Publications by authors named "Jae Hoon Lee"

832 Publications

Elevated Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Perioperative Periods is Suggestive of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

J Inflamm Res 2021 7;14:4457-4466. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Recent data suggest that alterations in the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in the perioperative periods can serve as prognostic factors. However, research on the clinical impact has been limited and even discordant in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).

Patients And Methods: The optimal cut-off value of preoperative NLR (NLR-pre), postoperative NLR (NLR-post), and its change (NLR-delta) were determined to maximize differences in overall survival (OS) between groups. Patients were categorized into four groups (NLR-trend) as follows: G1, low NLR-pre and NLR-post; G2, low NLR-pre and high NLR-post; G3, high NLR-pre and low NLR-post; and G4, high NLR-pre and NLR-post. Discriminatory performance was compared using integrated AUC (iAUC) between all indicators.

Results: A total of 576 patients diagnosed with stage I-IV CRC were included. The cut-off points were determined as 2.33 for NLR-pre, 2.06 for NLR-post, and -1.08 for NLR-delta. Subgroup dichotomization using NLR-pre, NLR-post, NLR-delta and NLR-trend were all identified as significant prognostic factors by univariate analysis. However, NLR-trend was only remained as an independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis. The iAUC of the NLR-trend was superior to that of NLR-pre (bootstrap iAUC mean difference=0.036; 95% CI 0.013-0.073), NLR-post (bootstrap iAUC mean difference=0.045; 95% CI 0.019-0.081) and NLR-delta (bootstrap iAUC mean difference=0.061; 95% CI 0.025-0.104).

Conclusion: Risk stratification and combining of preoperative and postoperative NLR (NLR-trend) can improve prognostic discrimination compared with single measurements or simple changes in NLR in patients with CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S327443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434909PMC
September 2021

Epigenetic control of abiotic stress signaling in plants.

Genes Genomics 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Biology Education, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, South Korea.

Background: Although plants may be regularly exposed to various abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, cold, heat, heavy metals, and UV-B throughout their lives, it is not possible to actively escape from such stresses due to the immobile nature of plants. To overcome adverse environmental stresses, plants have developed adaptive systems that allow appropriate responses to diverse environmental cues; such responses can be achieved by fine-tuning or controlling genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA or histone modifications and modulation of chromatin accessibility have been shown to regulate the expression of stress-responsive genes in struggles against abiotic stresses.

Objective: Herein, the current progress in elucidating the epigenetic regulation of abiotic stress signaling in plants has been summarized in order to further understand the systems plants utilize to effectively respond to abiotic stresses.

Methods: This review focuses on the action mechanisms of various components that epigenetically regulate plant abiotic stress responses, mainly in terms of DNA methylation, histone methylation/acetylation, and chromatin remodeling.

Conclusions: This review can be considered a basis for further research into understanding the epigenetic control system for abiotic stress responses in plants. Moreover, the knowledge of such systems can be effectively applied in developing novel methods to generate abiotic stress resistant crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-021-01163-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Bone regeneration of demineralized dentin matrix with platelet-rich fibrin and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 on the bone defects in rabbit calvaria.

Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Sep 9;43(1):34. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, 119, Dandae-ro, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, 31116, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study was to evaluate the bone formation ability of demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) combined with platelet-rich fibrinogen (PRF) and DDM combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to improve the osteoinductive ability of DDM.

Methods: After four bone defects with a diameter of 8mm were created in the calvarium of each rabbit, DDM was grafted into the first defect (experimental groups 1), a combination of DDM and PRF was grafted into the second defect (experimental groups 2), and DDM with absorbed rhBMP-2 was grafted into the third defect (experimental groups 3). The fourth defect was used as the control group. Twelve healthy male rabbits (New Zealand, white rabbits) weighing around 3.0-4.0 kg were used. Among 12 rabbits, 3 rabbits were sacrificed immediately after surgery and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery, respectively. Histopathologic analysis and histomorphometric analysis were conducted to evaluate bone formation in each group.

Results: The PRF/DDM group did not show a significantly higher degree of new bone formation in calvarial bone defects than the DDM group at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively in histopathological findings and histomorphometric results. On the other side, the rhBMP-2/DDM group showed higher degrees of new bone formation and calcification, and the lamellae of bone matrix, which are observed in mature bone tissue, were more distinctly visible in the rhBMP-2/DDM group. Moreover, the rhBMP-2/DDM group showed a significantly higher amount of new bone formation, compared to the DDM group at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively (P<0.05) in histomorphometric results.

Conclusion: The DDM has great potential as a carrier for the maintenance and sustained release of rhBMP-2, which has been recently receiving wide attention as a type of signaling molecules to promote bone formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40902-021-00320-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429533PMC
September 2021

Biological activity and processing technologies of edible insects: a review.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Aug 5;30(8):1003-1023. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Research Group of Food Processing, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju, 55365 Korea.

The burgeoning global population growth has raised concerns regarding the expected increase in the demand for food, which could be partially tackled by identifying novel food sources. To this end, edible insects have recently attracted research interest. Several technologies for utilizing edible insect-derived proteins have been introduced; however, research into their functional utilization is insufficient. Herein, we reviewed the relevant literature on the importance of insects as food sources, extraction of edible insects, the nutritional value of insects, biological activities of components, and their applications in food industries. We summarized the studies primarily focused on the functional utilization of edible insects, suggesting that for successful incorporation and growth of edible insects in food and pharmaceutical industries, strategies to improve the extraction methods are required to explore the biological activity of edible insects. Furthermore, the awareness of edible insects with a focus on their allergens warrants consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00942-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364587PMC
August 2021

ASO Visual Abstract: Predictive Performance of Current Nodal Staging Systems in Various Categories of Pancreatic Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10679-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Multicenter, phase II study of response-adapted lenalidomide-based therapy for transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma without high-risk features.

Curr Probl Cancer 2021 Aug 21:100788. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea. Electronic address:

Lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) are a standard treatment for older adults with multiple myeloma (MM). Lenalidomide monotherapy has rarely been evaluated for newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible MM patients. This multicenter phase II trial evaluated a response-adapted strategy for elderly patients with newly diagnosed MM without high-risk features. Patients were administered single-agent lenalidomide for the first 21 days of two 28-day cycles. Patients with progressive disease received Rd. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival using the uniform response assessment from the International Myeloma Working Group . Of the 34 enrolled patients, 28 were included in the efficacy analysis. The overall response rate (ORR, ≥ partial response [PR]) to single-agent lenalidomide or lenalidomide plus prednisone was 64.3%. Ten patients received Rd after disease progression, with an Rd ORR of 70%. The ORR of response-adapted lenalidomide-based therapy was 75%. After the median follow-up of 35.6 months, the median progression-free survival was 33.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9-50.2), and the median overall survival was 51.8 months (95% CI, 22.0-81.6). The most common adverse event was neutropenia (46.7%), and 17 patients (56.7%) experienced infection including pneumonia. Response-adapted lenalidomide-based therapy was feasible in newly diagnosed, transplant-ineligible MM patients without high-risk features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2021.100788DOI Listing
August 2021

Predictive Performance of Current Nodal Staging Systems in Various Categories of Pancreatic Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Aug 22. Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Background: Nodal staging systems (NSS) for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) classify patients on the basis of number of metastatic lymph nodes (MLN), metastatic/retrieved lymph node ratio (LNR), and log odds of positive LN (LODDS). The relative prognostic performance of these NSS, however, remains unclear.

Patients And Methods: We identified 2584 patients who underwent surgery for PDAC between 2010 and 2019. Subgroups of each staging system were classified using K-adaptive partitioning method and assessed by comparing time-dependent areas under the curve (AUC) 5 years after surgery.

Results: Patients were subgrouped by MLN (0, 1-3, ≥ 4), LNR (0, 0-0.23, > 0.23), and LODDS (< - 3.5, - 3.5 to - 0.970, > - 0.97). All three NSS were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). The AUCs for OS were comparable for the MLN (0.622), LNR (0.609), and LODDS (0.596) systems. Subgroup evaluation based on 12 retrieved lymph nodes (RLN), R1 resection, and extent of resection showed that the AUCs of the MLN and LNR NSS were comparable for OS and RFS regardless of the number of RLNs, R1 resection, and extent of resection. By contrast, the AUCs of the LODDS NSS were lower.

Conclusion: The NSS based on the number of MLN is the best prognostic indicator, with prognostic performance comparable to the other NSS and greater convenience for practical use. This NSS was applicable regardless of the numbers of RLN, R1 resection, and extent of resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10641-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparison of perioperative outcomes in pancreatic head cancer patients following either a laparoscopic or open pancreaticoduodenectomy with a superior mesenteric artery first approach.

Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2021 Aug;25(3):358-365

Division of Hepato-Biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Backgrounds/aims: A superior mesenteric artery first approach (SFA) technique can improve the complete resection rate. It can be used to determine whether an operation can be performed by invading the superior mesenteric artery before performing a pancreatic transection in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this study was to compare perioperative outcomes between laparoscopic and open SFA for PDAC.

Methods: Between January 2017 and August 2019, consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic and open pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for PDAC using SFA procedures were included and compared between laparoscopic and open procedures.

Results: Fourteen and 83 patients underwent laparoscopic and open surgeries, respectively. In perioperative outcomes, there were no significant differences in the amount of intraoperative blood loss or transfusion rate between the two groups. In the laparoscopic group, the operation time was longer with less patients showing wound infection. R0 resection rate and the number of retrieved lymph nodes showed no significant difference. The average time to adjuvant chemotherapy was longer in the open group. There was no significant difference in the mean survival time or the recurrence free period.

Conclusions: Patients who underwent laparoscopic PD using SFA showed perioperative outcomes comparable compared to those of patients who underwent open procedures performed by experienced surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14701/ahbps.2021.25.3.358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382868PMC
August 2021

Surgical outcomes are hampered after endoscopic ultrasonography-guided ethanol lavage and/or Taxol injection in cystic lesions of the pancreas.

Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2021 Aug;25(3):342-348

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Backgrounds/aims: Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided ethanol lavage and Taxol injection (EUS-ELTI) for pancreatic cystic lesions have been recently performed in some medical centers. The aim of this study was to optimize patient selection and analyze outcomes of patients who underwent surgeries after EUS-ELTI for pancreatic cystic lesions.

Methods: Among 310 patients who underwent EUS-ELTI between January 2007 and December 2014, 23 underwent surgeries after EUS-ELTI owing to incomplete treatment and/or adverse events. Surgical outcomes of patients who underwent surgeries after EUSELTI were evaluated. Clinical outcomes of patients who underwent surgeries after EUS-ELTI were then retrospectively compared with those of patients who underwent upfront surgery for left-sided pancreatic lesions without an EUS-ELTI procedure.

Results: The pathology revealed degenerated cysts in 12 patients, mucinous cyst neoplasms in five, neuroendocrine tumors in two, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) in one, solid pseudopapillary tumor in one, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma arising from an IPMN in one, and hepatoid carcinoma in one. Twelve patients underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and five patients underwent open distal pancreatectomy. When clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared between patients who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy after EUS-ELTI and those who did not receive an EUS-ELTI procedure, the spleen-preserving rate was 0% in the EUS-ELTI group and 61.7% (365/592) in the control group ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: Surgical outcomes are compromised after EUS-ELTI for cystic tumor of the pancreas. Further studies are needed to investigate the efficacy and safety of the EUS-ELTI procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14701/ahbps.2021.25.3.342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382853PMC
August 2021

Clinical Outcomes Between a Minimally Invasive and Open Extended Cholecystectomy for T2 Gallbladder Cancer: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Although a minimally invasive extended cholecystectomy (MIEC) for T2 gallbladder cancer (T2 GBC) has been performed in many experienced centers, no oncologic comparison with open extended cholecystectomy (OEC) has yet been reported. T2 GBC patients who underwent MIEC ( = 60) or OEC ( = 135) were enrolled. We used propensity score matching (PSM) using pre- and intraoperative variables. Short- and long-term outcomes were then compared before and after PSM. Before PSM, OEC patients more frequently showed completion of surgery after a simple cholecystectomy (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.551), and lymph node enlargement on preoperative computed tomography (SMD = -0.471). PSM was used to select 56 patients from each of the 2 patient groups. MIEC patients showed comparable complication rate (7.1% versus 12.5%,  = .365) and shorter hospital stay (5.7 days versus 9.8 days,  < .001). The median follow-up period was 26.2 months, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate (96.8% versus 91.1%,  = .464) and 5-year recurrence free survival (RFS) (54.7% versus 44.4%,  = .580) outcomes were still comparable between MIEC and OEC groups. MIEC have advantages such as early recovery and comparable short-term outcomes compared with OEC. MIEC showed comparable OS and RFS outcomes compared with OEC. MIEC is a safe option without oncological compromise for T2 GBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2021.0417DOI Listing
August 2021

Metabolic activity by FDG-PET/CT after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in borderline resectable and locally advanced pancreatic cancer and association with survival.

Br J Surg 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The optimal prognostic markers for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic cancer are not yet established.

Method: Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to surgery and underwent FDG-PET/CT between July 2012 and December 2017 were included. Metabolic parameters including standardised uptake value (SUV), metabolic tumour volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on PET/CT, and response evaluations using PERCIST criteria, were investigated for its impact on survival and recurrence. Cox proportional hazards model was performed. Differences in risk were expressed as hazard ratio [HR] with 95% confidence interval [c.i.].

Results: The patients with borderline resectable (N = 106) or locally advanced pancreatic cancer (N = 82) were identified. The median survival was 33.6 months. Decreased metabolic parameters of PET/CT after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were associated with positive impacts on survival and recurrence such as SUVmax (HR 1.16, 95% c.i. 1.01 to 1.32, P = 0.025), SUVpeak (HR 1.26, 95% c.i. 1.05 to 1.51, P = 0.011), and MTV (HR 1.15, 95% c.i. 1.04 to 1.26, P = 0.005). Large delta values were related to a positive impact on recurrence such as SUVmax (HR 1.21, 95% c.i. 1.06 to 1.38, P = 0.005). Post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy SUVmax ≥3 (HR 3.46, 95% c.i. 1.21 to 9.91; P = 0.036) was an independent prognostic factor for negative impact on survival. Patients with post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy SUVmax <3 showed more chemotherapy cycles (8.7 versus 6.2, P = 0.001), more frequent complete metabolic response (25 vs 2.2%, P = 0.002), smaller tumour size (2.1 vs 3.1 cm, P = 0.002), and less frequent lymphovascular invasion (23.7 vs 51.1%, P = 0.020) than patients with SUVmax ≥3.

Conclusion: Reduction in metabolic tumour parameters of FDG- PET/CT after neoadjuvant chemotherapy indicates improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjs/znab229DOI Listing
August 2021

Expression of HER2 and Mismatch Repair Proteins in Surgically Resected Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:658564. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) has a poor prognosis. Although complete surgical resection is the only successful approach for improving survival, additional therapeutic modalities are required for recurrent or surgically unresectable GBCs.

Materials And Methods: To determine the expression status of HER2 and the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, immunohistochemical staining of MMR proteins and HER2 was carried out in 216 surgically resected GBCs. HER2 labeling was scored by adopting a scoring system for gastric carcinomas. Tissues scoring 0 to 2+ were defined as HER2 negative, whereas those scoring 3+ were regarded as HER2-positive. In addition, silver hybridization and microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis were conducted to confirm amplification and MSI, respectively.

Results: Three of 216 GBCs (1.3%) showed MMR protein deficiency. All three observed MSI cases exhibited dual loss of MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression. However, no cases showed loss of either MLH1 or PMS2 expression. No association was observed between MMR protein deficiency and other clinicopathological factors. amplification was noted in 30 (13.9%) GBCs and associated with Crohn-like lymphoid reaction (P = 0.023). No survival difference was observed based on HER2 overexpression or amplification status.

Conclusion: MMR protein deficiency and HER2 overexpression were observed in a small subset (1.3% and 13.9%, respectively) of GBCs without simultaneous occurrence of deficient MMR protein expression and HER2 overexpression. The presence of Crohn-like lymphoid reaction may help identify cases with amplification, by using hematoxylin-stained slides. Although the proportion of MMR protein-deficient- and HER2-overexpressing GBCs was small, applying immunotherapy to MMR protein-deficient GBCs and herceptin to HER2-overexpressing GBCs may provide alternative treatment options for patients with GBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.658564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339709PMC
July 2021

Longitudinal Changes in Body Composition of Long-Term Survivors of Pancreatic Head Cancer and Factors Affecting the Changes.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 2;10(15). Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Previous studies on changes in body composition of pancreatic cancer patients have only focused on short-term survivors. We studied longitudinal body composition changes and factors affecting them in long-term survivors by analyzing many abdominal computed tomography images using artificial intelligence technology. Of 302 patients who survived for >36 months after surgery were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors affecting body composition changes and repeated-measures analysis of variance to observe differences in the course of change according to each factor were performed. In logistic analysis, preoperative sarcopenia and recurrence were the main factors influencing body composition changes at 1 and 3 years after surgery, respectively. In changes of longitudinal body composition, the decrease in body composition was the greatest at 3-6 months postoperatively, and the preoperative status did not recover even 3 years after surgery. Especially, males showed a greater reduction in skeletal muscle (SKM) after surgery than females ( < 0.01). In addition, SKM ( < 0.001) and subcutaneous adipose tissue ( < 0.05) mass rapidly decreased in case of recurrence. In conclusion, long-term survivors of pancreatic cancer did not recover their preoperative body composition status, and preoperative sarcopenia and recurrence influenced body composition changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348760PMC
August 2021

Phenolic Hydroxyl Groups in the Lignin Polymer Affect the Formation of Lignin Nanoparticles.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute of Green-Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang 25354, Korea.

Alkaline soda lignin (AL) was sequentially fractionated into six fractions of different molecular size by means of solvent extraction and their phenolic hydroxyl groups were chemoselectively methylated to determine their effect on nanoparticle formation of lignin polymers. The effect of the lignin structure on the physical properties of nanoparticles was also clarified in this study. Nanoparticles were obtained from neat alkaline soda lignin (ALNP), solvent-extracted fractions (FALNPs, i.d. 414-1214 nm), and methylated lignins (MALNPs, i.d. 516-721 nm) via the nanoprecipitation method. Specifically, the size properties of MALNPs showed a high negative correlation ( = 0.95) with the phenolic hydroxyl group amount. This indicates that the phenolic hydroxyl groups in lignin could be influenced on the nucleation or condensation during the nanoprecipitation process. Lignin nanoparticles exhibited high colloidal stability, and most of them also showed good in vitro cell viability. This study presents a possible way to control nanoparticle size by blocking specific functional groups and decreasing the interaction between hydroxyl groups of lignin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11071790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308409PMC
July 2021

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Essential Oil from Omija ( (Turcz.) Baill.) Produced by Supercritical Fluid Extraction Using CO.

Foods 2021 Jul 13;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul 01133, Korea.

(Turcz.) Baill., which is known as omija in South Korea, is mainly cultivated in East Asia. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of essential oil from the omija (OMEO) fruit obtained by supercritical fluid extraction using CO and to confirm the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of OMEO using HaCaT human keratinocyte and RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. As a result of the chemical composition analysis of OMEO using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a total of 41 compounds were identified. The detailed analysis results are sesquiterpenoids (16), monoterpenoids (14), ketones (4), alcohols (3), aldehydes (2), acids (1), and aromatic hydrocarbons (1). OMEO significantly reduced the increased ROS levels in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by UV-B irradiation ( < 0.05). It was confirmed that 5 compounds (α-pinene, camphene, β-myrcene, 2-nonanone, and nerolidol) present in OMEO exhibited inhibitory activity on ROS production. Furthermore, OMEO showed excellent anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide. OMEO effectively inhibited NO production ( < 0.05) by suppressing the expression of the iNOS protein. Finally, OMEO was investigated for exhibition of anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Taken together, OMEO could be used as a functional food ingredient with excellent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10071619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304754PMC
July 2021

Evaluation of pyrochar and hydrochar derived activated carbons for biosorbent and supercapacitor materials.

J Environ Manage 2021 Aug 4;298:113436. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institute of Green-Bio Science andTechnology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Gangwon-do, 25354, South Korea; Graduate School of International Agricultural Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Gangwon-do, 25354, South Korea. Electronic address:

This study investigated effects of different thermal processes on characteristics of activated carbon to produce efficient biosorbents or supercapacitors using biomass resources. Pyrolysis char and hydrochar obtained from woody biomass were used as precursors for activated carbon under different atmospheric conditions (N and air). In order to provide functional groups on the carbon surface, activated carbon under N condition was subsequently acidified by HNO and the other was simultaneously acidified under air condition. Additionally, potential for application as Pb adsorbent and supercapacitor was evaluated. Thermochemical behaviors such as bonding cleavage and dehydration during activation processes were observed by TG and Py-GCMS analysis. Elemental analysis, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS analysis were carried out to confirm changes in structures of each carbon products. New plausible reaction mechanism for this observation was suggested with respect to the formation of a key intermediate in the presence of excess air. As for performance in applications, air activated carbon using hydrochar exhibited high versatility to function as both Pb adsorbent (~41.1 mg/g) and energy storage material (~185.9 F/g) with high specific surface area, mesopore ratio, surface functional groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113436DOI Listing
August 2021

Primary hepatic mixed germ cell tumor in an adult.

J Pathol Transl Med 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Primary hepatic mixed germ cell tumor (GCT) is very rare, and less than 10 cases have been reported. We report a case of mixed GCT composed of a choriocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor, which occurred in the liver of a 40-year-old woman. A large mass was detected by computed tomography solely in the liver. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was highly elevated, otherwise, other serum tumor markers were slightly elevated or within normal limits. For hepatic choriocarcinoma, neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered, followed by right lobectomy. Histologic features of the resected tumor revealed characteristic choriocarcinoma features with diffuse positivity for hCG in the syncytiotrophoblasts and diffuse positivity for α-fetoprotein and Sal-like protein 4 in the yolk sac tumor components. Primary malignant GCT in the liver is associated with a poor prognosis and requires specific treatment. Therefore, GCT should be considered during a differential diagnosis of a rapidly growing mass in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2021.06.16DOI Listing
August 2021

Perioperative and oncologic outcomes of right anterior sectionectomy for liver disease: A single-center experience with 415 patients.

ANZ J Surg 2021 09 27;91(9):1847-1853. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Hepato-biliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Right anterior sectionectomy (RAS) is technically difficult and performed infrequently, so there are few published reports about experiences with this surgery. We describe 10 years' worth of clinicopathologic and oncologic outcomes associated with RAS.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 415 patients treated with RAS for hepatic tumors located at segment five and/or eight between January 2008 and December 2017.

Results: All patients underwent RAS with the alternative Glissonean pedicle clamp and Kelly clamp-crushing methods for transection. The mean operative time was 165 min, and the mean transection time was 28 min. Major morbidity (≥grade III) occurred in 28 cases (6.7%). Bile leakage occurred in 63 patients (15.1%), but no patients required reoperation. Grade A, B, and C post-hepatectomy liver failure occurred in 39 (9.4%), 7 (1.7%), and 0 patients, respectively. There were no in-hospital deaths caused by postoperative complications. The mean hospital stay was 13.3 days. The mean tumor size was 3.8 cm. Among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients (n = 361, 87.0%), the 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 78.3%, 64.4%, and the 5- and 10-year disease-free survival rates were 57.2%, 37.7%, respectively.

Conclusions: RAS was associated with acceptable procedure-related morbidity and mortality as well as appropriate oncologic outcomes for HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.17098DOI Listing
September 2021

Combination of neuron-specific enolase measurement and initial neurological examination for the prediction of neurological outcomes after cardiac arrest.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 23;11(1):15067. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Chonnam National University, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea.

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of the combination of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) measurement and initial neurological examination in predicting the neurological outcomes of patients with cardiac arrest (CA) by retrospectively analyzing data from the Korean Hypothermia Network prospective registry. NSE levels were recorded at 48 and 72 h after CA. The initial Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were recorded. These variables were categorized using the scorecard method. The primary endpoint was poor neurological outcomes at 6 months. Of the 475 patients, 171 (36%) had good neurological outcomes at 6 months. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of the categorized NSE levels at 72 h, GCS score, and FOUR score were 0.889, 0.722, and 0.779, respectively. The AUCs of the combinations of categorized NSE levels at 72 h with categorized GCS scores and FOUR score were 0.910 and 0.912, respectively. Each combination was significantly higher than the AUC value of the categorized NSE level at 72 h alone (with GCS: p = 0.015; with FOUR: p = 0.026). Combining NSE measurement and initial neurological examination improved the prediction of neurological outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94555-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302684PMC
July 2021

Comparison of transorbital ultrasound measurements to predict intracranial pressure in brain-injured patients requiring external ventricular drainage.

J Neurosurg 2021 Jul 23:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

3Department of Neurosurgery, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Objective: The optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) excluding the dura mater (ONSDE; i.e., the subarachnoid diameter) and the ONSD including the dura mater (ONSDI) have been used differently in studies, but the predictive ability of these two different measurements of the ONSD as measured by invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has never been compared. Additionally, studies on the prediction of ICP using central retinal artery (CRA) Doppler ultrasonography are scarce. The authors aimed to determine how the two different ONSD measurements, the ONSD/eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) ratio, and transorbital Doppler ultrasonography parameters are associated with ICP via external ventricular drainage (EVD).

Methods: This prospective observational study included 50 patients with brain injury who underwent EVD between August 2019 and September 2020. The mean of three repeated measurements of the ONSDI and ONSDE was calculated to reduce artifact and off-axis measurements. ETD, an immutable value, was measured from the initial brain CT with a clear outline of the eyeball. Simultaneously, flow velocities in the CRA and posterior ciliary artery (PCA) were compared with the ICP.

Results: The ONSDE, ONSDI, and ONSD/ETD ratio were significantly associated with ICP (p = 0.005, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). The ONSD/ETD ratio showed the highest predictive power of increased ICP (area under the curve [AUC] 0.897). The ONSDI was correlated more with the ICP than was the ONSDE (AUC 0.855 vs 0.783). None of the Doppler ultrasonography parameters in the CRA and PCA were associated with ICP.

Conclusions: The ONSD/ETD ratio is a better predictor of increased ICP compared with the ONSDI or ONSDE in brain-injured patients with nonsevere ICP. The ONSDI may be more available for predicting the ICP than the ONSDE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.1.JNS204218DOI Listing
July 2021

MicroRNA-139-5p Regulates Fibrotic Potentials via Modulation of Collagen Type 1 and Phosphorylated p38 MAPK in Uterine Leiomyoma.

Yonsei Med J 2021 Aug;62(8):726-733

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate whether microRNA-139-5p is involved in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma.

Materials And Methods: Human leiomyoma and matched human smooth muscle samples were obtained from 10 women who underwent hysterectomy for uterine leiomyoma. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. To assess the effects of miR-139-5p on cultured leiomyoma cells, cell migration, collagen gel contraction, wound healing, and the expression levels of hallmark proteins were evaluated in cells transfected with a miR-139-5p mimic.

Results: The expression of miR-139-5p was significantly lower in leiomyoma tissues than in matched smooth muscle tissues. Restored miR-139-5p expression in miR-139-5p mimic-transfected human leiomyoma cells resulted in decreased contractility of the ECM and cell migration. In addition, upregulation of miR-139-5p decreased the protein expression of collagen type 1 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK.

Conclusion: Expression of miR-139-5p is downregulated in leiomyoma cells and modulation of miR-139-5p may be involved inthe pathogenesis of leiomyomas through the regulation of collagen type 1 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK. Therefore, miR-139-5p is a potential therapeutic target for leiomyoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2021.62.8.726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298864PMC
August 2021

The clinicopathologic and operative characteristics of patients with small nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Jul 21;91(7-8):E484-E492. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Incidentally detected, small nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PNETs) are increasingly diagnosed on imaging modalities. This retrospective investigation evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics and perioperative and oncologic outcomes in patients with small NF-PNETs undergoing curative resection.

Methods: The medical records of 444 patients who underwent pancreatic resection for NF-PNETs at a single, large-volume institution between January 2000 and December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into those with small (≤2 cm) and large (>2 cm) tumors based on the largest tumor diameter on preoperative computed tomography (CT). Outcomes were also evaluated in subgroups of patients with small NF-PNET who did and did not undergo lymphadenectomy.

Results: Of the 444 patients with NF-PNETs, 195 (43.9%) had small (≤2 cm) and 249 (56.1%) had large (>2 cm) NF-PNETs. The rate of parenchyma-preserving surgery (14.4% vs. 7.2%, p = 0.014) and the ratio of spleen preservation for left-sided pancreatectomy (65.6% vs. 38.3%, p < 0.001) were higher in the small NF-PNET group. Size on CT >2 cm (p < 0.001, hazard ratio [HR]: 5.836, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.474-13.769), presence of perineural invasion (p < 0.001, HR: 3.025, 95% CI: 1.640-5.577), World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 2 (p = 0.007, HR: 2.861, 95% CI: 1.325-6.176), and WHO Grade 3 (p < 0.001, HR: 11.537, 95% CI: 5.282-25.199) were independent predictors of disease-free survival (DFS). DFS did not differ significantly in patients with small NF-PNETs who did and did not undergo lymphadenectomy (p = 0.886).

Conclusions: Assessment of long-term oncologic outcomes suggests that surgical resection may cure small NF-PNETs. Minimally invasive surgery and organ-preserving surgery are acceptable treatment options for select patients with small NF-PNETs. The effect on survival outcomes of lymph node dissection for small NF-PNETs remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.17055DOI Listing
July 2021

The impact of preoperative EUS-FNA for distal resectable pancreatic cancer: Is it really effective enough to take risks?

Surg Endosc 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Aims: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is frequently used for the preoperative histologic diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. However, debate continues regarding the clinical merits of preoperative EUS-FNA for the management of resectable pancreatic cancer. We aimed to evaluate the benefits and safety of preoperative EUS-FNA for resectable distal pancreatic cancer.

Methods: The medical records of 304 consecutive patients with suspected distal pancreatic cancer who underwent EUS-FNA were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the clinical benefits of preoperative EUS-FNA. We also reviewed the medical records of 528 patients diagnosed with distal pancreatic cancer who underwent distal pancreatectomy with or without EUS-FNA. The recurrence rates and cancer-free survival periods of patients who did or did not undergo preoperative EUS-FNA were compared.

Results: The diagnostic accuracy of preoperative EUS-FNA was high (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value 100%; accuracy, 90.7%; negative predictive value, 73.8%). Among patients, 26.7% (79/304) avoided surgery based on the preoperative EUS-FNA findings. Of the 528 patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy, 193 patients received EUS-FNA and 335 did not. During follow-up (median 21.7 months), the recurrence rate was similar in the two groups (EUS-FNA, 72.7%; non-EUS-FNA, 75%; P = 0.58). The median cancer-free survival was also similar (P = 0.58); however, gastric wall recurrence was only encountered in the patients with EUS-FNA (n = 2).

Conclusion: Preoperative EUS-FNA is not associated with increased risks of cancer-specific or overall survival. However, clinicians must consider the potential risks of needle tract seeding, and care should be taken when selecting patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08627-3DOI Listing
July 2021

The Effects of NF-kB Inhibition with p65-TMD-Linked PTD on Inflammatory Responses at Peri-implantitis Sites.

Inflammation 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul, 120-752, South Korea.

The objective of this study was to find out if suppression of NF-kB complex function by p65-TMD-linked PTD could reduce host inflammation and bone resorption at peri-implantitis sites in rats. Twenty-one male 5-week-old SD rats were divided into three groups: untreated control group (A), silk-induced peri-implantitis group (B), and nt (nucleus transducible)-p65-TMD-treated, silk-induced peri-implantitis group (C). Implant sulcus of a rat in group C were divided into two groups, namely group Cp and Cb. Palatal implant sulcus where nt-p65-TMD solution was applied with an insulin syringe were assigned to group Cp. Buccal implant sulcus without topical nt-p65-TMD application were assigned to group Cb. H&E staining, TRAP staining, and immunohistological staining were done. The crestal bone levels of group A were significantly higher than those of group B at p<0.01. The crestal bone levels of group Cp were significantly higher than those of group Cb at p<0.05. H-E staining showed increased apical migration of junctional epithelium and inflammatory cells in group Cb. TRAP staining revealed more multinucleated osteoclasts in group Cb. As for immunohistological staining, group Cb showed many IL-6-positive cells while group Cp had none. In this study, p65-TMD-linked PTD inhibited NF-kB functions and reduced inflammation and bone resorption at peri-implantitis sites in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-021-01500-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Angiomatous Polyp Originating From the Inferior Turbinate: A Variant of the Sinonasal Polyp.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jun 10:1455613211019709. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Otolaryngology, Institute of Wonkwang Medical Science, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Chonbuk, Korea.

Angiomatous polyps are an uncommon subtype of sinonasal polyps, characterized by extensive vascular proliferation and ectasia. The authors report the first case of angiomatous polyp originating from the inferior turbinate, which is a variant of the sinonasal polyp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613211019709DOI Listing
June 2021

Prognostic significance of bone marrow and spleen F-FDG uptake in patients with colorectal cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12137. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 211 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06273, Republic of Korea.

Serum inflammatory markers are used in the prognostication of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the corresponding role of positron emission tomography (PET)-derived inflammatory markers remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the bone marrow and spleen of patients with CRC and evaluate the relationship between FDG uptake estimates in these organs and serum inflammatory markers. In total, 411 patients who underwent preoperative FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) within 1 month of surgery were enrolled. The mean standardized uptake values of the bone marrow and spleen were normalized to the value of the liver, thereby generating bone marrow-to-liver uptake ratio (BLR) and spleen-to-liver uptake ratio (SLR) estimates. The value of BLR and SLR in predicting overall survival (OS) was assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The correlation between BLR or SLR and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was evaluated. The predictive accuracy of BLR alone and in combination with SLR was compared using the integrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (iAUC). In the univariate analysis, BLR (> 1.06) and SLR (> 0.93) were significant predictors of OS. In the multivariate analysis, BLR was an independent predictor of OS (hazard ratio = 5.279; p < 0.001). Both BLR and SLR were correlated with NLR (p < 0.001). A combination of BLR and SLR was better than BLR alone at CRC prognostication (iAUC, 0.561 vs. 0.542). FDG uptake estimates in the bone marrow and spleen may be useful imaging-derived biomarkers of systemic inflammation, supporting CRC prognostication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91608-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190120PMC
June 2021

Effect of herbal extracts on peripheral nerve regeneration after microsurgery of the sciatic nerve in rats.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Jun 4;21(1):162. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Cardiology and Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 892 Dongnam-ro, Gangdong-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Recent experimental studies using herbal extracts have shown the possibility of peripheral nerve regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbal extracts on peripheral nerve regeneration in a rat sciatic nerve injury model.

Methods: A total of 53 rats were randomly assigned to a control group or one of four experimental groups. In all rats, the sciatic nerve was completely severed and microscopic epineural end-to-end neurorrhaphy was performed. Normal saline (2 mL) was topically applied to the site of nerve repair in the control group, whereas four different herbal extracts - 2 mL each of Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, Coptis japonica (Thunb.) Makino, Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, or Paeonia lactiflora Pall. - were topically applied to the site of nerve repair in each experimental group. Nerve conduction studies were performed at an average of 11.9 weeks after the operation, and conduction velocity and proximal and distal amplitudes were measured. Biopsies were performed at an average of 13.2 weeks after the initial neurorrhaphy. The quality of nerve anastomosis and perineural adhesion to the surrounding soft tissues was macroscopically evaluated. The neuroma size at the site of the neurorrhaphy was microscopically measured, whereas the size of the scar tissue was evaluated relative to the diameter of the repaired nerve.

Results: The nerve conduction study results showed the highest nerve conduction velocity in the experimental group that used the Coptis japonica (Thunb.) Makino extract and the highest proximal and distal amplitudes in the experimental group that used the Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux extract. Macroscopic evaluations after the second operation showed that grade 2 perineural adhesion was found in 70.8% of rats. The mean neuroma size in the Coptis japonica (Thunb.) Makino, Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux, and Paeonia lactiflora Pall. groups showed statistically significant decreases relative to the control group. The mean scar tissue formation index in the Paeonia lactiflora Pall. group showed a statistically significant decrease relative to the control group.

Conclusions: The peripheral nerve regeneration effect of the herbal extracts was confirmed through decreased neuroma and scar tissue formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03335-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178854PMC
June 2021

Importance of wearing a mask continuously and appropriately regardless of the COVID 19 symptoms. Lessons from different mask-wearing styles among two healthcare personnel.

Braz J Infect Dis 2021 May-Jun;25(3):101590. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The anecdotal report describes two examples of COVID-19-positive healthcare professionals (HCPs) who had worked as nurses during pre-symptomatic period and subsequently presented a mild clinical course of COVID-19. The nurses' responsibilities were almost the same and worked in the general ward with no aerosol generating medical procedures. Two HCPs were expected to have similar infectiousness, but the number of secondary transmission by each HCP were different. Eleven close contacts from HCP1 were notified, and all of them tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. However, 13 of 35 close contacts of HCP2 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. While working, mask-wearing style differed between the two HCPs. HCP1 wore a KF94 mask appropriately and kept wearing it while working. HCP2 wore a surgical mask while working, but often pulled it down to her chin or removed it. It was strongly suspected that the difference of mask wearing contributed to the SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, other factors such as talkative behavior, exposure time, ventilation in rooms, and hand hygiene performance rates, could also have affected the transmission of COVID-19. It is crucial that healthcare workers wear a mask adequately and continuously, and they maintain proper hand hygiene while working during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2021.101590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130494PMC
August 2021

C1qa deficiency in mice increases susceptibility to mouse hepatitis virus A59 infection.

J Vet Sci 2021 May;22(3):e36

Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Background: Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) A59 is a highly infectious pathogen and starts in the respiratory tract and progresses to systemic infection in laboratory mice. The complement system is an important part of the host immune response to viral infection. It is not clear the role of the classical complement pathway in MHV infection.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the classical pathway in coronavirus pathogenesis by comparing KO mice and wild-type mice.

Methods: We generated a KO mouse using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and compared the susceptibility to MHV A59 infection between KO and wild-type mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes, viral loads, and chemokine expressions in both mice were measured.

Results: MHV A59-infected KO mice showed severe histopathological changes, such as hepatocellular necrosis and interstitial pneumonia, compared to MHV A59-infected wild-type mice. Virus copy numbers in the olfactory bulb, liver, and lungs of KO mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. The increase in viral copy numbers in KO mice was consistent with the histopathologic changes in organs. These results indicate that deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection in mice. In addition, this enhanced susceptibility effect is associated with dramatic elevations in spleen IFN-γ, MIP-1 α, and MCP-1 in KO mice.

Conclusions: These data suggest that deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection, and activation of the classical complement pathway may be important for protecting the host against MHV A59 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2021.22.e36DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170211PMC
May 2021

Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Late Median Nerve Neuropathy After Open Reduction and Volar Locking Plate Fixation of Distal Radius Fracture.

Orthopedics 2021 May-Jun;44(3):e367-e372. Epub 2021 May 1.

It is well-known that late median nerve neuropathy can occur after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of distal radius fracture (DRF). The current study investigated the predictive factors of late median nerve neuropathy after ORIF with a volar locking plate for DRF. The authors retrospectively reviewed 712 patients who underwent ORIF using a volar locking plate after DRF at 3 medical institutions between 2006 and 2017. Thirty-seven (5.2%) patients developed late median nerve neuropathy at a mean of 8.25±3.47 months (range, 3-19 months) after surgery. The radiographic data of 37 patients (group A) who had late median nerve neuropathy were compared with those of 148 patients (group B) who did not. Group A had a significantly higher proportion of type C3 fracture and Soong grade 2 than group B. Postoperative dorsal tilt in group A was greater than that in group B. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, the following predictive factors were associated with late median nerve neuropathy: increased postoperative dorsal tilt and Soong grade 2. The development of late median nerve neuropathy after ORIF using a volar locking plate for DRF was associated with increased postoperative dorsal tilt and the plate being placed distal to the volar rim. Physicians should consider the possibility of late median nerve neuropathy in patients with these factors during follow-up. [. 2021;44(3):e367-e372.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20210414-08DOI Listing
July 2021
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