Publications by authors named "Jae Il Shin"

478 Publications

Prognostic accuracy and clinical utility of psychometric instruments for individuals at clinical high-risk of psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mol Psychiatry 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Accurate prognostication of individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR-P) is an essential initial step for effective primary indicated prevention. We aimed to summarise the prognostic accuracy and clinical utility of CHR-P assessments for primary indicated psychosis prevention. Web of Knowledge databases were searched until 1st January 2022 for longitudinal studies following-up individuals undergoing a psychometric or diagnostic CHR-P assessment, reporting transition to psychotic disorders in both those who meet CHR-P criteria (CHR-P + ) or not (CHR-P-). Prognostic accuracy meta-analysis was conducted following relevant guidelines. Primary outcome was prognostic accuracy, indexed by area-under-the-curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity, estimated by the number of true positives, false positives, false negatives and true negatives at the longest available follow-up time. Clinical utility analyses included: likelihood ratios, Fagan's nomogram, and population-level preventive capacity (Population Attributable Fraction, PAF). A total of 22 studies (n = 4 966, 47.5% female, age range 12-40) were included. There were not enough meta-analysable studies on CHR-P diagnostic criteria (DSM-5 Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome) or non-clinical samples. Prognostic accuracy of CHR-P psychometric instruments in clinical samples (individuals referred to CHR-P services or diagnosed with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome) was excellent: AUC = 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.88) at a mean follow-up time of 34 months. This result was driven by outstanding sensitivity (0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.96) and poor specificity (0.58, 95% CI: 0.50-0.66). Being CHR-P + was associated with a small likelihood ratio LR + (2.17, 95% CI: 1.81-2.60) for developing psychosis. Being CHR-P- was associated with a large LR- (0.11, 95%CI: 0.06-0.21) for developing psychosis. Fagan's nomogram indicated a low positive (0.0017%) and negative (0.0001%) post-test risk in non-clinical general population samples. The PAF of the CHR-P state is 10.9% (95% CI: 4.1-25.5%). These findings consolidate the use of psychometric instruments for CHR-P in clinical samples for primary indicated prevention of psychosis. Future research should improve the ability to rule in psychosis risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01611-wDOI Listing
June 2022

Sex-Differential Associations Between Body Mass Index and the Incidence of Dementia.

J Alzheimers Dis 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Epidemiology, IQVIA, Frankfurt, Germany.

Background: Little is known about the sex differences in the association between body mass index (BMI) and dementia in late life.

Objective: Therefore, this retrospective cohort study aimed to analyze associations between BMI and dementia in older women and men separately in general practices in Germany.

Methods: This study included patients followed in one of 832 general practices in Germany between 2006 and 2019 (index date: first visit date). Study variables included dementia (dependent variable), BMI (independent variable), age, sex, and comorbidities (control variables). Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted Cox regression analyses were conducted to analyze associations between BMI and the 10-year incidence of dementia in women and men, separately.

Results: There were 296,767 patients included in this study (mean [standard deviation] age 70.2 [5.9] years; 54.3% women). The proportion of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity was 0.9%, 25.5%, 41.5%, and 32.1%, respectively. The 10-year incidence of dementia significantly decreased with increasing BMI, from 11.5% in women with underweight to 9.1% in those with obesity (log-rank p <  0.001). Respective figures in men were 12.0% and 8.2% (log-rank p <  0.001). In women, only overweight (versus normal weight) was significantly associated with dementia (HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.88-0.97). In contrast, in men, the only BMI category significantly associated with the incidence of dementia was underweight (HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.11-2.25).

Conclusion: In this study conducted in Germany, overweight was negatively associated with dementia in women, whereas there was a positive underweight-dementia relationship in men. More data are needed to confirm or refute these findings in other settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-220147DOI Listing
June 2022

Psychotic experiences among informal caregivers: findings from 48 low- and middle-income countries.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, ICSIII, CIBERSAM, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Informal caregivers may be at high risk for psychotic experiences (PE) due to caregiving related stress, sleep issues, or other potential mechanisms, but this has not been previously investigated in the general adult population. Thus, we examined the association between caregiving and PE, and its mediators, in a large sample of adults from 48 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Methods: Cross-sectional, community-based data from the World Health Organization (WHO) World Health Survey were analyzed. Informal caregivers referred to those who provided help to a relative or friend (adult or child) in the past year, because this person has a long-term physical or mental illness or disability, or is getting old and weak. PE were assessed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview psychosis screen. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analyses were conducted.

Results: Data on 224,842 individuals were analyzed. The mean (SD) age was 38.3 (16.0) years (range 18-120 years) and 50.7% were females. After adjustment for age, sex, and country, in the overall sample, caregiving was associated with 1.67 (95%CI = 1.56-1.79) times higher odds for PE. Sleep/energy explained the largest proportion of the association between caregiving and PE (13.9%), followed by pain/discomfort (11.5%), perceived stress (7.6%), depression (6.2%), and cognition (3.5%).

Conclusion: Caregivers in LMICs are at higher risk of PE. Future studies are warranted to gain a further understanding of the underlying mechanisms, and to assess whether addressing the identified mediators can lead to lower risk for PE among caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-022-02312-zDOI Listing
May 2022

The association of cooking fuels with depression and anxiety symptoms among adults aged ≥65 years from low- and middle-income countries.

J Affect Disord 2022 08 21;311:494-499. Epub 2022 May 21.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, 08830 Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain.

Background: We aimed to investigate associations of unclean cooking fuels with depression and anxiety symptoms in a large sample of adults aged ≥65 years from six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Methods: Cross-sectional, community-based, nationally representative data from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) were analyzed. Unclean cooking fuel referred to kerosene/paraffin, coal/charcoal, wood, agriculture/crop, animal dung, and shrubs/grass. Depression referred to DSM-IV depression based on past 12-month symptoms or receiving depression treatment in the last 12 months. Anxiety symptoms referred to severe/extreme problems with worry or anxiety in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were conducted.

Results: Data on 14,585 people aged ≥65 years were analyzed [mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.5) years; maximum age 114 years; 55.0% females]. After adjustment for potential confounders, unclean cooking fuel was associated with a significant 2.52 (95%CI = 1.66-3.82) times higher odds for depression with a low level of between-country heterogeneity (I = 0.0%). For anxiety symptoms, unclean fuel use was not significantly associated with anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.13; 95%CI = 0.77-1.68; I = 0.0%).

Limitations: 1. Cross-sectional design. 2. Self-reported measures. 3. No information about outdoor pollution exposure, personal exposure, and smoke composition of different cooking fuels.

Conclusions: Unclean cooking fuel was significantly associated with higher odds for depression, but not anxiety, with little observed variability between settings. Findings from the present study provide further support and call for action in appropriate implementation of the United Nations Sustainable Goal 7, which advocates affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.05.103DOI Listing
August 2022

Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 breakthrough infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Med Virol 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

To provide a comparative meta-analysis and systematic review of the risk and clinical outcomes of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Eighteen studies of COVID-19 infections in fully vaccinated ("breakthrough infections") and unvaccinated individuals were reviewed from Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases. The meta-analysis examined the summary effects and between-study heterogeneity regarding differences in the risk of infection, hospitalization, treatments, and mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. he overall risk of infection was lower for the fully vaccinated compared to that of the unvaccinated (relative risk [RR] 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.21), especially for variants other than Delta (Delta: RR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; other variants: RR 0.06, 95% CI: 0.04-0.08). The risk of asymptomatic infection was not statistically significantly different between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated (RR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.27-1.19). There were neither statistically significant differences in risk of hospitalization (RR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.38-2.93), invasive mechanical ventilation (RR 1.65, 95% CI: 0.90-3.06), or mortality (RR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.79-1.78). Conversely, the risk of supplemental oxygen during hospitalization was significantly higher for the unvaccinated (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08-1.82). Unvaccinated people were more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection than fully vaccinated for all variants. Once infected, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of hospitalization, invasive mechanical ventilation, or mortality. Still, unvaccinated showed an increased need for oxygen supplementation. Further prospective analysis, including patients' risk factors, COVID-19 variants, and the utilized treatment strategies, would be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27871DOI Listing
May 2022

The effect of pharmacological treatment and lifestyle modification in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: An umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

Obes Rev 2022 May 18:e13464. Epub 2022 May 18.

Cambridge Centre for Health, Performance and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a liver disease that affects approximately 25% of the world's population, and various treatments have been applied for NAFLD patients. We compared the effectiveness of each intervention conducted to treat NAFLD by evaluating meta-analyses of pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification including diet and exercise. We searched Pubmed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library and included meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of pharmacological intervention and lifestyle modification on NAFLD. The quality of included meta-analyses was evaluated by AMSTAR-2. If the effect size was expressed as mean difference, it was converted to standardized mean difference based on the random-effects model. A total of 1694 meta-analyses were identified, and 27 meta-analyses were eventually included in the review. Regarding pharmacological interventions, there was a high strength of evidence for the ALT reduction effect of silymarin on inactive controls (SMD = 0.88, p < 0.01, seven trials, 518 participants). Meanwhile, it was confirmed that appropriate diet and exercise were important in reducing liver fat (SMD = 1.51, p < 0.01, 12 trials, 765 participants). This umbrella review assessed the effects of pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modifications in the treatment of NAFLD. The results of this review can be utilized for clinical decisions when treating NAFLD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13464DOI Listing
May 2022

Social media use and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in young adults: a meta-analysis of 14 cross-sectional studies.

BMC Public Health 2022 May 17;22(1):995. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, South Korea.

Background: Public isolated due to the early quarantine regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increasingly used more social media platforms. Contradictory claims regarding the effect of social media use on mental health needs to be resolved. The purpose of the study was to summarise the association between the time spent on social media platform during the COVID-19 quarantine and mental health outcomes (i.e., anxiety and depression).

Methods: Studies were screened from the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Regarding eligibility criteria, studies conducted after the declaration of the pandemic, studies that measured mental health symptoms with validated tools, and studies that presented quantitative results were eligible. The studies after retrieval evaluated the association between time spent on social media platform and mental health outcomes (i.e. anxiety and depression). The pooled estimates of retrieved studies were summarised in odds ratios (ORs). Data analyses included a random-effect model and an assessment of inter-study heterogeneity. Quality assessment was conducted by two independent researchers using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS). This meta-analysis review was registered in PROSPERO ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ , registration No CRD42021260223, 15 June 2021).

Results: Fourteen studies were included. The increase in the time spent using social media platforms were associated with anxiety symptoms in overall studies (pooled OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.30-1.85), and the heterogeneity between studies was mild (I = 26.77%). Similarly, the increase in social media use time was also associated with depressive symptoms (pooled OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.30-1.85), and the heterogeneity between studies was moderate (I = 67.16%). For sensitivity analysis, the results of analysis including only the "High quality" studies after quality assessment were similar to those of the overall study with low heterogeneity (anxiety: pooled OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.21-1.96, I = 0.00%; depression: pooled OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 0.69-2.90, I = 0.00%).

Conclusions: The analysis demonstrated that the excessive time spent on social media platform was associated with a greater likelihood of having symptoms of anxiety and depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13409-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9112239PMC
May 2022

Immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with diverse health conditions: A comprehensive systematic review.

J Med Virol 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Centre for Health, Performance and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

It remains unclear how effective COVID-19 vaccinations will be in patients with weakened immunity due to diseases, transplantation, and dialysis. We conducted a systematic review comparing the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with solid tumor, hematologic malignancy, autoimmune disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and patients who received transplantation or dialysis. A literature search was conducted twice using the Medline/PubMed database. As a result, 21 papers were included in the review, and seropositivity rate was summarized by specific type of disease, transplantation, and dialysis. When different papers studied the same type of patient group, a study with a higher number of participants was selected. Most of the solid tumor patients showed a seropositivity rate of more than 80% after the second inoculation, but a low seropositivity was found in certain tumors such as breast cancer. Research in patients with certain types of hematological malignancy and autoimmune diseases has also reported low seropositivity, and this may have been affected by the immunosuppressive treatment these patients receive. Research in patients receiving dialysis or transplantation has reported lower seropositivity rates than the general population, while all patients with inflammatory bowel disease have converted to be seropositive. Meta-analysis validating these results will be needed, and studies will also be needed on methods to protect patients with reduced immunity from COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27828DOI Listing
May 2022

Association between physical multimorbidity and sleep problems in 46 low- and middle-income countries.

Maturitas 2022 Jun 21;160:23-31. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona 08830, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Little is known about the association between multimorbidity (i.e., two or more chronic conditions) and sleep problems in the general adult populations of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we aimed to assess this association among adults from 46 LMICs, and to quantify the extent to which anxiety, depression, stress, and pain explain this association.

Methods: Cross-sectional, predominantly nationally representative, community-based data from the World Health Survey were analyzed. Nine chronic physical conditions (angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic back pain, diabetes, edentulism, hearing problems, tuberculosis, visual impairment) were assessed. To be included in the analysis, sleep problems had to have been experienced in the past 30 days and to have been severe or extreme; they included difficulties falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking up too early in the morning. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analyses were conducted to explore the associations.

Results: Data on 237,023 individuals aged ≥18 years [mean (SD) age 38.4 (16.0) years; 49.2% men] were analyzed. Compared with no chronic conditions, having 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 conditions was associated with 2.39 (95%CI=2.14, 2.66), 4.13 (95%CI=3.62, 4.71), 5.70 (95%CI=4.86, 6.69), and 9.99 (95%CI=8.18, 12.19) times higher odds for sleep problems. Pain (24.0%) explained the largest proportion of the association between multimorbidity and sleep problems, followed by anxiety (21.0%), depression (11.2%), and stress (10.4%).

Conclusions: Multimorbidity was associated with a substantially increased odds for sleep problems in adults from 46 LMICs. Future studies should assess whether addressing factors such as pain, anxiety, depression, and stress in people with multimorbidity can lead to improvement in sleep in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2022.01.007DOI Listing
June 2022

Additional Refinement of CKD Prognostication Using Lymphatic Vessel Density: IgA Nephropathy as the Role Model?

Kidney Int Rep 2022 Apr 10;7(4):667-670. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2022.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9039895PMC
April 2022

Global population attributable fraction of potentially modifiable risk factors for mental disorders: a meta-umbrella systematic review.

Mol Psychiatry 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Numerous risk factors for mental disorders have been identified. However, we do not know how many disorders we could prevent and to what extent by modifying these risk factors. This study quantifies the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) of potentially modifiable risk factors for mental disorders. We conducted a PRISMA 2020-compliant (Protocol: https://osf.io/hk2ag ) meta-umbrella systematic review (Web of Science/PubMed/Cochrane Central Register of Reviews/Ovid/PsycINFO, until 05/12/2021) of umbrella reviews reporting associations between potentially modifiable risk factors and ICD/DSM mental disorders, restricted to highly convincing (class I) and convincing (class II) evidence from prospective cohorts. The primary outcome was the global meta-analytical PAF, complemented by sensitivity analyses across different settings, the meta-analytical Generalised Impact Fraction (GIF), and study quality assessment (AMSTAR). Seven umbrella reviews (including 295 meta-analyses and 547 associations) identified 28 class I-II risk associations (23 risk factors; AMSTAR: 45.0% high-, 35.0% medium-, 20.0% low quality). The largest global PAFs not confounded by indication were 37.84% (95% CI = 26.77-48.40%) for childhood adversities and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 24.76% (95% CI = 13.98-36.49%) for tobacco smoking and opioid use disorders, 17.88% (95% CI = not available) for job strain and depression, 14.60% (95% CI = 9.46-20.52%) for insufficient physical activity and Alzheimer's disease, 13.40% (95% CI = 7.75-20.15%) for childhood sexual abuse and depressive disorders, 12.37% (95% CI = 5.37-25.34%) for clinical high-risk state for psychosis and any non-organic psychotic disorders, 10.00% (95% CI = 5.62-15.95%) for three metabolic factors and depression, 9.73% (95% CI = 4.50-17.30%) for cannabis use and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and 9.30% (95% CI = 7.36-11.38%) for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and ADHD. The GIFs confirmed the preventive capacity for these factors. Addressing several potentially modifiable risk factors, particularly childhood adversities, can reduce the global population-level incidence of mental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01586-8DOI Listing
April 2022

Global population attributable fraction of potentially modifiable risk factors for mental disorders: a meta-umbrella systematic review.

Mol Psychiatry 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Numerous risk factors for mental disorders have been identified. However, we do not know how many disorders we could prevent and to what extent by modifying these risk factors. This study quantifies the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) of potentially modifiable risk factors for mental disorders. We conducted a PRISMA 2020-compliant (Protocol: https://osf.io/hk2ag ) meta-umbrella systematic review (Web of Science/PubMed/Cochrane Central Register of Reviews/Ovid/PsycINFO, until 05/12/2021) of umbrella reviews reporting associations between potentially modifiable risk factors and ICD/DSM mental disorders, restricted to highly convincing (class I) and convincing (class II) evidence from prospective cohorts. The primary outcome was the global meta-analytical PAF, complemented by sensitivity analyses across different settings, the meta-analytical Generalised Impact Fraction (GIF), and study quality assessment (AMSTAR). Seven umbrella reviews (including 295 meta-analyses and 547 associations) identified 28 class I-II risk associations (23 risk factors; AMSTAR: 45.0% high-, 35.0% medium-, 20.0% low quality). The largest global PAFs not confounded by indication were 37.84% (95% CI = 26.77-48.40%) for childhood adversities and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 24.76% (95% CI = 13.98-36.49%) for tobacco smoking and opioid use disorders, 17.88% (95% CI = not available) for job strain and depression, 14.60% (95% CI = 9.46-20.52%) for insufficient physical activity and Alzheimer's disease, 13.40% (95% CI = 7.75-20.15%) for childhood sexual abuse and depressive disorders, 12.37% (95% CI = 5.37-25.34%) for clinical high-risk state for psychosis and any non-organic psychotic disorders, 10.00% (95% CI = 5.62-15.95%) for three metabolic factors and depression, 9.73% (95% CI = 4.50-17.30%) for cannabis use and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and 9.30% (95% CI = 7.36-11.38%) for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and ADHD. The GIFs confirmed the preventive capacity for these factors. Addressing several potentially modifiable risk factors, particularly childhood adversities, can reduce the global population-level incidence of mental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01586-8DOI Listing
April 2022

Physical multimorbidity predicts the onset and persistence of anxiety: A prospective analysis of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

J Affect Disord 2022 07 20;309:71-76. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, 08830 Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The aims of the present study were to examine prospective associations of multimorbidity (i.e., ≥2 chronic conditions) at baseline with incident and persistent anxiety over a two-year follow-up period among Irish older adults, and to quantify the extent to which sleep, pain, and disability mediate the multimorbidity-anxiety relationship.

Methods: Data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Aging (TILDA) conducted between 2009 and 2011 with a follow-up after two years were analyzed. Anxiety referred to score ≥ 8 on the anxiety section of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Lifetime diagnosis of 14 chronic conditions was obtained. Outcomes were incident and persistent anxiety at two-year follow-up.

Results: Data on 5871 adults aged ≥50 years at baseline were analyzed [Mean (SD) age 63.3 (9.0) years; 51.2% women]. After adjustment for potential confounders, compared to no chronic physical conditions at baseline, ≥3 chronic conditions were associated with a significant 1.89 (95% CI = 1.16-3.08) times higher risk for new onset anxiety at follow-up. Furthermore, having 1, 2, and ≥3 conditions at baseline were associated with significant 1.48 (95% CI 1.02, 2.14), 1.74 (95% CI 1.19, 2.53), and 1.84 (95% CI 1.27, 2.68) times higher risk for persistent anxiety at follow-up. Sleep problems, pain, and disability were identified as significant mediators, explaining 22.9%-37.8% of the associations.

Conclusion: Multimorbidity was associated with both new onset and persistent anxiety among Irish older adults. Future interventional studies should examine whether addressing the identified mediators may lead to lower risk for incident or persistent anxiety among those with physical multimorbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.04.022DOI Listing
July 2022

Baseline physical activity is associated with reduced mortality and disease outcomes in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rev Med Virol 2022 Apr 13:e2349. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Centre for Health, Performance, and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, physically active individuals may be at lower risk of fatal outcomes. However, to date, no meta-analysis has been carried out to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) and fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to explore the hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and mortality rates of COVID-19 patients with a history of PA participation before the onset of the pandemic, and to evaluate the reliability of the evidence. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, and medRxiv was conducted for articles published up to January 2022. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to compare disease severity and mortality rates of COVID-19 patients in physically active and inactive cases. Twelve studies involving 1,256,609 patients (991,268 physically active and 265,341 inactive cases) with COVID-19, were included in the pooled analysis. The overall meta-analysis compared with inactive controls showed significant associations between PA with reduction in COVID-19 hospitalisation (risk ratio (RR) = 0.58, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.46-0.73, P = 0.001), ICU admissions (RR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.81, P = 0.001) and mortality (RR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.38-0.59, P = 0.001). The protective effect of PA on COVID-19 hospitalisation and mortality could be attributable to the types of exercise such as resistance exercise (RR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.15-0.49, P = 0.001) and endurance exercise (RR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.23-0.74, P = 0.003), respectively. Physical activity is associated with decreased hospitalisation, ICU admissions, and mortality rates of patients with COVID-19. Moreover, COVID-19 patients with a history of resistance and endurance exercises experience a lower rate of hospitalisation and mortality, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the biological mechanisms underlying these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9111124PMC
April 2022

An analysis of student essays on medical leadership and its educational implications in South Korea.

Sci Rep 2022 04 6;12(1):5788. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Medical Education, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, CPO Box 8044, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

To examine medical students' perceptions of leadership and explore their implications for medical leadership education. We conducted a qualitative analysis of the essays submitted by students in the medical leadership course from 2015 to 2019. We categorised the essays by the characteristics of the selected model leaders (N = 563) and types of leadership (N = 605). A statistically significant proportion of students selected leaders who were of the same gender as themselves (P < 0.001), graduate track students chose leaders in science (P = 0.005), while; military track students chose leaders in the military (P < 0.001). Although the highest proportion of students chose politicians as their model leaders (22.7%), this number decreased over time (P < 0.001), and a wider range of occupational groups were represented between 2015 and 2019. Charismatic leadership was the most frequently selected (31.9%), and over time there was a statistically significant (P = 0.004) increase in the selection of transformational leadership. Students tended to choose individuals whose acts of leadership could be seen and applied. Medical leadership education should account for students' changing perceptions and present a feasible leadership model, introducing specific examples to illustrate these leadership skills.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09617-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8987100PMC
April 2022

The global burden of sudden infant death syndrome from 1990 to 2019: A systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

QJM 2022 Apr 6. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Centre for Health, Performance and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) still remains one of the leading causes of infant death worldwide, especially in high-income countries. To date, however, there is no detailed information on the global health burden of SIDS.

Aims: To characterize the global disease burden of SIDS and its trends from 1990 to 2019 and to compare the burden of SIDS according to the socio-demographic index (SDI).

Design: Systematic analysis based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 data.

Methods: Epidemiological data of 204 countries from 1990 to 2019 were collected via various methods including civil registration and vital statistics in the original GBD study. Estimates for mortality and disease burden of SIDS were modelled. Crude mortality and mortality rates per 100,000 population were analyzed. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and DALY rates were also assessed.

Results: In 2019, mortality rate of SIDS accounted for 20.98 [95% Uncertainty Interval (UI), 9.15 to 46.16] globally, which was a 51% decrease from 1990. SIDS was most prevalent in Western sub-Saharan Africa, High-income North America and Oceania in 2019. The burden of SIDS was higher in males than females consistently from 1990 to 2019. Higher SDI and income level was associated with lower burden of SIDS; further, countries with higher SDI and income had greater decreases in SIDS burden from 1990 to 2019.

Conclusions: The burden of SIDS has decreased drastically from 1990 to 2019. However, the improvements have occurred disproportionately between regions and SDI levels. Focused preventive efforts in under-resourced populations are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcac093DOI Listing
April 2022

Thrombosis patterns and clinical outcome of COVID-19 vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Jun 24;119:130-139. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Cambridge Centre for Health, Performance, and Wellbeing, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Objectives: To meta-analyse the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and mortality of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after adenoviral vector vaccination.

Methods: Eighteen studies of VITT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine administration were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. The meta-analysis estimated the summary effects and between-study heterogeneity regarding the incidence, manifestations, sites of thrombosis, diagnostic findings, and clinical outcomes.

Results: The incidence of total venous thrombosis after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination was 28 (95% CI 12-52, I=100%) per 100,000 doses administered. Of 664 patients included in the quantitative analysis (10 studies), the mean age of patients with VITT was 45.6 years (95% CI 43.8-47.4, I=57%), with a female predominance (70%). Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary thromboembolism (PE), and splanchnic vein thrombosis occurred in 54%, 36%, and 19% of patients with VITT, respectively. The pooled incidence rate of CVT after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination (23 per 100,000 person-years) was higher than that reported in the pre-pandemic general population (0.9 per 100,000 person-years). Intracranial haemorrhage and extracranial thrombosis accompanied 47% and 33% of all patients with CVT, respectively. The antiplatelet factor 4 antibody positivity rate was 91% (95% CI 88-94, I=0%) and the overall mortality was 32% (95% CI 24-41, I=69%), and no significant difference was observed between heparin- and non-heparin-based anticoagulation treatments (risk ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.47-1.50, I=0%).

Conclusions: Patients with VITT after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination most frequently presented with CVT following DVT/PE and splanchnic vein thrombosis, and about one-third of patients had a fatal outcome. This meta-analysis should provide a better understanding of VITT and assist clinicians in identifying VITT early to improve outcomes and optimise management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2022.03.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8942584PMC
June 2022

Physical multimorbidity and depression: A mediation analysis of influential factors among 34,129 adults aged ≥50 years from low- and middle-income countries.

Depress Anxiety 2022 05 21;39(5):376-386. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: There is a scarcity of literature on the association between physical multimorbidity (i.e., ≥2 chronic physical conditions) and depression among older adults, especially from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In addition, the mediators in this association are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to examine this association among adults aged ≥50 years from six LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa), and to identify potential mediators.

Methods: Cross-sectional, nationally representative data from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. Depression was defined as past-12 months DSM-IV depression or receiving depression treatment in the last 12 months. Information on 11 chronic physical conditions were obtained. Multivariable logistic regression and mediation analyses were conducted.

Results: Data on 34,129 individuals aged ≥50 years were analyzed [mean (SD) age 62.4 (16.0) years; maximum 114 years; 52.1% females]. Compared to no chronic conditions, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 chronic conditions were associated with 2.55 (95% CI = 1.90-3.42), 3.12 (95% CI = 2.25-4.34), 5.68 (95% CI = 4.02-8.03), and 8.39 (95% CI = 5.87-12.00) times higher odds for depression. Pain/discomfort (% mediated 39.0%), sleep/energy (33.2%), mobility (27.5%), cognition (13.8%), perceived stress (7.3%), disability (6.7%), loneliness (5.5%), and food insecurity (1.5%) were found to be significant mediators in the association between physical multimorbidity and depression.

Conclusions: Older adults with physical multimorbidity are at increased odds of depression in LMICs. Future studies should assess whether addressing the identified potential mediators in people with physical multimorbidity can lead to reduction in depression in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.23250DOI Listing
May 2022

Educational inequalities in epilepsy mortality in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015.

Sci Rep 2022 03 17;12(1):4597. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change, Södertörn University, 141 89, Huddinge, Sweden.

Little is known about socioeconomic differences in epilepsy mortality. This study examined educational inequalities in epilepsy mortality in the general population in the Baltic countries and Finland in 2000-2015. Education-specific mortality estimates for individuals aged 30-74 in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were obtained from census-linked mortality datasets while data for Finland came from the register-based population and death data file of Statistics Finland. Trends and educational inequalities in epilepsy mortality were assessed using age-standardised mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100,000 person years and age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (RRs) calculated using Poisson regression. ASMRs were higher in men than women in all countries. ASMRs reduced in 2000-2015 among all men and women except for Finnish women. Among men, an inverse educational gradient in epilepsy mortality in 2000-2007 widened in 2008-2015 with ASMRs falling among high and mid educated men in all countries but increasing among low educated men in three countries. An inverse educational gradient in female mortality remained in all countries throughout 2000-2015. Although epilepsy mortality fell in the Baltic countries and Finland (men only) in 2000-2015, this masked a clear inverse educational gradient in mortality that became steeper across the period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-08456-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8930999PMC
March 2022

Baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD).

Pediatr Nephrol 2022 Mar 11. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: We developed the KoreaN cohort study for Outcomes in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD) as a subcohort of KNOW-CKD to investigate the different characteristics of pediatric CKD between countries and races.

Methods: Children aged younger than 18 years with stage 1 ~ 5 CKD were recruited at seven major pediatric nephrology centers in Korea. Blood and urine samples, as well as demographic and clinical data, were collected. From 2011 to 2016, 458 children were enrolled, and the baseline profiles of 437 children were analyzed.

Results: The median age of the cohort was 10.9 years old, and 68.0% were males. The median estimated glomerular filtration rate was 53.1 mL/min/1.73 m. The most common etiology of CKD was congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (42.6%), followed by glomerulopathies (25.6%).

Conclusion: We report a cross-sectional analysis of the overall baseline characteristics such as age, CKD stage, and underlying kidney disease of the KNOW-Ped CKD. The cohort will be longitudinally followed for ten years. "A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-021-05278-3DOI Listing
March 2022

Association of Alzheimer's Disease with COVID-19 Susceptibility and Severe Complications: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2022 ;87(2):701-710

Department of Neurology, Yongin Severance Hospital, Yongin, Republic of Korea.

Background: Identification of patients at high susceptibility and high risk of developing serious complications related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is clinically important in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: To investigate whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and whether they have a higher risk of developing serious complications.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the Korean nationwide population-based COVID-19 dataset for participants who underwent real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for COVID-19 between January 1 and June 4, 2020. A 1 : 3 ratio propensity score matching and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate the association between AD and the susceptibility or severe complications (i.e., mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, or death) of COVID-19.

Results: Among 195,643 study participants, 5,725 participants had AD and 7,334 participants were diagnosed with COVID-19. The prevalence of participants testing positive for COVID-19 did not differ according to the presence of AD (p = 0.234). Meanwhile, AD was associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 complications (OR 2.25 [95% CI 1.54-3.28]). Secondary outcome analyses showed that AD patients had an increased risk for mortality (OR 3.09 [95% CI 2.00-4.78]) but were less likely to receive mechanical ventilation (OR 0.42 [95% CI 0.20-0.87]).

Conclusion: AD was not associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 infection, but was associated with severe COVID-19 complications, especially with mortality. Early diagnosis and active intervention are necessary for patients with AD suspected COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-220031DOI Listing
January 2022

Artificial Intelligence for Predicting Microsatellite Instability Based on Tumor Histomorphology: A Systematic Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Feb 23;23(5). Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Pathology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 06273, Korea.

Microsatellite instability (MSI)/defective DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) is receiving more attention as a biomarker for eligibility for immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced diseases. However, due to high costs and resource limitations, MSI/dMMR testing is not widely performed. Some attempts are in progress to predict MSI/dMMR status through histomorphological features on H&E slides using artificial intelligence (AI) technology. In this study, the potential predictive role of this new methodology was reviewed through a systematic review. Studies up to September 2021 were searched through PubMed and Embase database searches. The design and results of each study were summarized, and the risk of bias for each study was evaluated. For colorectal cancer, AI-based systems showed excellent performance with the highest standard of 0.972; for gastric and endometrial cancers they showed a relatively low but satisfactory performance, with the highest standard of 0.81 and 0.82, respectively. However, analyzing the risk of bias, most studies were evaluated at high-risk. AI-based systems showed a high potential in predicting the MSI/dMMR status of different cancer types, and particularly of colorectal cancers. Therefore, a confirmation test should be required only for the results that are positive in the AI test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23052462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8910565PMC
February 2022

Differential expression of MicroRNAs in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mol Psychiatry 2022 May 9;27(5):2405-2413. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in progressive cognitive decline owing to the accumulation of amyloid plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted attention as a putative diagnostic and therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases. However, existing meta-analyses on AD and its association with miRNAs have produced inconsistent results. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the magnitude and consistency of differences in miRNA levels between AD patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and healthy controls (HC). Articles investigating miRNA levels in blood, brain tissue, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD and MCI patients versus HC were systematically searched in PubMed/Medline from inception to February 16, 2021. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses were complemented with the I statistic to measure the heterogeneity, assessment of publication bias, sensitivity subgroup analyses (AD severity, brain region, post-mortem versus ante-mortem specimen for CSF and type of analysis used to quantify miRNA) and functional enrichment pathway analysis. Of the 1512 miRNAs included in 61 articles, 425 meta-analyses were performed on 334 miRNAs. Fifty-six miRNAs were significantly upregulated (n = 40) or downregulated (n = 16) in AD versus HC and all five miRNAs were significantly upregulated in MCI versus HC. Functional enrichment analysis confirmed that pathways related to apoptosis, immune response and inflammation were statistically enriched with upregulated pathways in participants with AD relative to HC. This study confirms that miRNAs' expression is altered in AD and MCI compared to HC. These findings open new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives for this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-022-01476-zDOI Listing
May 2022

Perspective on COVID-19 vaccination in patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases: consensus statements from ERA-IWG and EUVAS.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2022 Mar 4. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, UK.

Patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases are at increased risk of severe COVID-19. The international rollout of COVID-19 vaccines has provided varying degrees of protection and enabled the understanding of vaccine efficacy and safety. The immune response to COVID-19 vaccines is lower in most patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases; either related to immunosuppression or to co-morbidities and complications caused by the underlying disease. Humoral vaccine response, measured by the presence of antibodies, is impaired or absent in patients receiving rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), higher doses of glucocorticoids and likely other immunosuppressants, such as cyclophosphamide. Timing between the use of these agents and administration of vaccines associate with the level of immune response: with rituximab, vaccine response can only be expected once B cells start to recover and patients with transient discontinuation of MMF mount a humoral response more frequently. The emergence of new COVID-19 variants and waning of vaccine induced immunity highlight the value of booster dose and need to develop mutant proof vaccines. COVID-19 vaccines are safe, exhibiting a very low risk of de novo or relapsing immune-mediated kidney disease. Population-based studies will determine whether this is causal or co-incidental. Such cases respond to standard management, including the use of immunosuppression. The IWG and EUVAS recommend that patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases follow national guidance on vaccination. Booster doses based on antibody measurements could be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfac052DOI Listing
March 2022

A systematic review and meta-analysis of structural and functional brain alterations in individuals with genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis and bipolar disorder.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2022 07 28;117:110540. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, Barwon Health, Deakin University School of Medicine, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Neuroimaging findings in people at either genetic risk or at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR-P) or bipolar disorder (CHR-B) remain unclear. A meta-analytic review of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in individuals with genetic risk or CHR-P or CHR-B and controls identified 94 datasets (N = 7942). Notwithstanding no significant findings were observed following adjustment for multiple comparisons, several findings were noted at a more liberal threshold. Subjects at genetic risk for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder or at CHR-P exhibited lower gray matter (GM) volumes in the gyrus rectus (Hedges' g = -0.19). Genetic risk for psychosis was associated with GM reductions in the right cerebellum and left amygdala. CHR-P was associated with decreased GM volumes in the frontal superior gyrus and hypoactivation in the right precuneus, the superior frontal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. Genetic and CHR-P were associated with small structural and functional alterations involving regions implicated in psychosis. Further neuroimaging studies in individuals with genetic or CHR-B are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2022.110540DOI Listing
July 2022

Comparative effectiveness of N95, surgical or medical, and non-medical facemasks in protection against respiratory virus infection: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Rev Med Virol 2022 Feb 26:e2336. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Queen Elizabeth Hospital Foundation Trust, King's Lynn, UK.

The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of N95, surgical/medical and non-medical facemasks as personal protective equipment against respiratory virus infection. The study incorporated 35 published and unpublished randomized controlled trials and observational studies investigating specific mask effectiveness against influenza virus, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and medRxiv databases for studies published up to 5 February 2021 (PROSPERO registration: CRD42020214729). The primary outcome of interest was the rate of respiratory viral infection. The quality of evidence was estimated using the GRADE approach. High compliance to mask-wearing conferred a significantly better protection (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.82) than low compliance. N95 or equivalent masks were the most effective in providing protection against coronavirus infections (OR, 0.30; CI, 0.20-0.44) consistently across subgroup analyses of causative viruses and clinical settings. Evidence supporting the use of medical or surgical masks against influenza or coronavirus infections (SARS, MERS and COVID-19) was weak. Our study confirmed that the use of facemasks provides protection against respiratory viral infections in general; however, the effectiveness may vary according to the type of facemask used. Our findings encourage the use of N95 respirators or their equivalents (e.g., P2) for best personal protection in healthcare settings until more evidence on surgical and medical masks is accrued. This study highlights a substantial lack of evidence on the comparative effectiveness of mask types in community settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9111143PMC
February 2022

Association between autism spectrum disorder and diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2022 05 22;136:104592. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Centre for Innovation in Mental Health, School of Psychology, Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Mind-Brain Group, Institute for Culture and Society, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. Electronic address:

There is mixed evidence on the link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and diabetes. We conducted the first systematic review/meta-analysis on their association. Based on a pre-registered protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42021261114), we searched Pubmed, Ovid, and Web of Science databases up to 6 December 2021, with no language/type of document restrictions. We assessed study quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). We included 24 studies (total: 3427,773 individuals; 237,529 with ASD and 92,832 with diabetes) in the systematic review and 20 in the meta-analysis (mean stars number on the NOS: 5.89/10). There was a significant association, albeit characterized by significant heterogeneity, when pooling unadjusted OR (1.535, 95% CI = 1.109-2.126), which remained significant when restricting the analysis to children and type 2 diabetes, but became non-significant when considering adjusted ORs (OR: 1.528, 95% CI = 0.954-2.448). No significant prospective association was found (n = 2) on diabetes predicting ASD (HR: 1.232, 0.826-11.837). Therefore, the association between ASD and diabetes is likely confounded by demographic and clinical factors that should be systematically investigated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2022.104592DOI Listing
May 2022

Trajectory of Antidepressant Effects after Single- or Two-Dose Administration of Psilocybin: A Systematic Review and Multivariate Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2022 Feb 11;11(4). Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK.

We examined the cardiovascular safety, acceptability, and trajectory of the antidepressant effects of psilocybin after single- or two-dose administration. Four major electronic databases were systematically searched. Data were pooled using a multivariate random-effects meta-analysis. Primary outcomes were changes in depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular safety and acceptability. Ten studies were included. The estimated effect sizes (standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals) for psilocybin were -0.75 (-1.15 to -0.35) on day 1, -1.74 (-2.15 to -1.32) at 1 week, -1.35 (-1.77 to -0.93) at 1 month, -0.91 (-1.31 to -0.51) at 3 months, and -1.12 (-1.56 to -0.68) at 6 months. Higher doses and two sessions of psilocybin treatment were significantly associated with superior antidepressant effects. The all-cause discontinuation and heart rate after psilocybin administration were comparable to placebo; meanwhile, psilocybin increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 19.00 mmHg and 8.66 mmHg, respectively. There were no significant differences between SMD derived from placebo-controlled trials compared to those from pre-post changes and SMD in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared to those in non-RCTs. The present study demonstrates that single- or two-dose psilocybin administration has rapid and sustained antidepressant effects for up to 6 months, with favorable cardiovascular safety and acceptability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11040938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8879743PMC
February 2022
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