Publications by authors named "Jae Ho Byun"

172 Publications

Abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging vs ultrasound for surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma in high-risk patients.

Liver Int 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Liver Cancer Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background & Aims: We aimed to compare the performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced abbreviated MRI (AMRI)-based surveillance and ultrasound-only surveillance in high-risk patients for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: Prospectively recruited high-risk patients (>5% annual risk of HCC) who underwent one to three rounds of complete gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (CMRI) and ultrasound at 6-months intervals were retrospectively analysed. AMRI consisted of diffusion-weighted, T2-weighted, and hepatobiliary phase imaging. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CMRI followed by AMRI (CAA), AMRI-only (AAA), and ultrasound-only (US) were compared using generalized estimating equations. Image quality was assessed.

Results: In 382 patients, HCC was diagnosed in 43 (11.3%), including 42 with early-stage HCCs. The sensitivities of CAA (90.7%, 39/43) and AAA (86.0%, 37/43) were higher than US (27.9% [12/43]; P < 0.001), whereas the sensitivities of the two MRI approaches did not significantly differ (P = 0.56). The specificity of CAA (97.1%, 983/1012) was higher than AAA (95.6% [967/1012]; P = 0.01) and not significantly different from US (96.3% [975/1012]; P = 0.59). The CAA approach had the best accuracy of 96.9% (1022/1055), higher than the AAA approach (95.2% [1004/1055]; P = 0.01) and the US approach (93.6% [987/1055]; P = 0.01). Image quality was inadequate in 33.7% (356/1055) of US examinations but in only 10.0% (105/1055) of the AAA and 11.1% (117/1055) of the CAA approach.

Conclusions: In high-risk patients, AMRI-based surveillance approaches had higher sensitivities than ultrasound-only surveillance for early-stage HCC. A sequential MRI approach of CMRI followed by AMRIs showed superior accuracy than the AMRI-only or ultrasound-only approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.15110DOI Listing
November 2021

Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Surveillance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Sep 12;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Our meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of surveillance magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to compare the diagnostic performance of sMRI between different protocols. Original articles about the diagnostic accuracy of sMRI for detecting HCC were found in major databases. The meta-analytic pooled sensitivity and specificity of sMRI for detecting HCC were determined using a bivariate random effects model. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of full MRI and abbreviated MRI protocols were compared using bivariate meta-regression. In the total seven included studies (1830 patients), the pooled sensitivity of sMRI for any-stage HCC and very early-stage HCC were 85% (95% confidence interval, 79-90%; = 0%) and 77% (66-85%; = 32%), respectively. The pooled specificity for any-stage HCC and very early-stage HCC were 94% (90-97%; = 94%) and 94% (88-97%; = 96%), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of abbreviated MRI protocols were 87% (80-94%) and 94% (90-98%), values that were comparable with those of full MRI protocols (84% [76-91%] and 94% [89-99%]; = 0.83). In conclusion, sMRI had good sensitivity for detecting HCC, particularly very early-stage HCC. Abbreviated MRI protocols for HCC surveillance had comparable diagnostic performance to full MRI protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11091665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469328PMC
September 2021

Transient Severe Motion Artifact on Arterial Phase in Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Invest Radiol 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

From the Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of transient severe motion artifact (TSM) on arterial phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver and to investigate the causes of heterogeneity in the published literature.

Materials And Methods: Original studies reporting the incidence of TSM were identified in searches of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The pooled incidence of TSM was calculated using random-effects meta-analysis of single proportions. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore causes of heterogeneity.

Results: A total of 24 studies were finally included (single arterial phase, 19 studies with 3065 subjects; multiple arterial phases, 8 studies with 2274 subjects). Studies using single arterial phase imaging reported individual TSM rates varying from 4.8% to 26.7% and a pooled incidence of TSM of 13.0% (95% confidence interval, 10.3%-16.2%), which showed substantial study heterogeneity. The pooled incidence of TSM in the studies using multiple arterial phase imaging was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 1.9%-5.2%), which was significantly less than in those studies using single arterial phase imaging (P < 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, the geographical region of studies and the definition of TSM were found to be causes of heterogeneity. The incidence of TSM was higher in studies with Western populations from Europe or North America than in those with Eastern (Asia/Pacific) populations (16.0% vs 8.8%, P = 0.005). Regarding the definition of TSM, the incidence of TSM was higher when a 4-point scale was used for its categorization than when a 5-point scale was used (20.0% vs 11.0%, P = 0.008), and a definition considering motion artifact on phases other than arterial phase imaging lowered the incidence of TSM compared with it being defined only on arterial phase imaging (11.3% vs 20.3%, P = 0.018).

Conclusions: The incidence of TSM on arterial phase images varied across studies and was associated with the geographical region of studies and the definition of TSM. Careful interpretation of results reporting TSM might therefore be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000806DOI Listing
June 2021

Meta-Analysis of the Accuracy of Abbreviated Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance: Non-Contrast versus Hepatobiliary Phase-Abbreviated Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 14;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

We aimed to determine the performance of surveillance abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (AMRI) for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to compare the performance of surveillance AMRI according to different protocols. Original research studies reporting the performance of surveillance AMRI for the detection of HCC were identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of surveillance AMRI were calculated using a hierarchical model. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of contrast-enhanced hepatobiliary phase (HBP)-AMRI and non-contrast (NC)-AMRI were calculated and compared using bivariate meta-regression. Ten studies, including 1547 patients, reported the accuracy of surveillance AMRI. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of surveillance AMRI for detecting any-stage HCC were 86% (95% confidence interval (CI), 80-90%; = 0%) and 96% (95% CI, 93-98%; = 80.5%), respectively. HBP-AMRI showed a significantly higher sensitivity for detecting HCC than NC-AMRI (87% vs. 82%), but significantly lower specificity (93% vs. 98%) ( = 0.03). Study quality and MRI magnet field strength were factors significantly associated with study heterogeneity ( ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, surveillance AMRI showed good overall diagnostic performance for detecting HCC. HBP-AMRI had significantly higher sensitivity for detecting HCC than NC-AMRI, but lower specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13122975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231787PMC
June 2021

MRI Features for Predicting Microvascular Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Liver Cancer 2021 Apr 11;10(2):94-106. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Radiology, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Microvascular invasion (MVI) is an important prognostic factor in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the reported results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features for predicting MVI of HCC are variable and conflicting. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to identify the significant MRI features for MVI of HCC and to determine their diagnostic value.

Methods: Original studies reporting the diagnostic performance of MRI for predicting MVI of HCC were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE up until January 15, 2020. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. A bivariate random-effects model was used to calculate the meta-analytic pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each MRI feature for diagnosing MVI in HCC. The meta-analytic pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the significant MRI features.

Results: Among 235 screened articles, we found 36 studies including 4,274 HCCs. Of the 15 available MRI features, 7 were significantly associated with MVI: larger tumor size (>5 cm) (DOR = 5.2, 95% CI [3.0-9.0]), rim arterial enhancement (4.2, 95% CI [1.7-10.6]), arterial peritumoral enhancement (4.4, 95% CI [2.8-6.9]), peritumoral hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase imaging (HBP) (8.2, 95% CI [4.4-15.2]), nonsmooth tumor margin (3.2, 95% CI [2.2-4.4]), multifocality (7.1, 95% CI [2.6-19.5]), and hypointensity on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) (4.9, 95% CI [2.5-9.6]). Both peritumoral hypointensity on HBP and multifocality showed very high meta-analytic pooled specificities for diagnosing MVI (91.1% [85.4-94.8%] and 93.3% [74.5-98.5%], respectively).

Conclusions: Seven MRI features including larger tumor size, rim arterial enhancement, arterial peritumoral enhancement, peritumoral hypointensity on HBP, nonsmooth margin, multifocality, and hypointensity on T1WI were significant predictors for MVI of HCC. These MRI features predictive of MVI can be useful in the management of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077694PMC
April 2021

Combined computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging improves diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma ≤ 3.0 cm.

Hepatol Int 2021 Jun 6;15(3):676-684. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Background/purpose: Imaging diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is important, but the diagnostic performance of combined computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2018 is not fully understood. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of combined CT and MRI for diagnosing HCC ≤ 3.0 cm using LI-RADS.

Methods: In 222 patients at risk of HCC who underwent both contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in 2017, 291 hepatic nodules ≤ 3.0 cm were retrospectively analyzed. Two radiologists performed image analysis and assigned a LI-RADS category to each nodule. The diagnostic performance for HCC was evaluated for CT, ordinary-MRI (washout confined to portal venous-phase), and modified-MRI (washout extended to hepatobiliary phase), and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each modality. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare the diagnostic performance for HCC between combined CT and ordinary-MRI, combined CT and modified-MRI, and CT or MRI alone. p < 0.0062 (0.05/8) was considered statistically significant following Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.

Results: In 291 nodules, the sensitivity and specificity of CT, ordinary-MRI, and modified-MRI were 70.2% and 92.8%, 72.6% and 96.4%, and 84.6% and 88.0%, respectively. Compared with CT or MRI alone, both combined CT and ordinary-MRI (sensitivity, 83.7%; specificity, 95.2%) and combined CT and modified-MRI (sensitivity, 88.9%; specificity, 89.2%) showed significantly higher sensitivity (p ≤ 0.006), without a significant decrease in specificity (p ≥ 0.314).

Conclusions: Compared with CT or MRI alone, combined CT and MRI can increase sensitivity for diagnosing HCC ≤ 3.0 cm, without a significant decrease in specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10190-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: Inter-reader reliability of CT Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System according to imaging analysis methodology: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Radiol 2021 Nov;31(11):8820-8821

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07949-zDOI Listing
November 2021

Value of discrepancy of the central scar-like structure between dynamic CT and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in differentiation of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jun 22;139:109730. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To identify the value of discrepancies in the central scar (CS)-like structure between dynamic CT and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI for differentiating FNH from HCA.

Methods: This retrospective study included 113 patients with pathologically-diagnosed FNH (n = 80) or HCA (n = 37). CS-like structures were evaluated on arterial phase (AP) CT and hepatobiliary phase (HBP) MRI. Presence of the CS-like structure, its discrepancy in visibility or size between AP CT and HBP MRI and between AP and HBP MRI, and features of non-scarred tumor portion were evaluated by two radiologists. Inter-observer agreement was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and weighted kappa. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression and ROC analysis were performed to explore features differentiating FNH from HCA.

Results: Inter-observer agreement was moderate-to-excellent (ICCs≥0.74, kappa≥0.65). On univariable analysis, presence of CS-like structures (P < 0.001), discrepancy of the CS-like structures between AP CT and HBP MRI (73.8 % in FNH; 16.2 % in HCA, P < 0.001) and between AP and HBP MRI (70.0 % in FNH; 16.2 % in HCA, P < 0.001), and the features of non-scarred tumor portion (P ≤ 0.011) were significantly different between FNH and HCA. On multivariable analysis, the discrepancy of CS-like structures between AP CT and HBP MRI, and the absence of low SI of the non-scarred tumor portion on HBP MRI, were suggestive of FNH (P = 0.036 and P < 0.001, respectively; area under the ROC curve, 0.96 [95 % CI, 0.93-0.99]).

Conclusion: Evaluation of discrepancy in the visibility or size of CS-like structures between dynamic CT and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI may facilitate the differentiation of FNH from HCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109730DOI Listing
June 2021

Inter-reader reliability of CT Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System according to imaging analysis methodology: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Radiol 2021 Sep 13;31(9):6856-6867. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To establish inter-reader reliability of CT Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) and explore factors that affect it.

Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched from January 2014 to March 2020 to identify original articles reporting the inter-reader reliability of CT LI-RADS. The imaging analysis methodology of each study was identified, and pooled intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or kappa values (κ) were calculated for lesion size, major features (arterial-phase hyperenhancement [APHE], nonperipheral washout [WO], and enhancing capsule [EC]), and LI-RADS categorization (LR) using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses of pooled κ were performed for the number of readers, average reader experience, differences in reader experience, and LI-RADS version.

Results: In the 12 included studies, the pooled ICC or κ of lesion size, APHE, WO, EC, and LR were 0.99 (0.96-1.00), 0.69 (0.58-0.81), 0.67 (0.53-0.82), 0.65 (0.54-0.76), and 0.70 (0.59-0.82), respectively. The experience and number of readers varied: studies using readers with ≥ 10 years of experience showed significantly higher κ for LR (0.82 vs. 0.45, p = 0.01) than those with < 10 years of reader experience. Studies with multiple readers including inexperienced readers showed significantly lower κ for APHE (0.55 vs. 0.76, p = 0.04) and LR (0.45 vs. 0.79, p = 0.02) than those with all experienced readers.

Conclusions: CT LI-RADS showed substantial inter-reader reliability for major features and LR. Inter-reader reliability differed significantly according to average reader experience and differences in reader experience. Reported results for inter-reader reliability of CT LI-RADS should be understood with consideration of the imaging analysis methodology.

Key Points: • The CT Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) provides substantial inter-reader reliability for three major features and category assignment. • The imaging analysis methodology varied across studies. • The inter-reader reliability of CT LI-RADS differed significantly according to the average reader experience and the difference in reader experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07815-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Combined Hepatocellular-Cholangiocarcinoma: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features and Prognosis According to Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 06 9;53(6):1803-1812. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA) can develop in patients with and without risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Purpose: To compare the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of cHCC-CCA in patients with and without risk factors for HCC, and to assess the influence of risk factors on patient prognosis.

Study Type: Retrospective.

Population: A total of 152 patients with surgically confirmed cHCC-CCA.

Field Strength/sequence: 1.5-T and 3-T/T1-weighted dual gradient-echo in- and opposed-phase, T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo, diffusion-weighted single-shot spin-echo echo-planar, and T1-weighted three-dimensional gradient-echo contrast-enhanced sequences.

Assessment: MRI features according to the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) and pathologic findings based on revised classification were compared between patients with and without risk factors for HCC. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were also compared between the two groups, and factors associated with survival were evaluated.

Statistical Tests: The clinico-pathologic and MRI features of the two groups were compared using Student's t-tests, Mann-Whitney U-tests, and chi-square tests. OS and RFS were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and factors associated with survival were evaluated by Cox proportional hazard model.

Results: cHCC-CCA in patients with risk factors were more frequently classified as LI-RADS category 4 or 5 (LR-4/5; probably or definitely HCC) (48.7%), whereas those without risk factors were more frequently classified as category M (LR-M; probably malignant, not specific for HCC) (63.6%). RFS and OS did not differ significantly according to risk factors (P = 0.63 and 0.83). Multivariable analysis showed that pathologic tumor type (hazard ratio 2.02; P < 0.05) and LI-RADS category (hazard ratio 2.19; P < 0.05) were significantly associated with RFS and OS, respectively.

Data Conclusion: Although MRI features of cHCC-CCA differed significantly between patients with and without risk factors for HCC, postsurgical prognosis did not. LI-RADS category and pathologic tumor type were independently correlated with postsurgical prognosis in patients with cHCC-CCA.

Level Of Evidence: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27528DOI Listing
June 2021

Interreader Reliability of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System Treatment Response: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 4;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505, Korea.

Background: For a proper management strategy in patients with locoregionally treated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is essential that the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) treatment response algorithm (LR-TR) has high interreader reliability. We aimed to systematically evaluate the interreader reliability of LR-TR and sources of any study heterogeneity.

Methods: Original studies reporting the interreader reliability of LR-TR were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 20 September 2020. The pooled kappa coefficient (κ) was calculated using the DerSimonian-Laird random effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed according to imaging modality (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT)). Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore study heterogeneity.

Results: Eight studies with 851 HCCs were finally included. Pooled κ was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.58-0.82) for CT/MRI LR-TR, and those of MRI and CT were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.53-0.89) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65-0.78), respectively. Study design ( < 0.001) and type of treatment ( = 0.02) were significantly associated with substantial study heterogeneity.

Conclusion: LR-TR showed substantial interreader reliability regardless of the imaging modality. Because of substantial study heterogeneity, which was significantly associated with study design and type of treatment, published values for the interreader reliability of LR-TR should be interpreted with care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913820PMC
February 2021

The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy and early tumor regression on the outcome of nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

Oral Oncol 2021 02 25;113:105130. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Medical Oncology, Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: We assessed the role of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and investigated the prognostic factors for recurrence and survival.

Materials And Methods: Between January 2008 and January 2018, 88 non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with CCRT and with or without ACT in two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. The initial tumor response evaluation was performed 1 month after CCRT completion. Survival analysis was performed for factors such as initial tumor regression, ACT and other clinical factors. Subgroup analysis was performed for the four-group categorized according to tumor regression and ACT (CR with/without ACT, non-CR with/without ACT).

Results: Complete response (CR) 1 month after CCRT was a favorable prognosticator for progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR] 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-9.85, p = 0.046) and overall survival (OS) (HR 3.19, 95% CI 1.14-8.93, p = 0.027). Also, ACT was an independent factor for PFS (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.98, p = 0.047) and OS (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.13-0.99, p = 0.047). In subgroup analysis, the CR after CCRT followed by ACT group showed significantly higher locoregional recurrence-free survival (p = 0.02), OS (p = 0.003), distant-metastasis free survival (p = 0.07), and PFS (p = 0.01) than the other three groups.

Conclusion: Tumor regression 1 month after CCRT, and administration of ACT identified as an independent prognosticator for PFS and OS in this study. Even patients who show early tumor regression after CCRT may benefit from ACT. Further randomized trials should define the role of ACT in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer who achieved CR after CCRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.105130DOI Listing
February 2021

Diagnostic performance of ultrasonography-guided core-needle biopsy according to MRI LI-RADS diagnostic categories.

Ultrasonography 2021 Jul 3;40(3):387-397. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines, biopsy is a diagnostic option for focal hepatic lesions depending on the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) category. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) according to LI-RADS categories.

Methods: A total of 145 High-risk patients for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by CNB for a focal hepatic lesion preoperatively were retrospectively enrolled. Focal hepatic lesions on MRI were evaluated according to LI-RADS version 2018. Pathologic results were categorized into HCC, non-HCC malignancies, and benignity. The categorization was defined as correct when the CNB pathology and surgical pathology reports were identical. Nondiagnostic results were defined as inadequate CNB pathology findings for a specific diagnosis. The proportion of correct categorizations was calculated for each LI-RADS category, excluding nondiagnostic results.

Results: After excluding 16 nondiagnostic results, 131 lesions were analyzed (45 LR-5, 24 LR-4, 4 LR-3, and 58 LR-M). All LR-5 lesions were HCC, and CNB correctly categorized 97.8% (44/45) of LR-5 lesions. CNB correctly categorized all 24 LR-4 lesions, 16.7% (4/24) of which were non-HCC malignancies. All LR-M lesions were malignant, and 62.1% (36/58) were non-HCC malignancies. CNB correctly categorized 93.1% (54/58) of LR-M lesions, and 12.5% (3/24) of lesions with CNB results of HCC were confirmed as non-HCC malignancies.

Conclusion: In agreement with AASLD guidelines, CNB could be helpful for LR-4 lesions, but is unnecessary for LR-5 lesions. In LR-M lesions, CNB results of HCC did not exclude non-HCC malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14366/usg.20110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217794PMC
July 2021

Diagnostic performance of MRI for HCC according to contrast agent type: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hepatol Int 2020 Dec 4;14(6):1009-1022. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Background/purpose: Conflicting results have been reported between the use of extracellular contrast agent (ECA) and hepatobiliary contrast agent (HBA) when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, we aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of MRI using ECA (ECA-MRI) and HBA (HBA-MRI).

Methods: Original studies reporting the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced MRI for the diagnosis of HCC published between January 2010 and February 2020 were identified in a Pubmed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library database search. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of ECA-MRI and HBA-MRI were calculated using a bivariate random effects model and compared using a joint-model bivariate meta-regression. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare the diagnostic performance of ECA-MRI and HBA-MRI according to study design, underlying liver disease, lesion size, reference standard, and imaging criteria.

Results: Of the 1760 screened articles, 31 studies were included: 15 studies included 2890 lesions imaged using ECA-MRI and 19 studies included 3893 lesions imaged using HBA-MRI. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different between ECA-MRI (sensitivity, 72% [95% confidence interval 65-79%]; specificity 92% [89-95%]) and HBA-MRI (76% [68-83%]; 92% [87-95%], p = 0.72). Subgroup analyses did not find differences in diagnostic performance between ECA-MRI and HBA-MRI according to study design (p ≥ 0.11), underlying disease (p ≥ 0.09), lesion size (≤ 2 cm, p = 0.97), reference standard (p = 0.70), or imaging criteria (p = 0.33).

Conclusion: ECA-MRI showed similar performance to HBA-MRI in the diagnosis of HCC. The contrast agent might be selected with consideration of the advantages of each agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-020-10100-7DOI Listing
December 2020

Meta-analysis of CT and MRI for differentiation of autoimmune pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 4;31(5):3427-3438. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Radiology and the Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 138-736, South Korea.

Objectives: To systematically determine the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiating autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), with a comparison between the two imaging modalities.

Methods: Literature search was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify original articles published between 2009 and 2019 reporting the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for differentiating AIP from PDAC. The meta-analytic sensitivity and specificity of CT and MRI were calculated, and compared using a bivariate random effects model. Subgroup analysis for differentiating focal AIP from PDAC was performed.

Results: Of the 856 articles screened, 11 eligible articles are remained, i.e., five studies for CT, four for MRI, and two for both. The meta-analytic summary sensitivity and specificity of CT were 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41-75%) and 99% (95% CI, 88-100%), respectively, while those of MRI were 84% (95% CI, 68-93%) and 97% (95% CI, 87-99%). MRI had a significantly higher meta-analytic summary sensitivity than CT (84% vs. 59%, p = 0.02) but a similar specificity (97% vs. 99%, p = 0.18). In the subgroup analysis for focal AIP, the sensitivity for distinguishing between focal AIP and PDAC was lower than that for the overall analysis. MRI had a higher sensitivity than CT (76% vs. 50%, p = 0.28) but a similar specificity (97% vs. 98%, p = 0.07).

Conclusion: MRI might be clinically more useful to evaluate patients with AIP, particularly for differentiating AIP from PDAC.

Key Points: • MRI had an overall good diagnostic performance to differentiate AIP from PDAC with a meta-analytic summary estimate of 83% for sensitivity and of 97% for specificity. • CT had a very high specificity (99%), but a suboptimal sensitivity (59%) for differentiating AIP from PDAC. • Compared with CT, MRI had a higher sensitivity, but a similar specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07416-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Real-World Clinical Data of Palbociclib in Asian Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Experiences from Eight Institutions.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Apr 28;53(2):409-423. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Incheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Use of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors improved survival outcome of hormone receptor (HR) positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients, including Asian population. However, Asian real-world data of palbociclib is limited. We analyzed the real-world clinical practice patterns and outcome in HR-positive, MBC Asian patients treated with palbociclib.

Materials And Methods: Between April 2017 to November 2019, 169 HR-positive, human epidermal growth factor-2-negative MBC patients treated with letrozole or fulvestrant plus palbocilib were enrolled from eight institutions. Survival outcome (progression-free survival [PFS]), treatment response and toxicity profiles were analyzed.

Results: Median age of letrozole plus palbociclib (145 patients, 85.8%) and fulvestrant plus palbociclib (24 patients, 14.2%) was 58 and 53.5 years, with median follow-up duration of 14.63 months (range 0.2 to 33.9 months). Median PFS (mPFS) of letrozole plus palbociclib and fulvestrant plus palbociclib was 25.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.1 to not reached) and 6.37 months (95% CI, 5.33 to not reached), comparable to previous phase 3 trials. In letrozole plus palbociclib arm, luminal A (hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.20 to 6.80; p=0.017) and patients with good performance (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0-1 [hazard ratio, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.70 to 7.96]) showed better mPFS. In fulvestrant plus palbociclib group, chemotherapy naïve patients showed better mPFS (hazard ratio, 12.51, 95% CI, 1.59 to 99.17; p=0.017). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse event was neutropenia (letrozole 86.3%, fulvestrant 88.3%).

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first real-world data of palbociclib reported in Asia. Palbociclib showed comparable benefit to previous phase 3 trials in Asian patients during daily clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053880PMC
April 2021

CT in the prediction of margin-negative resection in pancreatic cancer following neoadjuvant treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 30;31(5):3383-3393. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, South Korea.

Objectives: We aimed to systematically evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT-determined resectability following neoadjuvant treatment for predicting margin-negative resection (R0 resection) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Methods: Original studies with sufficient details to obtain the sensitivity and specificity of CT-determined resectability following neoadjuvant treatment, with a reference on the pathological margin status, were identified in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases until February 24, 2020. The identified studies were divided into two groups based on the criteria of R0 resectable tumor (ordinary criterion: resectable PDAC alone; extended criterion: resectable and borderline resectable PDAC). The meta-analytic summary of the sensitivity and specificity for each criterion was estimated separately using a bivariate random-effect model. Summary results of the two criteria were compared using a joint-model bivariate meta-regression.

Results: Of 739 studies initially searched, 6 studies (6 with ordinary criterion and 5 with extended criterion) were included for analysis. The meta-analytic summary of sensitivity and specificity was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19-73%; I = 88.3%) and 85% (95% CI, 65-94%; I = 60.5%) for the ordinary criterion, and 81% (95% CI, 71-87%; I = 0.0%) and 42% (95% CI, 28-57%; I = 6.2%) for the extended criterion, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy significantly differed between the two criteria (p = 0.02).

Conclusions: For determining resectability on CT, the ordinary criterion might be highly specific but insensitive for predicting R0 resection, whereas the extended criterion increased sensitivity but would decrease specificity. Further investigations using quantitative parameters may improve the identification of R0 resection.

Key Points: • CT-determined resectability of PDAC after neoadjuvant treatment using the ordinary criterion shows low sensitivity and high specificity in predicting R0 resection. • With the extended criterion, CT-determined resectability shows higher sensitivity but lower specificity than with the ordinary criterion. • CT-determined resectability with both criteria achieved suboptimal diagnostic performances, suggesting that care should be taken while selecting surgical candidates and when determining the surgical extent after neoadjuvant treatment in patients with PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07433-0DOI Listing
May 2021

The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System tumor-in-vein category: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 1;31(4):2497-2506. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 222 Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: We aimed to systematically determine the etiology of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) tumor-in-vein category (LR-TIV) on contrast-enhanced CT or MRI and to determine the sources of heterogeneity between reported results.

Methods: Original studies reporting the etiology of LR-TIV were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE up until July 7, 2020. The meta-analytic pooled percentages of HCC and non-HCC in LR-TIV were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the type of reference standard and the most common underlying liver disease. Meta-regression analysis was performed to explore study heterogeneity.

Results: Sixteen studies reported the etiology of a total of 150 LR-TIV, of which 98 (65%) were HCC and 52 (35%) were non-HCC. The meta-analytic pooled percentages of HCC and non-HCC in LR-TIV were 70.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55.7-82.5%; I = 59%) and 29.2% (95% CI, 17.5-44.4%; I = 59%), respectively. The meta-analytic pooled percentage of HCC was lower in studies using only pathology as a reference standard (67.1%; 95% CI, 49.3-81.1%), but higher in studies in which hepatitis C was the most common underlying liver disease (81.9%; 95% CI, 11.3-99.4%) than that in the total 16 studies. Study type (cohort study versus case-control study) was significantly associated with study heterogeneity (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: The most common etiology of LR-TIV was HCC. It might be important to understand the percentage of HCC and non-HCC in LR-TIV in consideration of the type of reference standard, geographic differences, and study design.

Key Points: • The most common etiology of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) tumor-in-vein category (LR-TIV) was hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • The percentage of HCC in LR-TIV was relatively low in studies using only pathology as a reference standard, but high in studies in which hepatitis C was the most common underlying liver disease. • Study type was a factor significantly influencing study heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07282-xDOI Listing
April 2021

FOLFIRINOX in borderline resectable and locally advanced unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 16;12:1758835920953294. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Despite the scarcity of data based on randomized trials, FOLFIRINOX is widely used in the management of borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC). We investigated the clinical outcomes of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with BRPC and LAPC.

Methods: This single-center retrospective analysis included a total of 199 consecutive patients with BRPC or LAPC who received conventional or modified FOLFIRINOX between February 2013 and January 2017. An independent radiologist reviewed all baseline computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed for vascular invasion status.

Results: With median follow-up duration of 40.3 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 36.7-43.8] in surviving patients, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 10.6 (95% CI, 9.5-11.7) and 18.1 (95% CI, 16.0-20.3) months, respectively. The 1-year PFS rate was 66.0% (95% CI, 65.3-66.7%), and the 2-year OS rate was 37.2% (95% CI, 36.5-37.9%). PFS and OS did not differ between BRPC and LAPC groups [median PFS, 11.1 months (95% CI, 8.8-13.5) 10.1 months (95% CI, 8.4-11.8),  = 0.47; median OS, 18.4 months (95% CI, 16.1-20.8) 17.1 months (95% CI, 13.2-20.9),  = 0.50]. Curative-intent conversion surgery (R0/R1) was performed in 63 patients (31.7%). C•A 19-9 response, objective tumor response to FOLFIRINOX, and conversion surgery were independent prognostic factors for OS.

Conclusion: FOLFIRINOX was effective for management of BRPC and LAPC. Given the potential for cure, a significant proportion of patients can undergo conversion curative-intent surgery following FOLFIRINOX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920953294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498966PMC
September 2020

CT-determined resectability of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma following FOLFIRINOX therapy.

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 26;31(2):813-823. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the ability of CT-determined resectability, as defined by a recent version of NCCN criteria, and associated CT findings to predict margin-negative (R0) resection in patients with PDAC after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy.

Methods: Sixty-four patients (36 men and 28 women; mean age, 58.8 years) with borderline resectable or unresectable PDAC who received neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX were evaluated retrospectively. CT findings were independently assessed by two abdominal radiologists according to NCCN criteria (version 3. 2019). Tumor resectability was classified as resectable, borderline resectable, or unresectable, and change in resectability was classified as regression, stability, or progression. The associations of R0 resection rate with CT-determined resectability and change in resectability categories were evaluated, as were the sensitivity and specificity of NCCN criteria for R0 resection. Factors associated with R0 resection were identified by logistic regression analysis.

Results: R0 resection rate did not differ significantly among the resectable, borderline resectable, or unresectable PDAC (67-73%, p = 0.95) or among PDAC with regression, stability, or progression (56-77%, p = 0.39). The sensitivity and specificity for R0 resection were 67% and 37%, respectively, for resectability (resectable/borderline vs. unresectable) and 80% and 21%, respectively, for changes in resectability (regression/stable vs. progression). Low-contrast enhancement of soft tissue contacting artery (≤ 46.4 HU) was independently associated with R0 resection (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: CT-determined resectability after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy was relatively insensitive and non-specific for predicting R0 resection. Low-contrast enhancement of soft tissue contacting artery may increase the ability of CT to predict R0 resection.

Key Points: • Margin-negative resection rate of pancreatic cancer following FOLFIRINOX therapy did not differ among each resectability (67-73%, p = 0.95) based on NCCN criteria or changes in resectability categories (56-77%, p = 0.39). • The sensitivity and specificity for margin-negative resection were 67% and 37% for resectability (resectable/borderline vs. unresectable) and 80% and 21% for changes in resectability (regression/stable vs. progression). • Low-contrast enhancement of soft tissue contacting artery (≤ 46.4 HU) was independently associated with margin-negative resection (p = 0.01).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07188-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Multiparametric MRI for prediction of treatment response to neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX therapy in borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 19;31(2):864-874. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To identify multiparametric MRI biomarkers to predict the tumor response to neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX therapy in patients with borderline resectable (BR) or locally advanced (LA) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Methods: From May 2016 to March 2018, adult patients with BR or LA PDAC were prospectively enrolled in this study. They received eight cycles of FOLFIRINOX therapy and underwent multiparametric MRI twice (at baseline and after the second cycle). MRI evaluations included dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging, and assessment of T2* relaxivity (R2*) and the change in T1 relaxivity (ΔR1, equilibrium phase R1 minus non-enhanced R1) of the tumors. Factors to predict the responders determined by the best overall response during FOLFIRINOX therapy and those to predict progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression and the Cox proportional hazard model.

Results: Forty-one patients (mean age, 60.3 years ± 9.3; 24 men) were included. Among the clinical and MRI factors, the baseline ΔR1 (adjusted odds ratio, 31.07; p = 0.008) was the only independent predictor for tumor response. The baseline ΔR1 was also an independent predictor for PFS (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.40; p = 0.033) along with R0 resection. The use of a cutoff ΔR1 value of ≥ 1.31 s enabled prognostic stratification (median PFS, 16.0 months vs.10.0 months; p = 0.029; median OS, 34.9 months vs. 16.6 months; p = 0 .023, respectively).

Conclusions: The baseline tumor ΔR1 value may be useful to predict tumor response and survival in patients with BR or LA PDAC receiving FOLFIRINOX neoadjuvant therapy.

Key Points: • Baseline ΔR1 was an independent predictor for tumor response (adjusted odds ratio, 31.07; p = 0.008) and progression-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.40; p = 0.033) in patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma receiving neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX therapy. • The criterion of baseline ΔR1 value ≥ 1.31 s allowed for the prediction of favorable tumor response and survival outcome after neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07134-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Lymph node size and its association with nodal metastasis in ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.

J Pathol Transl Med 2020 Sep 21;54(5):387-395. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Although lymph node metastasis is a poor prognostic factor in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), our understanding of lymph node size in association with PDAC is limited. Increased nodal size in preoperative imaging has been used to detect node metastasis. We evaluated whether lymph node size can be used as a surrogate preoperative marker of lymph node metastasis.

Methods: We assessed nodal size and compared it to the nodal metastatic status of 200 patients with surgically resected PDAC. The size of all lymph nodes and metastatic nodal foci were measured along the long and short axis, and the relationships between nodal size and metastatic status were compared at six cutoff points.

Results: A total of 4,525 lymph nodes were examined, 9.1% of which were metastatic. The mean size of the metastatic nodes (long axis, 6.9±5.0 mm; short axis, 4.3±3.1 mm) was significantly larger than that of the non-metastatic nodes (long axis, 5.0±4.0 mm; short axis, 3.0±2.0 mm; all p<.001). Using a 10 mm cutoff, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, overall accuracy, and area under curve was 24.8%, 88.0%, 17.1%, 82.3%, and 0.60 for the long axis and 7.0%, 99.0%, 40.3%, 90.6%, and 0.61 for the short axis, respectively.

Conclusions: The metastatic nodes are larger than the non-metastatic nodes in PDAC patients. However, the difference in nodal size was too small to be identified with preoperative imaging. The performance of preoperative radiologic imaging to predict lymph nodal metastasis was not good. Therefore, nodal size cannot be used a surrogate preoperative marker of lymph node metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4132/jptm.2020.06.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483027PMC
September 2020

Estimating Recurrence after Upfront Surgery in Patients with Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Using Pancreatic CT: Development and Validation of a Risk Score.

Radiology 2020 09 14;296(3):541-551. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

From the Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (D.W.K., S.S.L., J.H.K., H.J.K., J.H.B.), Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (S.O.K.), Department of Oncology (C.Y., K.P.K.), and Department of Surgery (K.B.S., S.C.K.), University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu Seoul, Seoul 138-736, Republic of Korea.

Background No preoperative model is available for predicting postsurgical prognosis of patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Purpose To develop and validate a preoperative risk scoring system using clinical and CT variables to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) after upfront surgery in patients with resectable PDAC. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, consecutive patients with resectable PDAC underwent upfront surgery from January 2014 to December 2015 (development set) and from January 2016 to January 2017 (test set). In the development set, multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling with bootstrapping was used to select clinical and CT variables associated with RFS and to construct a risk scoring system. The discrimination capability of the risk score was assessed by using the Harrell C-index and compared with that of pathologic American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage. The risk score was validated in the test set. Results A total of 395 patients were evaluated, including 262 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 64 years ± 10; 155 men) in the development set and 133 (mean age, 64 years ± 9; 79 men) in the test set. Five independent variables predicted risk of recurrence or death: tumor size (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.44; = .009), hypodense tumor in the portal venous phase (HR, 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.73; = .04), tumor necrosis (HR, 2.04; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.03; < .001), peripancreatic tumor infiltration (HR, 1.50; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.11; = .02), and suspicious metastatic lymph nodes (HR, 1.94; 95% CI: 1.38, 2.72; < .001). In the test set, the risk score showed good discrimination capability (C-index of 0.68; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.74) and outperformed the pathologic tumor stage (C-index of 0.60; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.66; = .03). Patients were categorized into favorable, intermediate, and poor prognosis groups with 1-year RFS of 0.87, 0.58, and 0.26, respectively. Conclusion The presented preoperative risk score can predict recurrence-free survival after upfront surgery in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. © RSNA, 2020 See also the editorial by Pandharipande and Anderson in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200281DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of the diagnostic performance of imaging criteria for HCCs ≤ 3.0 cm on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI.

Hepatol Int 2020 Jul 20;14(4):534-543. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Background And Purpose: Imaging-based diagnostic systems play important roles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of recently updated imaging criteria for HCCs ≤ 3.0 cm on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: 493 nodules (399 HCCs, 24 other malignancies, 70 benign) 1.0-3.0 cm from 400 patients, including 322 male (mean age 59.3 ± 9.4 years) and 78 female (mean age 61.2 ± 9.0 years), at risk for HCC who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI between July 2015 and December 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Final diagnosis was determined histopathologically or clinically. The sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing HCC of the latest versions of four imaging criteria [Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS), European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL), Korean Liver Cancer Association-National Cancer Center (KLCA-NCC)] were compared using generalized estimating equations.

Results: In 331 only pathologically diagnosed nodules, the sensitivities of both the APASL (86.8%) and KLCA-NCC criteria (85.4%) were significantly higher than the sensitivities of the EASL (71.8%) and LR-5 (71.1%) criteria (p < 0.001 for each pairwise comparison). However, the specificity of LR-5 was significantly higher than that of APASL (92.2% vs. 70.6%, respectively; p = 0.011) but did not differ significantly from the specificities of EASL (84.3%; p = 0.634) and KLCA-NCC (78.4%; p = 0.107).

Conclusion: Of the four international imaging criteria, LI-RADS and EASL showed high specificity but suboptimal sensitivity for diagnosing HCCs ≤ 3 cm. However, APASL and KLCA-NCC had a higher sensitivity but a lower specificity than LI-RADS and EASL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-020-10040-2DOI Listing
July 2020

Value of apparent diffusion coefficient for differentiating peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenopathy from metastatic lymphadenopathy.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2020 10;45(10):3163-3171

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate effectiveness of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the peripancreatic lymphadenopathy to differentiate tuberculous lymphadenopathy from metastatic lymphadenopathy.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-nine patients with 65 peripancreatic necrotic tuberculous lymphadenopathy and 31 patients with 47 peripancreatic necrotic metastatic lymphadenopathy from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), were included in this study. MRI features in the T1-weighted image (WI), T2WI, and diffusion-weighted image were analyzed. The ADC values of necrotic and non-necrotic portions of the lymph nodes were measured and compared using t test. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to obtain the optimal ADC threshold value and diagnostic accuracy for differentiating tuberculous lymphadenopathy from metastatic lymphadenopathy.

Results: On T2WI, the signal intensity of necrotic portions was variable in tuberculous lymphadenopathy, but was mostly high in metastatic lymphadenopathy. The mean ADCs of necrotic portions of tuberculous lymphadenopathy were significantly lower than those of metastatic lymphadenopathy ([0.919 ± 0.272] × 10 mm/s vs. [1.553 ± 0.406] × 10 mm/s, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis for differentiating tuberculous from metastatic lymphadenopathy demonstrated an area under the curve for the ADC values of necrotic portions of 0.929 (95% CI, 0.865-0.969) with an ADC threshold of 1.022. The sensitivity and specificity for the differentiation of tuberculous from metastatic lymphadenopathy were 80.0% and 97.8%, respectively.

Conclusion: The ADC values of necrotic portions of peripancreatic lymphadenopathy may be useful for differentiating tuberculous from metastatic lymphadenopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-020-02501-xDOI Listing
October 2020

Liver imaging reporting and data system category M: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Liver Int 2020 06 15;40(6):1477-1487. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background And Aims: The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) category M (LR-M) was introduced to preserve the high specificity of LI-RADS algorithm for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to systematically determine the probability of the LR-M for HCC and non-HCC malignancy, and to determine the sources of heterogeneity between reported results.

Methods: Original studies reporting the probability of LR-M for HCC and non-HCC malignancy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE. The meta-analytic pooled percentages of HCC and non-HCC in LR-M were calculated. Meta-regression analysis was performed to explore study heterogeneity. The meta-analytic frequency of each LR-M imaging feature was determined.

Results: We found 10 studies reporting the diagnostic performance of LR-M (1819 lesions in 1631 patients), and six reporting the frequency of LR-M imaging features. The pooled percentages of HCC and non-HCC malignancy for LR-M were 28.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.8%-33.1%; I  = 83%) and 69.6% (95% CI, 64.6%-74.1%; I  = 83%) respectively. The study type and MRI scanner field strength were significantly associated with study heterogeneity (P ≤ .04). Of the seven imaging features, rim arterial phase hyperenhancement showed the highest frequency in both non-HCC (48.9%; 95% CI, 43.0%-54.8%) and HCC groups (9.8%; 95% CI, 6.9%-13.6%).

Conclusions: The LR-M category most commonly included non-HCC malignancy but also included 28.2% of HCC. Substantial study heterogeneity was noted, and it was significantly associated with study type and MRI scanner field strength. In addition, the frequency of LR-M imaging features was variable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14420DOI Listing
June 2020

Ancillary features in the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System: how to improve diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma ≤ 3 cm on magnetic resonance imaging.

Eur Radiol 2020 May 4;30(5):2881-2889. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-Ro 43-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To determine the strength of association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of each ancillary feature (AF) in LI-RADS version 2018, and to develop an appropriate strategy for applying AFs to improve the diagnosis of HCC ≤ 3 cm on gadoxetate-enhanced MRI.

Methods: A total of 385 nodules (283 HCCs, 18 non-HCC malignancies, 84 benign nodules) of ≤ 3 cm in 266 patients at risk for HCC who underwent gadoxetate-enhanced MRI in 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Two radiologists independently evaluated the presence/absence of AFs, and assigned a LI-RADS category to each nodule. Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of each AF was assessed. To improve the diagnostic performance for HCC, various criteria were developed based on the number of AFs favoring malignancy in general or HCC in particular. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare the diagnostic performance of each criterion with that of the major features (MFs) only.

Result: All AFs favoring HCC in particular and malignancy in general were more common in the HCC group than in the non-HCC group. Of these AFs, hepatobiliary-phase hypointensity had the strongest association with HCC (DOR, 21.82; 95% confidence interval, 5.59-85.20). When we applied AFs in addition to MFs, the new criterion (with a number of AFs ≥ 4) had significantly higher sensitivity (80.6% vs. 70.0%; p < 0.001) than MFs only, without significant lower specificity (85.3% vs. 90.2%; p = 0.060).

Conclusions: The AFs varied in the strengths of association with HCC. More strict application of AFs (AFs ≥ 4) in LR-3 may improve the diagnostic performance for probable HCC ≤ 3 cm.

Key Points: • The ancillary features (AFs) in the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2018 showed variable frequencies of occurrence and strengths of association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • Of the various AFs, hepatobiliary-phase hypointensity had the highest frequency and strongest association with HCC on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI. • When applying AFs in addition to major features, a criterion of four or more AFs significantly increased the sensitivity for diagnosing HCC, without a significantly decreased specificity, especially in LR-3 observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-06645-3DOI Listing
May 2020

Interreader Agreement of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System on MRI: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2020 09 27;52(3):795-804. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Use of the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) is increasing, but the reported results for interreader agreement seem quite variable.

Purpose: To systematically determine the interreader agreement of LI-RADS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine the sources of heterogeneity between the reported results.

Study Type: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Subjects: Fifteen original articles with 2968 lesions.

Field Strength: 1.5T and 3.0T.

Assessment: Two reviewers independently performed the data extraction. The reviewers identified and reviewed the original articles reporting the interreader agreement of LI-RADS using MRI.

Statistical Tests: The meta-analytic pooled intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for lesion size and kappa value (κ) for major features (arterial-phase hyperenhancement [APHE], nonperipheral washout [WO], enhancing capsule [EC]) and LI-RADS categorization (LR) were calculated using the random-effects model. Sensitivity analysis and meta-regression analysis were performed to explore the cause of study heterogeneity.

Results: The meta-analytic pooled ICC of lesion size was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.00). Meta-analytic pooled κ of APHE, WO, EC, and LR were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.62-0.82), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.60-0.78), 0.66 (95% CI, 0.58-0.74), and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.56-0.85), respectively. Substantial study heterogeneity was noted in all five variables (I  ≥ 89.1%, P < 0.001). Study design, type, and clarity of blinding review were factors that significantly influenced study heterogeneity (P ≤ 0.05).

Data Conclusion: LI-RADS demonstrated overall substantial interreader agreement for major features and the category on MRI, but showed heterogeneous results between studies.

Level Of Evidence: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;52:795-804.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27065DOI Listing
September 2020

Intraindividual Comparison between Gadoxetate-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Dynamic Computed Tomography for Characterizing Focal Hepatic Lesions: A Multicenter, Multireader Study.

Korean J Radiol 2019 12;20(12):1616-1626

Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of hepatic lesions by using the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) in a multicenter, off-site evaluation.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective multicenter study, we evaluated 231 hepatic lesions (114 hepatocellular carcinomas [HCCs], 58 non-HCC malignancies, and 59 benign lesions) confirmed histologically in 217 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent both gadoxetate-enhanced MRI and dynamic CT at one of five tertiary hospitals. Four radiologists at different institutes independently reviewed all MR images first and the CT images 4 weeks later. They evaluated the major and ancillary imaging features and categorized each hepatic lesion according to the LI-RADS v2014. Diagnostic performance was calculated and compared using generalized estimating equations.

Results: MRI showed higher sensitivity and accuracy than CT for diagnosing hepatic malignancies; the pooled sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies for categorizing LR-5/5V/M were 59.0% vs. 72.4% (CT vs. MRI; < 0.001), 83.5% vs. 83.9% ( = 0.906), and 65.3% vs. 75.3% ( < 0.001), respectively. CT and MRI showed comparable capabilities for differentiating between HCC and other malignancies, with pooled accuracies of 79.9% and 82.4% for categorizing LR-M, respectively ( = 0.139).

Conclusion: Gadoxetate-enhanced MRI showed superior accuracy for categorizing LR-5/5V/M in hepatic malignancies in comparison with dynamic CT. Both modalities had comparable accuracies for distinguishing other malignancies from HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2019.0363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6923212PMC
December 2019

Non-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a surveillance tool for hepatocellular carcinoma: Comparison with ultrasound.

J Hepatol 2020 04 10;72(4):718-724. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background & Aims: Recently revised international guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suggest that patients with inadequate ultrasonography be assessed by alternative imaging modalities. Non-enhanced MRI has potential as a surveillance tool based on the short scan times required and the absence of contrast agent-associated risks. This study compared the performance of non-enhanced MRI and ultrasonography for HCC surveillance in high-risk patients.

Methods: We included 382 high-risk patients in a prospective cohort who underwent 1 to 3 rounds of paired gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and ultrasonography. Non-enhanced MRI, consisting of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and T2-weighted imaging, was simulated and retrospectively analyzed, with results considered positive when lesion(s) ≥1 cm showed diffusion restriction or mild-moderate T2 hyperintensity. Ultrasonography results were retrieved from patient records. HCC was diagnosed histologically and/or radiologically. Sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), specificity, and negative predictive value (NPV) were evaluated using generalized estimating equations.

Results: Forty-eight HCCs were diagnosed in 43 patients. Per-lesion and per-exam sensitivities of non-enhanced MRI were 77.1% and 79.1%, respectively, which were higher than those achieved with ultrasonography (25.0% and 27.9%, respectively, p <0.001). Specificities of non-enhanced MRI (97.9%) and ultrasonography (94.5%) differed significantly (p <0.001). NPV was higher for non-enhanced MRI (99.1%) than ultrasonography (96.9%). Per-lesion and per-exam PPVs were higher for non-enhanced MRI (56.9% and 61.8%, respectively) than for ultrasonography (16.7% and 17.7%, respectively). The estimated scan time of non-enhanced MRI was <6 min.

Conclusion: Based on its good performance, short scan times, and the lack of contrast agent-associated risks, non-enhanced MRI is a promising option for HCC surveillance in high-risk patients.

Lay Summary: Recently revised international guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suggest that selected patients with inadequate surveillance on ultrasonography be assessed by alternative imaging modalities such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Herein, we show that MRI without contrast agents performed significantly better than ultrasonography for HCC surveillance in high-risk patients. Given this good performance, as well as short scan times and the lack of contrast agent-associated risks, non-enhanced MRI is a promising option for HCC surveillance in high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.12.001DOI Listing
April 2020
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