Publications by authors named "Jae Youl Cho"

412 Publications

Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of , an Edible Freshwater Green Algae, and Its Various Solvent Fractions in LPS-Induced Macrophages and Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema via the AP-1 Pathway.

Molecules 2021 Dec 29;27(1). Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

possesses several biological activities. However, reports on the anti-inflammatory activities and molecular mechanisms of its different solvent fractions remain limited. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extract (Pj-EE) and four solvent fractions of Pj-EE made with hexane (Pj-EE-HF), chloroform (Pj-EE-CF), butanol (Pj-EE-BF), or water (Pj-EE-WF) in both in vitro (LPS-induced macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells) and in vivo (carrageenan-induced acute paw edema mouse models) experiments. The most active solvent fraction was selected for further analysis. Various in vitro and in vivo assessments, including nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, luciferase assays, real-time polymerase chain reactions, and immunoblotting analyses were performed to evaluate the underlying mechanisms. In addition, the phytochemical constituents were characterized by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In in vitro studies, the highest inhibition of NO production was observed in Pj-EE-CF. Further examination revealed that Pj-EE-CF decreased the expression of inflammation-related cytokines in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells and suppressed subsequent AP-1-luciferase activity by inhibition of phosphorylation events in the AP-1 signaling pathway. Pj-EE-CF treatment also demonstrated the strongest reduction in thickness and volume of carrageenan-induced paw edema, while Pj-EE-BF showed the lowest activity. Furthermore, Pj-EE-CF also reduced gene expression and cytokines production in tissue lysates of carrageenan-induced paw edema. These findings support and validate the evidence that Pj-EE, and especially Pj-EE-CF, could be a good natural source for an anti-inflammatory agent that targets the AP1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8746635PMC
December 2021

In Vitro Photoprotective, Anti-Inflammatory, Moisturizing, and Antimelanogenic Effects of a Methanolic Extract of Cronquist.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Dec 28;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

UVB exposure causes DNA mutation and ROS generation, which lead to skin photoaging, skin wrinkling, skin sagging, and uneven skin pigmentation. ROS activate the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways leading to production of inflammatory molecules such as COX-2, collagen-degrading proteins such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and moisture-deficiency-related proteins such as hyaluronidases (HYALs). UVB exposure also induces irregular skin pigmentation though melanin overproduction, related to CREB transcription factor activity and transcription of melanogenesis genes. Here, we demonstrate that methanol extract (Cl-ME) has antioxidant activity; it dose-dependently decreased the expression of COX-2, MMP-1, MMP-9, HYAL-1, and HYAL-4 by downregulating the NF-κB (IKKα/β, IκBα) and MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38) pathways and increased the expression of , which encodes a protein important for maintaining skin elasticity. Cl-ME also showed promising antimelanogenic activity by decreasing the expression of CREB, a transcription factor, which in turn inhibited the expression of genes encoding tyrosinase, MITF, TYRP1, and TYRP2. In summary, a methanol extract of exhibited antiphotoaging and antimelanogenic activity and could be useful in the cosmeceutical industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11010094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8747116PMC
December 2021

Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Moisturizing, and Antimelanogenesis Effects of Quercetin 3-O-β-D-Glucuronide in Human Keratinocytes and Melanoma Cells via Activation of NF-κB and AP-1 Pathways.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 31;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronide (Q-3-G), the glucuronide conjugate of quercetin, has been reported as having anti-inflammatory properties in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, as well as anticancer and antioxidant properties. Unlike quercetin, which has been extensively described to possess a wide range of pharmacological activities including skin protective effects, the pharmacological benefits and mechanisms Q-3-G in the skin remained to be elucidated. This study focused on characterizing the skin protective properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, of Q-3-G against UVB-induced or HO-induced oxidative stress, the hydration effects, and antimelanogenesis activities using human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and melanoma (B16F10) cells. Q-3-G down-regulated the expression of the pro-inflammatory gene and cytokine such as () and in HO or UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. We also showed that Q-3-G exhibits an antioxidant effect using free radical scavenging assays, flow cytometry, and an increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor 2 (Nrf2). Q-3-G reduced melanin production in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced B16F10 cells. The hydration effects and mechanisms of Q-3-G were examined by evaluating the moisturizing factor-related genes, such as , , and . In addition, Q-3-G increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 4 (MKK4), and TAK1, involved in the MAPKs/AP-1 pathway, and the phosphorylation of IκBα, IκB kinase (IKK)-α, Akt, and Src, involved in the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, we have demonstrated that Q-3-G exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, moisturizing, and antimelanogenesis properties in human keratinocytes and melanoma cells through NF-κB and AP-1 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8745180PMC
December 2021

Syk-MyD88 Axis Is a Critical Determinant of Inflammatory-Response in Activated Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:767366. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea.

Background: Inflammation, a vital immune response to infection and injury, is mediated by macrophage activation. While spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) are reportedly involved in inflammatory responses in macrophages, their roles and underlying mechanisms are largely unknown.

Methods: Here, the role of the MyD88-Syk axis and the mechanism by which Syk and MyD88 cooperate during macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses are explored using knockout conditions of these proteins and mutation strategy as well as flowcytometric and immunoblotting analyses.

Results: Syk rapidly activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway is abolished in Syk RAW264.7 cells. MyD88 activates Syk and Syk-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells but Syk-induced inflammatory responses are significantly inhibited in MyD88 RAW264.7 cells. MyD88 interacts with Syk through the tyrosine 58 residue (Y58) in the hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) of MyD88, leading to Syk activation and Syk-induced activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Src activates MyD88 by phosphorylation at Y58 the Src kinase domain. In addition, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) activation and Rac1-induced formation of filamentous actin (F actin) activate Src in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the MyD88-Syk axis is a critical player in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses, and its function is promoted by an upstream Src kinase activated by Rac1-generated filamentous actin (F-actin).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.767366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8733199PMC
December 2021

Silver Nanoparticles as Potential Antiviral Agents.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Nov 29;13(12). Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Since the early 1990s, nanotechnology has led to new horizons in nanomedicine, which encompasses all spheres of science including chemistry, material science, biology, and biotechnology. Emerging viral infections are creating severe hazards to public health worldwide, recently, COVID-19 has caused mass human casualties with significant economic impacts. Interestingly, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibited the potential to destroy viruses, bacteria, and fungi using various methods. However, developing safe and effective antiviral drugs is challenging, as viruses use host cells for replication. Designing drugs that do not harm host cells while targeting viruses is complicated. In recent years, the impact of AgNPs on viruses has been evaluated. Here, we discuss the potential role of silver nanoparticles as antiviral agents. In this review, we focus on the properties of AgNPs such as their characterization methods, antiviral activity, mechanisms, applications, and toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13122034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8705988PMC
November 2021

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cogn. Methanol Extract by Inhibiting Src Activity in the NF-κB Pathway.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Oct 29;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

There is a growing need to develop anti-inflammatory drugs to regulate inflammatory responses. An extract of Cogn. had the best inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in screening process undertaken in our laboratory. However, the anti-inflammatory effect Cogn. methanol extract (Hp-ME) has not been studied. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of Hp-ME was assessed by using an NO assay, RT-PCR, luciferase reporter gene activity assay, western blotting assay, HCl/EtOH-induced acute gastritis model, and LPS-induced acute lung injury model. The phytochemical components of Hp-ME were determined through LC-MS/MS analysis. When RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells were treated with Hp-ME, NO production was decreased dose-dependently without cytotoxicity and the mRNA levels of iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α were decreased. In a luciferase assay, the activity of transcription factors, NF-κB in TRIF or MyD88-overexpressing HEK293T cells was extremely reduced by Hp-ME. The western blotting analysis indicated that Hp-ME has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Src. Hp-ME showed anti-inflammatory effects on in vivo models of HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis and LPS-induced acute lung injury. LC-MS/MS revealed that Hp-ME contains several anti-inflammatory flavonoids. The final findings of this study imply that Hp-ME could be used as an anti-inflammatory drug in several inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10112335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8619548PMC
October 2021

Olfactory Receptor OR7A17 Expression Correlates with All- Retinoic Acid (ATRA)-Induced Suppression of Proliferation in Human Keratinocyte Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 14;22(22). Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Molecular Dermatology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon City 16419, Gyunggi Do, Korea.

Olfactory receptors (ORs), which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor family, have been widely studied as ectopically expressed receptors in various human tissues, including the skin. However, the physiological functions of only a few OR types have been elucidated in skin cells. All- retinoic acid (ATRA) is a well-known medication for various skin diseases. However, many studies have shown that ATRA can have adverse effects, resulting from the suppression of cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the involvement of OR7A17 in the ATRA-induced suppression of human keratinocyte (HaCaT) proliferation. We demonstrated that OR7A17 is expressed in HaCaT keratinocytes, and its expression was downregulated by ATRA. The ATRA-induced downregulation of OR7A17 was attenuated via RAR α or RAR γ antagonist treatment, indicating that the effects of ATRA on OR7A17 expression were mediated through nuclear retinoic acid receptor signaling. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of OR7A17 induced the proliferation of HaCaT cells while counteracting the antiproliferative effect of ATRA. Mechanistically, OR7A17 overexpression reversed the ATRA-induced attenuation of Ca entry. Our findings indicated that ATRA suppresses cell proliferation through the downregulation of OR7A17 via RAR α- and γ-mediated retinoid signaling. Taken together, OR7A17 is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating the anti-proliferative effects of ATRA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8623719PMC
November 2021

Aquafaba from Korean Soybean II: Physicochemical Properties and Composition Characterized by NMR Analysis.

Foods 2021 Oct 26;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada.

Aquafaba (AQ) emulsification properties are determined by genetics and seed processing conditions. The physicochemical properties and hydration rates of chickpea (CDC Leader) as a control with proven emulsifying properties were recently reported. Here, we identify correlations between soybean (Backtae, Seoritae, and Jwinunikong) physical, chemical, and hydration properties as well as AQ yield from seed and functional (emulsion and foaming) properties. In addition, a total of 20 compounds were identified by NMR including alcohols (isopropanol, ethanol, methanol), organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, and malic acid), sugars (glucose, galactose, arabinose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose), essential nutrients (choline, phosphocholine), amino acids (alanine, glutamine), and polyphenols (resveratrol, glycitin). The process used in this study utilizes a soaking step to hydrate the seed of the selected Korean soybean cultivars. The product, AQ, is an oil emulsifier and foaming agent, which is suitable for use as an egg substitute with improved emulsion/foam formation properties when compared with a chickpea-based AQ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8625652PMC
October 2021

Turcz Methanol Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing the TLR4/NF-κB/IRF3 Signaling Pathways.

Molecules 2021 Nov 3;26(21). Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Turcz, which belongs to the Leguminosae family, is a small shrub found in Northern and Eastern China that is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties and is used to treat fever, asthma, and cough. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory effects are unknown. Therefore, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 macrophages to investigate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the anti-inflammatory activities of a methanol extract of (Cr-ME). We showed that Cr-ME reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA levels of iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 in a concentration-dependent manner. We also found that Cr-ME blocked MyD88- and TBK1-induced NF-κB and IRF3 promoter activity, suggesting that it affects multiple targets. Moreover, Cr-ME reduced the phosphorylation levels of IκBα, IKKα/β and IRF3 in a time-dependent manner and regulated the upstream NF-κB proteins Syk and Src, and the IRF3 protein TBK1. Upon overexpression of Src and TBK1, Cr-ME stimulation attenuated the phosphorylation of the NF-κB subunits p50 and p65 and IRF3 signaling. Together, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cr-ME occurs by inhibiting the NF-κB and IRF3 signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26216660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8586996PMC
November 2021

Korean Red Ginseng exerts anti-inflammatory and autophagy-promoting activities in aged mice.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Nov 6;45(6):717-725. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a traditional herb that has several beneficial properties including anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and autophagy regulatory effects. However, the mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. In this report, the underlying mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and autophagy-promoting effects were investigated in aged mice treated with KRG-water extract (WE) over a long period.

Methods: The mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and autophagy-promoting activities of KRG-WE were evaluated in kidney, lung, liver, stomach, and colon of aged mice using semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and western blot analysis.

Results: KRG-WE significantly suppressed the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 MCP-1), and IL-6 in kidney, lung, liver, stomach, and colon of the aged mice. Furthermore, KRG-WE downregulated the expression of transcription factors and their protein levels associated with inflammation in lung and kidney of aged mice. KRG-WE also increased the expression of autophagy-related genes and their protein levels in colon, liver, and stomach.

Conclusion: The results suggest that KRG can suppress inflammatory responses and recover autophagy activity in aged mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2021.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8569327PMC
November 2021

Anti-Gastritis and Anti-Lung Injury Effects of Pine Tree Ethanol Extract Targeting Both NF-κB and AP-1 Pathways.

Molecules 2021 Oct 16;26(20). Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

An ethanol extract (Pd-EE) of Siebold and Zucc was derived from the branches of pine trees. According to the Donguibogam, pine resin has the effects of lowering the fever, reducing pain, and killing worms. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Pd-EE has anti-inflammatory effects. During in vitro trials, NO production, as well as changes in the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes and the phosphorylation levels of related proteins, were confirmed in RAW264.7 cells activated with lipopolysaccharide depending on the presence or absence of Pd-EE treatment. The activities of transcription factors were checked in HEK293T cells transfected with adapter molecules in the inflammatory pathway. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of Pd-EE was also estimated in vivo with acute gastritis and acute lung injury models. LC-MS analysis was conducted to identify the components of Pd-EE. This extract reduced the production of NO and the mRNA expression levels of iNOS, COX-2, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, protein expression levels of p50 and p65 and phosphorylation levels of FRA1 were decreased. In the luciferase assay, the activities of NF-κB and AP-1 were lowered. In acute gastritis and acute lung injury models, Pd-EE suppressed inflammation, resulting in alleviated damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8538959PMC
October 2021

Aquafaba from Korean Soybean I: A Functional Vegan Food Additive.

Foods 2021 Oct 13;10(10). Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada.

The substitution of animal-based foods (meat, eggs, and milk) with plant-based products can increase the global food supply. Recently, pulse cooking water ( aquafaba) was described as a cost-effective alternative to the egg in gluten-free, vegan cooking and baking applications. Aquafaba (AQ) forms stable edible foams and emulsions with functional properties that are like those produced by whole egg and egg white. However, the functional ingredients of AQ are usually discarded during food preparation. In this study, Korean-grown soy ( Backtae, Seoritae, and Jwinunikong) and chickpea were used to produce AQ. Two approaches were compared. In the first, seed was cooked at an elevated pressure without presoaking. In the second, seed was soaked, then, the soaking water was discarded, and soaked seed was cooked at an elevated pressure. Both approaches produced a useful emulsifier, but the latter, with presoaking, produced a superior product. This approach could lead to a process that involves a small number of efficient steps to recover an effective oil emulsifier, produces no waste, and is cost-effective. The AQ product from Backtae (yellow soybean) produced emulsions with better properties (90%) than AQ produced from other cultivars and produced more stable food oil emulsions. This study will potentially lead to gluten-free, vegan products for vegetarians and consumers with animal protein allergies. This is the first report of the efficient production of AQ, an egg white substitute derived from cooked soybean of known cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10102433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535961PMC
October 2021

Revalorization of the Cooking Water (Aquafaba) from Soybean Varieties Generated as a By-Product of Food Manufacturing in Korea.

Foods 2021 Sep 27;10(10). Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Korea.

Concerns regarding sustainability have prompted the search of value in the by-products of food manufacturing. Such is the case of the cooking water (CW) of chickpeas, which has shown its potential as a vegan egg white replacement. This study aimed to characterize and compare the CW from three novel legumes (black soybeans, BSB; yellow soybeans, YSB; and small black beans, SBB) obtained from the processing of Korean soybean foods, and the widely used CW from chickpeas (CH), with regard to total polyphenol, total carbohydrate, and protein contents, and further compare their foaming and emulsifying abilities and stabilities. Compositional analysis revealed that all the studied legumes possessed higher values than CH for all parameters. Furthermore, the CW from these legumes exhibited enhanced functional properties, particularly foaming capacity and stability. Taken together, our results suggest that the CW from BSB, YSB, and SBB, sourced from the manufacturing of legume food products, has the potential of being revalorized as a plant-based functional ingredient for vegan product development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10102287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8534809PMC
September 2021

-Fermented Wheat Peptone Enhances the Potential of Proliferation and Hydration of Human Keratinocytes through Activation of p44/42 MAPK.

Molecules 2021 Oct 8;26(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Molecular Dermatology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon City 16419, Gyunggi Do, Korea.

Identifying materials contributing to skin hydration, essential for normal skin homeostasis, has recently gained increased research interest. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits and mechanisms of action of -fermented wheat peptone (AFWP) on the proliferation and hydration of human skin keratinocytes, through in vitro experiments using HaCaT cell lines. The findings revealed that compared to unfermented wheat peptone, AFWP exhibited an improved amino acid composition, significantly ( < 0.05) higher DPPH scavenging capability and cell proliferation activity, and reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, we separated AFWP into eleven fractions, each ≤2 kDa; of these, fraction 4 (AFW4) demonstrated the highest efficacy in the cell proliferation assay and was found to be the key component responsible for the cell proliferation potential and antioxidant properties of AFWP. Additionally, AFW4 increased the expression of genes encoding natural moisturizing factors, including filaggrin, transglutaminase-1, and hyaluronic acid synthase 1-3. Furthermore, AFW4 activated p44/42 MAPK, but not JNK and p38 MAPK, whereas PD98059, a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor, attenuated the beneficial effects of AFW4 on the skin, suggesting that the effects of AFW4 are mediated via p44/42 MAPK activation. Finally, in clinical studies, AFW4 treatment resulted in increased skin hydration and reduced trans-epidermal water loss compared with a placebo group. Collectively, these data provide evidence that AFW4 could be used as a potential therapeutic agent to improve skin barrier damage induced by external stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512833PMC
October 2021

Planch. Ameliorates Inflammatory Responses in LPS-induced Macrophages, HCl/EtOH-induced Gastritis, and LPS-induced Lung Injury via Attenuation of Src and TAK1.

Molecules 2021 Oct 8;26(19). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Several species have been used and reported to possess medicinal benefits. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of have not been described. In this study, we examined the potential anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract (Cs-EE) in vitro and in vivo, and investigated its molecular mechanism as well as its flavonoid content. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages as well as LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and HCl/EtOH-induced acute gastritis mouse models were utilized. Luciferase assays, immunoblotting analyses, overexpression strategies, and cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) were performed to identify the molecular mechanisms and targets of Cs-EE. Cs-EE concentration-dependently reduced the secretion of NO and PGE, inhibited the expression of inflammation-related cytokines in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and decreased NF-κB- and AP-1-luciferase activity. Subsequently, we determined that Cs-EE decreased the phosphorylation events of NF-κB and AP-1 pathways. Cs-EE treatment also significantly ameliorated the inflammatory symptoms of HCl/EtOH-induced acute gastritis and LPS-induced ALI mouse models. Overexpression of HA-Src and HA-TAK1 along with CETSA experiments validated that inhibited inflammatory responses are the outcome of attenuation of Src and TAK1 activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that Cs-EE could be utilized as an anti-inflammatory remedy especially targeting against gastritis and acute lung injury by attenuating the activities of Src and TAK1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26196073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512965PMC
October 2021

Cocculus hirsutus ameliorates gastric and lung injuries by suppressing Src/Syk.

Phytomedicine 2021 Dec 27;93:153778. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Cocculus hirsutus (L.) W. Thedo., a traditionally well-known plant, has confirmed antitumor properties as well as acute and chronic diuretic effects. However, little is known about its inflammatory activities and the potential effect on inflammatory disease treatment.

Purpose: Our aim in this study was to explore additional beneficial properties of C. hirsutus ethanol extract (Ch-EE) such as anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo as well as its underlying mechanisms and to provide a theoretical basis for its role as a candidate natural drug in clinical gastritis and lung disease therapy.

Study Design: RAW264.7 cells, HEK293T cells, peritoneal macrophages, and mouse models of acute gastritis and acute lung injury were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity of Ch-EE.

Methods: Decreases in LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and cytokine expression by RAW264.7 cells after Ch-EE treatment were evaluated by Griess assays and PCR, respectively. Transcription factor activity was assessed through luciferase reporter gene assay, and protein expression was determined by Western blotting analysis. Overexpression assays and cellular thermal shift assays were executed in HEK293T cells. Our two in vivo models were an HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis model and an LPS-induced lung injury model. Changes in stomach lesions, lung edema, and lung histology were examined upon treatment with Ch-EE. Components of Ch-EE were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results: LPS-induced nitric oxide production and Pam3CSK4- and L-NAME-induced NO production were inhibited by Ch-EE treatment of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, LPS-induced increases in transcript levels of iNOS, COX2, CCL12, and IL-1β were reduced by Ch-EE treatment. Ch-EE decreased both MyD88- and TRIF-induced NF-κB promotor activity. Proteins upstream of NF-κB, namely p-p50, p-p65, p-IκBα, p-AKT1, p-Src, and p-Syk, were all downregulated by Ch-EE. Moreover, Src and Syk were targets of Ch-EE. Ch-EE treatment reduced the size of inflammatory stomach lesions induced by HCl/EtOH, lung edema, and accumulation of activated neutrophils caused by LPS.

Conclusions: These results strongly suggest that Cocculus hirsutus can be developed as a promising anti-inflammatory remedy with Src- and Syk-inhibitory functions targeting diseases related to gastritis and lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153778DOI Listing
December 2021

Nontargeted Metabolomics as a Screening Tool for Estimating Bioactive Metabolites in the Extracts of 50 Indigenous Korean Plants.

Metabolites 2021 Aug 30;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechonology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Many indigenous Korean plants have been used in medicinal preparations and health-promoting foods. These plant species contain beneficial metabolites with various bioactivities, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Herein, we suggest a new screening strategy using metabolomics to explore the bioactive compounds in 50 Korean plants. Secondary metabolites were analyzed using UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS. The plant extracts were subjected to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays. We identified metabolites that contributed to bioactivities according to the results of bioassays and multivariate analyses. Using Pearson's correlation, phenolics (e.g., casuarictin, 3-O-methylellagic acid) showed positive correlation with antioxidant activity, while biflavonoids (e.g., amentoflavone, rosbustaflavone) were correlated with nitric oxide (NO) inhibition activity. To compensate for the limitation of this new strategy, we further validated these by investigating three parts (branches, fruits, leaves) of which showed high activities on both bioassays. Unlike the above observation, we identified significantly different metabolites from different parts, which was not the results of bioassays. In these validation steps, interestingly, biflavonoids (e.g., robustaflavone, sciadopitysin) contributed to both activities in . The findings of this work suggest that new strategy could be more beneficial in the identification of bioactive plant species as well as that of their corresponding bioactive compounds that impart the bioactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11090585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468114PMC
August 2021

Protective Effect of in UVB-Induced Photoaging Process.

Molecules 2021 Sep 6;26(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, and Biomedical Institute for Convergence at SKKU (BICS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Maintaining skin homeostasis is one of the most important factors for skin health. UVB-induced skin photoaging is a difficult problem that has negative impacts on skin homeostasis. So far, a number of compounds have been discovered that improve human skin barrier function and hydration, and are thought to be effective ways to protect skin homeostasis. var. (Maxim.) Hand.-Mazz. Ethanol Extract (Pg-EE) is a compound that has noteworthy anti-inflammatory properties. However, its skin-protective effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated the capacity of Pg-EE to strengthen the skin barrier and improve skin hydration. Pg-EE can enhance the expression of , , , and in human keratinocytes. Moreover, Pg-EE down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulated the production of , , and suppressed by UVB through inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways. Given the above, since Pg-EE can improve skin barrier, hydration and reduce the UVB-induced inflammation on skin, it could therefore be a valuable natural ingredient for cosmetics or pharmaceuticals to treat skin disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434042PMC
September 2021

Kahweol Exerts Skin Moisturizing Activities by Upregulating STAT1 Activity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 18;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea.

Kahweol is a diterpene present in coffee. Until now, several studies have shown that kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic functions. Due to the limited research available about skin protection, this study aims to discern the potential abilities of kahweol and the possible regulation targets. First, the cytotoxicity of kahweol was checked by 3-4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, while 2,20-azino-bis (3ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt and 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl were used to examine the radical scavenging ability. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to explore the proper time points and doses affecting skin hydration and barrier-related genes. Luciferase assay and Western blotting were used to explore the possible transcription factors. Finally, fludarabine (a STAT1 inhibitor) was chosen to discern the relationship between skin-moisturizing factors and STAT1. We found that HaCaT cells experienced no toxicity from kahweol, and kahweol displayed moderate radical scavenging ability. Moreover, kahweol increased the outcome of , , , and from six hours in a dose-dependent manner as well as the activation of STAT1 from six hours. Additionally, kahweol recovered the suppression of , STAT1-mediated luciferase activity, and HA secretion, which was all downregulated by fludarabine. In this study, we demonstrated that kahweol promotes skin-moisturizing activities by upregulating STAT1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396203PMC
August 2021

Protective Effects of Maclurin against Benzo[a]pyrene via Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Targeting.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jul 26;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Molecular Dermatology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Biotechnology, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon City 16419, Gyunggi do, Korea.

Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formed during the incomplete combustion of organic matter, has harmful effects. Therefore, much research is ongoing to develop agents that can mitigate the effects of B[a]P. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of maclurin, one component of the branches of L., on the B[a]P-induced effects in HaCaT cells, a human keratinocyte cell line. Maclurin treatment inhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling as evidenced by reduced xenobiotic response element (XRE) reporter activity, decreased expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), and reduced nuclear translocation of AHR. The B[a]P-induced dissociation of AHR from AHR-interacting protein (AIP) was suppressed by maclurin. Maclurin also inhibited the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by B[a]P. In addition, the antioxidant property of maclurin itself was demonstrated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, maclurin activated antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling through enhancement of ARE luciferase reporter activity and the expression of ARE-dependent genes including nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Nrf2 activation and its nuclear translocation were promoted by maclurin through p38 MAPK activation. These data indicate that maclurin had antagonistic activity against B[a]P effects through activation of Nrf2-mediated signaling and inhibition of AHR signaling and, suggesting its potential in protecting from harmful B[a]P-containing pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388905PMC
July 2021

Antimelanogenesis Effects of Theasinensin A.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 12;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Biocosmetics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Theasinensin A (TSA) is a major group of catechin dimers mainly found in oolong tea and black tea. This compound is also manufactured with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) as a substrate and is refined after the enzyme reaction. In previous studies, TSA has been reported to be effective against inflammation. However, the effect of these substances on skin melanin formation remains unknown. In this study, we unraveled the role of TSA in melanogenesis using mouse melanoma B16F10 cells and normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEMs) through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting analysis, luciferase reporter assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. TSA inhibited melanin formation and secretion in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced B16F10 cells and NHEMs. TSA down-regulated the mRNA expression of (), (), and , which are all related to melanin formation in these cells. TSA was able to suppress the activities of certain proteins in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) signaling pathway associated with melanin synthesis in B16F10 cells: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), protein kinase A (PKA), tyrosinase, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). We also confirmed α-MSH-mediated CREB activities through a luciferase reporter assay, and that the quantities of cAMP were reduced by TSA in the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results. Based on these findings, TSA should be considered an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305159PMC
July 2021

(Chamomile) Ameliorates Muscle Atrophy in Mice by Targeting Protein Catalytic Pathways, Myogenesis, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

Am J Chin Med 2021 10;49(6):1493-1514. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Biocosmetics, Institute for Convergence at SKKU (BICS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea.

Muscle atrophy, or loss of skeletal muscle, is caused by aging, malnutrition, immobility through injury, or diseases such as cancer. Chamomile ( L.) contains various active components, including flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, polyacetylenes, and coumarins, and is used in various herbal medicines in the European Pharmacopoeia. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extract of chamomile [Formula: see text](MC) on muscle wasting and its mechanism of action. Mice with dexamethasone (DEX)-induced muscle atrophy were orally administered MC (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Micro-computed tomography analysis showed that MC (200 and 300 mg/kg) significantly recovered DEX-induced loss of muscle volume, density, and weight and MC-treated DEX-induced mice also showed increased moving distance and grip strength. MC suppressed the mRNA level of muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) while increasing the expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), MyoD, and Myogenin-1. We found 25 peaks in MC samples through HPLC analysis and identified 6 peaks by comparison with a profile of standard compounds: chlorogenic acid (CGA), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (L7G), patulitrin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside (A7G), herniarin, and (E)-tonghaosu. Of these components, the gene expression of MyoD was significantly augmented by patulitrin, herniarin, CGA, and L7G in C2C12 cells, while Myogenin-1 gene expression was increased by A7G, patulitrin, herniarin, CGA, and L7G. Moreover, TFAM gene expression and phosphorylation of AKT were increased by all six ingredients. Based on our results, we suggest MC for use as a supplement or remedy for muscle wasting, including cachexia and sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500701DOI Listing
November 2021

TAK1 in the AP-1 pathway is a critical target of Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill in its anti-inflammatory action.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 7;279:114400. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Biomedical Institute for Convergence at SKKU (BICS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill (Saururaceae), also known as Asian lizard's tail, is a plant commonly found in East Asia. Its leaves have been used in traditional medicine to treat many diseases such as edema, pneumonia, hypertension, leproma, jaundice, gonorrhea, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Aim Of The Study: Based on the efficacies of S. chinensis, the anti-inflammatory effects of this plant and the molecular mechanism were evaluated using the ethanol extract of S. chinensis leaves (Sc-EE).

Materials And Methods: The production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in response to Sc-EE was evaluated using Griess and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions. Furthermore, relevant proteins including c-Jun, c-Fos, p38, JNK, ERK, MEK1/2, MKK3/6, MKK4/7, and TAK1 were detected through immunoblotting.

Results: Sc-EE diminished production of nitric oxide (NO); decreased expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells; and attenuated activator protein 1 (AP-1)-mediated luciferase activities. The extract markedly downregulated the phosphorylation of TAK1, upregulated thermal stability of TAK1, and reduced TAK1/AP-1-mediated luciferase activity in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells and TAK1-overexpressing HEK293T cells.

Conclusions: These results demonstrated that Sc-EE suppresses pro-inflammatory gene expression through blockade of the TAK1/AP-1 pathway in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophages, implying that inhibition of TAK1/AP-1 signaling by S. chinensis is a key event in its anti-inflammatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114400DOI Listing
October 2021

Anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract is mediated by targeting of Src in the NF-κB signalling pathway.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):799-810

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Context: Among the plants in the genus (Lecythidaceae) used as traditional medicines to treat arthralgia, chest pain, and haemorrhoids in Indonesia, L. and (L.) Gaertn. have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in systemic inflammatory models.

Objective: The anti-inflammatory activity of Kurz has not been investigated. We prepared a methanol extract of the leaves and stems of (Ba-ME) and systemically evaluated its anti-inflammatory effects and .

Materials And Methods: RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS or Pam3CSK4 for 24 h were treated with Ba-ME (12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 150 µg/mL), and NO production and mRNA levels of inflammatory genes were evaluated. Luciferase reporter gene assay, western blot analysis, overexpression experiments, and cellular thermal shift assay were conducted to explore the mechanism of Ba-ME. In addition, the anti-gastritis activity of Ba-ME (50 and 100 mg/kg, administered twice per day for two days) was evaluated using an HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis mouse model.

Results: Ba-ME dose-dependently suppressed NO production [IC = 123.33 µg/mL (LPS) and 46.89 µg/mL (Pam3CSK4)] without affecting cell viability. Transcriptional expression of , , , , and and phosphorylation of Src, IκBα, p50/105, and p65 were inhibited by Ba-ME. The extract specifically targeted the Src protein by binding to its SH2 domain. Moreover, Ba-ME significantly ameliorated inflammatory lesions in the HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis model.

Discussion And Conclusions: The anti-inflammatory activity of Ba-ME is mediated by targeting of the Src/NF-κB signalling pathway, and has potential as an anti-inflammatory drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2021.1938613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253214PMC
December 2021

TAK1/AP-1-Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Methanol Extract.

Molecules 2021 May 20;26(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, and Biomedical Institute for Convergence at SKKU (BICS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

methanol extract (Ba-ME) is a folk medicine found in the wetlands of Thailand that acts through an anti-inflammatory mechanism that is not understood fully. Here, we examine how the methanol extract of ( can suppress the activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling pathway and study the activities of Ba-ME in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and an LPS-induced peritonitis mouse model. Non-toxic concentrations of Ba-ME downregulated the mRNA expression of cytokines, such as cyclooxygenase and chemokine ligand 12, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Transfection experiments with the AP-1-Luc construct, HEK293T cells, and luciferase assays were used to assess whether Ba-ME suppressed the AP-1 functional activation. A Western blot assay confirmed that C-Jun N-terminal kinase is a direct pharmacological target of Ba-ME action. The anti-inflammatory effect of Ba-ME, which functions by β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) inhibition, was confirmed by using an overexpression strategy and a cellular thermal shift assay. In vivo experiments in a mouse model of LPS-induced peritonitis showed the anti-inflammatory effect of Ba-ME on LPS-stimulated macrophages and acute inflammatory mouse models. We conclude that Ba-ME is a promising anti-inflammatory drug targeting TAK1 in the AP-1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26103053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160894PMC
May 2021

The regulatory role of Korean ginseng in skin cells.

J Ginseng Res 2021 May 1;45(3):363-370. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, and Biomedical Institute for Convergence at SKKU (BICS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

As the largest organ in our body, the skin acts as a barrier against external stress and damages. There are various cell types of skin, such as keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, and skin stem cells. Korean ginseng, which is one of the biggest distributions of ginseng worldwide, is processed into different products, such as functional food, cosmetics, and medical supplies. This review aims to introduce the functional role of Korean ginseng on different dermal cell types, including the impact of Korean ginseng in anti-photodamaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-melanogenic, and wound healing activities, etc. We propose that this information could form the basis of future research of ginseng-derived components in skin health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2020.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134839PMC
May 2021

Roxb. Ethanol Extract Has Anti-Inflammatory and Hepatoprotective Effects In Vitro and In Vivo by Targeting the IRAK1/AP-1 Pathway.

Molecules 2021 Apr 26;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Roxb. has been used traditionally as a remedy for many diseases, especially inflammation. Therefore, we analyzed and explored the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of a Roxb. ethanol extract (Dt-EE). Dt-EE clearly and dose-dependently inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 cells. Also, Dt-EE suppressed the activation of the MyD88/TRIF-mediated AP-1 pathway and the AP-1 pathway related proteins JNK2, MKK4/7, and TAK1, which occurred as a result of inhibiting the kinase activity of IRAK1 and IRAK4, the most upstream factors of the AP-1 pathway. Finally, Dt-EE displayed hepatoprotective activity in a mouse model of hepatitis induced with LPS/D-galactosamine (D-GalN) through decreasing the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and suppressing the activation of JNK and IRAK1. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that Dt-EE could be a candidate anti-inflammatory herbal medicine with IRAK1/AP-1 inhibitory and hepatoprotective properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123704PMC
April 2021

Enhancement of skin barrier and hydration-related molecules by protopanaxatriol in human keratinocytes.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 11;45(2):354-360. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Korea.

Background: Protopanaxatriol (PPT) is a secondary intestinal metabolite of ginsenoside in ginseng. Although the effects of PPT have been reported in various diseases including cancer, diabetes and inflammatory diseases, the skin protective effects of PPT are poorly understood.

Methods: HaCaT cells were treated with PPT in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA and protein levels which related to skin barrier and hydration were detected compared with retinol. Luciferase assay was performed to explore the relative signaling pathway. Western blot was conducted to confirm these pathways and excavated further signals.

Results: PPT enhanced the expression of filaggrin (FLG), transglutaminase (TGM)-1, claudin, occludin and hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) -1, -2 and -3. The mRNA expression levels of FLG, TGM-1, HAS-1 and HAS-2 were suppressed under NF-κB inhibition. PPT significantly augmented NF-κB-luc activity and upregulated Src/AKT/NF-κB signaling. In addition, PPT also increased phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK, JNK and p38 and upstream MAPK activators (MEK and MKK). Furthermore, transcriptional activity of AP-1 and CREB, which are downstream signaling targets of MAPK, was enhanced by PPT.

Conclusion: PPT improves skin barrier function and hydration through Src/AKT/NF-κB and MAPK signaling. Therefore, PPT may be a valuable component for cosmetics or treating skin disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2020.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020273PMC
March 2021

Pharmacological potential of ginseng and its major component ginsenosides.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 25;45(2):199-210. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Ginseng has been used as a traditional herb in Asian countries for thousands of years. It contains a large number of active ingredients including steroidal saponins, protopanaxadiols, and protopanaxatriols, collectively known as ginsenosides. In the last few decades, the antioxidative and anticancer effects of ginseng, in addition to its effects on improving immunity, energy and sexuality, and combating cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and neurological diseases, have been studied in both basic and clinical research. Ginseng could be a valuable resource for future drug development; however, further higher quality evidence is required. Moreover, ginseng may have drug interactions although the available evidence suggests it is a relatively safe product. This article reviews the bioactive compounds, global distribution, and therapeutic potential of plants in the genus Panax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2020.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020288PMC
March 2021

Suppresses Inflammation by Targeting TAK1-Mediated MAP Kinase Activation.

Molecules 2021 Mar 11;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Integrative Biotechnology, and Biomedical Institute for Convergence at SKKU (BICS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Possessing a variety of medicinal functions, L. is widely cultivated across the world. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of is not yet fully elucidated. In this study, how the methanol extract of the leaves of (Oe-ME) can suppress in vitro inflammatory responses was examined in terms of the identification of the target protein. RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells were used to study macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses and to validate the target protein using PCR, immunoblotting, nuclear fraction, overexpression, and cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) under fixed conditions. Oe-ME treatment inhibited the mRNA expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in activated RAW264.7 cells. Oe-ME diminished the activation of activator protein (AP)-1 and the phosphorylation of its upstream signaling cascades, including extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6), p38, MKK7, and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), in stimulated-RAW264.7 cells. Overexpression and CETSA were carried out to verify that TAK1 is the target of Oe-ME. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of Oe-ME could be attributed to its control of posttranslational modification and transcription of TAK1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26061540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000943PMC
March 2021
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