4% → 16.4%, P < 0.001) and was maintained until 5 years of AVT (12.2%, P > 0.05). The mREACH-B scores at baseline and 1 year of AVT independently predicted HCC development (hazard ratio = 1.209-1.224) (all P < 0.05). The cumulative incidence rate of HCC was significantly different at 5 years of AVT among risk groups (high vs. high-intermediate vs. low-intermediate vs. low) from baseline (4.5% vs. 3.2% vs. 1.5% vs. 0.8%) and 1 year (11.8% vs. 4.6% vs. 1.8% vs. 0.6%) (all P < 0.05, log-rank tests).

Conclusions: The mREACH-B score was dynamically changed during AVT. Thus, repeated assessment of the mREACH-B score is required to predict the changing risk of HCC development in patients with CHB undergoing AVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001794DOI Listing
June 2021

Entecavir+tenofovir vs. lamivudine/telbivudine+adefovir in chronic hepatitis B patients with prior suboptimal response.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2020 07 28;26(3):352-363. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background/aims: Suboptimal responses to lamivudine or telbivudine plus adefovir (LAM/LdT+ADV) rescue therapy are common in patients with LAM-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. We compared patients switched to entecavir plus tenofovir (ETV+TDF) to those maintained on LAM/LdT+ADV.

Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial examined 91 patients whose serum HBV DNA levels were greater than 60 IU/mL after at least 24 weeks of treatment with LAM/LdT+ADV for LAM-resistant HBV. Patients were randomized to receive a new treatment (ETV+TDF, n=45) or maintained on the same treatment (LAM/LdT+ADV, n=46) for 48 weeks. Patients with baseline ADV resistance were excluded.

Results: Compared to LAM/LdT+ADV group, ETV+TDF group had more patients with a virologic response (42/45 [93.33%] vs. 3/46 [6.52%], P<0.001) and had a greater mean reduction in serum HBV DNA level from baseline (-4.16 vs. -0.37 log10 IU/mL, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that high baseline HBV DNA level (P=0.005) and LAM/LdT+ADV maintenance therapy (P=0.001) were negatively associated with virologic response. At week 48, additional ADV- or ETV-associated mutations were cleared in ETV+TDF group, but such mutations were present in 4.3% of patients in LAM/LdT+ADV group (P=0.106). The two groups had similar rates of adverse events.

Conclusion: ETV+TDF combination treatment led to a significantly higher rate of virologic response compared to LAM/LdT+ADV combination treatment in patients with LAM-resistant HBV who had suboptimal responses to LAM/LdT+ADV regardless of HBV genotypic resistance profile (NCT01597934).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2019.0044nDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364362PMC
July 2020

Clinical application of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous liver biopsy and its safety over 18 years.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2020 07 25;26(3):318-327. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Korea.

Background/aims: Liver biopsy (LB) remains the gold standard for the evaluation of liver disease. However, over the past two decades, many noninvasive tests have been developed and utilized in clinical practice as alternatives to LB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical use and safety of LB in the era of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis.

Methods: This retrospective study included 1,944 consecutive cases of LB performed between 2001 and 2018 in a tertiary hospital. All of the LBs were conducted under ultrasonography guidance with 18-gauge cutting needles.

Results: LBs were performed an average of approximately 108 times per year during the study period. Chronic hepatitis B (25.3%) and suspected malignancy (20.5%) were the two most common indications for LB. The use of LB for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease increased from 8.1% to 17.2% in the past 5 years compared to the last 10 years, while that for viral hepatitis decreased from 40.3% to 18.9%. Discordance rate between the suspected diagnosis and the final diagnosis was 2.6% (51 cases). The overall rate of major adverse events was 0.05% (one case), which involved delayed bleeding at the biopsy site. Liver cirrhosis was observed in 563 cases (28.9%), and the presence of cirrhosis did not affect the frequency of complications (P=0.289).

Conclusion: LB is widely used in clinical practice as an irreplaceable diagnostic tool, even in the era of noninvasiveness. Ultrasonography-guided LB can be performed safely in patients with liver cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2019.0019nDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364354PMC
July 2020

Narrowband imaging with near-focus magnification for discriminating the gastric tumor margin before endoscopic resection: A prospective randomized multicenter trial.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Nov 16;35(11):1930-1937. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Digestive Disease Center, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Aim: This study investigated the usefulness of near-focus narrowband imaging (NF-NBI) for determining gastric tumor margins compared with indigo carmine chromoendoscopy (ICC) before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).

Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at seven teaching hospitals in Korea. Patients with gastric adenoma or differentiated adenocarcinoma undergoing ESD were enrolled and randomly assigned to the NF-NBI or ICC group. A marking dot was placed on the most proximal margin of the tumor before ESD. The primary endpoint was delineation accuracy, which was defined as presence of marking dots within 1 mm of the tumor margin under microscopic observation.

Results: A total of 200 patients in the NF-NBI group and 195 patients in the ICC group were included. The delineation accuracy rate was 84.5% in the NF-NBI group and 81.0% in the ICC group (P = 0.44). However, the distance from the marking dot to the margin of the tumor was significantly shorter in the NF-NBI group than in the ICC group (0.8 ± 0.8 vs 1.2 ± 1.3 mm, P < 0.01). Even after adjustment of other clinicopathological factors that are associated with difficulty of tumor delineation, NF-NBI did not show significant association with accurate delineation (odds ratio of 0.86, P = 0.60).

Conclusions: This prospective multicenter study showed that NF-NBI is not superior to ICC in terms of accurately delineating gastric tumors (NCT02661945).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15109DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) Supplementation on the Progression of Advanced Liver Disease: A Korean Nationwide, Multicenter, Prospective, Observational, Cohort Study.

Nutrients 2020 May 15;12(5). Epub 2020 May 15.

Medical Research Collabration Center in KNUH and School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea.

Background And Aims: Clinical evidence for the benefits of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) is lacking in advanced liver disease. We evaluated the potential benefits of long-term oral BCAA supplementation in patients with advanced liver disease.

Methods: Liver cirrhosis patients with Child-Pugh (CP) scores from 8 to 10 were prospectively recruited from 13 medical centers. Patients supplemented with 12.45 g of daily BCAA granules over 6 months, and patients consuming a regular diet were assigned to the BCAA and control groups, respectively. The effects of BCAA supplementation were evaluated using the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, CP score, serum albumin, serum bilirubin, incidence of cirrhosis-related events, and event-free survival for 24 months.

Results: A total of 124 patients was analyzed: 63 in the BCAA group and 61 in the control group. The MELD score ( = 0.009) and CP score ( = 0.011) significantly improved in the BCAA group compared to the control group over time. However, the levels of serum albumin and bilirubin in the BCAA group did not improve during the study period. The cumulative event-free survival was significantly improved in the BCAA group compared to the control group (HR = 0.389, 95% CI = 0.221-0.684, < 0.001).

Conclusion: Long-term supplementation with oral BCAAs can potentially improve liver function and reduce major complications of cirrhosis in patients with advanced liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284598PMC
May 2020