Publications by authors named "Jadwiga A Wedzicha"

221 Publications

COPD discharge bundle and pulmonary rehabilitation referral and uptake following hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD.

Thorax 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Harefield Respiratory Research Group, Royal Brompton & Harefield Hospitals, Guy's and St.Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) following hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) is associated with improved exercise capacity and quality of life, and reduced readmissions. However, referral for, and uptake of, post-hospitalisation PR are low. In this prospective cohort study of 291 consecutive hospitalisations for AECOPD, COPD discharge bundles delivered by PR practitioners compared with non-PR practitioners were associated with increased PR referral (60% vs 12%, p<0.001; adjusted OR: 14.46, 95% CI: 5.28 to 39.57) and uptake (40% vs 32%, p=0.001; adjusted OR: 8.60, 95% CI: 2.51 to 29.50). Closer integration between hospital and PR services may increase post-hospitalisation PR referral and uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215464DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficacy of indacaterol/glycopyrronium salmeterol/fluticasone in current and ex-smokers: a pooled analysis of IGNITE trials.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jan 22;7(1). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Inhaled corticosteroids have proven to be less effective in asthmatic patients who smoke; however, there is limited information on the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimens in COPD patients who continue smoking. We evaluate the differential efficacy of once-daily indacaterol/glycopyrronium 110/50 µg compared with twice-daily salmeterol/fluticasone 50/500 µg in current smokers and ex-smokers with COPD. A pooled analysis of data from ILLUMINATE, LANTERN and FLAME studies was conducted to assess the efficacy of indacaterol/glycopyrronium compared with salmeterol/fluticasone in current smokers and ex-smokers with COPD. Efficacy was assessed in terms of improvements in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) transition dyspnoea index (TDI) focal score, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, reduced rescue medication use and exacerbation prevention at 26 weeks after the start of the therapy. In total, 1769 (38%) current smokers and 2848 (62%) ex-smokers were included. Patients treated with indacaterol/glycopyrronium experienced greater improvements in trough FEV salmeterol/fluticasone in both current and ex-smokers (least squares mean treatment difference, 105 mL and 78 mL, respectively). Improvements in TDI focal score, SGRQ total score and reduction in rescue medication use were also greater with indacaterol/glycopyrronium salmeterol/fluticasone in current and ex-smokers. Furthermore, indacaterol/glycopyrronium reduced all exacerbations (moderate/severe) compared with salmeterol/fluticasone, irrespective of smoking status. The difference in efficacy in favour of indacaterol/glycopyrronium was more prominent in current smokers in most cases. Indacaterol/glycopyrronium demonstrated greater efficacy salmeterol/fluticasone, and the differences were generally more prominent in current smokers suggesting smoking may reduce the effects of salmeterol/fluticasone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00816-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897898PMC
January 2021

Inflammatory Endotype Associated Airway Microbiome in COPD Clinical Stability and Exacerbations - A Multi-Cohort Longitudinal Analysis.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Dec 17. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

University of Leicester, 4488, Institute for Lung Health, Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Department of Respiratory Sciences, Leicester, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Rationale: Understanding the role of airway microbiome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) inflammatory endotypes may help to develop microbiome-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

Objectives: To understand the association of airway microbiome with neutrophilic and eosinophilic COPD at stability and exacerbations.

Methods: An integrative analysis was performed on 1,706 sputum samples collected longitudinally from 510 COPD patients recruited at four UK sites in BEAT-COPD, COPDMAP and AERIS cohorts. The microbiome was analyzed using COPDMAP and AERIS as discovery dataset and BEAT-COPD as validation dataset.

Results: The airway microbiome in neutrophilic COPD was heterogeneous with two primary community types differentiated by the predominance of Haemophilus. The Haemophilus-predominant subgroup had elevated sputum IL-1b and TNFa and was relatively stable over time. The other neutrophilic subgroup with a balanced microbiome profile had elevated sputum and serum IL-17A and was temporally dynamic. Patients in this state at stability were susceptible to greatest microbiome shifts during exacerbations. This subgroup can temporally switch to both neutrophilic-Haemophilus-predominant and eosinophilic states which were otherwise mutually exclusive. Time-series analysis on the microbiome showed the temporal trajectories of Campylobacter and Granulicatella were indicative of intra-patient switches from neutrophilic to eosinophilic inflammation, and in track with patient sputum eosinophilia over time. Network analysis revealed distinct host-microbiome interaction patterns between neutrophilic-Haemophilus-predominant, neutrophilic-balanced-microbiome and eosinophilic subgroups.

Conclusions: The airway microbiome can stratify neutrophilic COPD into subgroups that justify different therapies. Neutrophilic and eosinophilic COPD are inter-changeable in some patients. Monitoring temporal variability of the airway microbiome may track patient inflammatory status over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202009-3448OCDOI Listing
December 2020

Reduced All-Cause Mortality in the ETHOS Trial of Budesonide/Glycopyrrolate/Formoterol for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter, Parallel-Group Study.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Mar;203(5):553-564

AstraZeneca, Durham, North Carolina.

In the phase III, 52-week ETHOS (Efficacy and Safety of Triple Therapy in Obstructive Lung Disease) trial in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (NCT02465567), triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (BGF) significantly reduced all-cause mortality compared with glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (GFF). However, 384 of 8,509 patients were missing vital status at Week 52 in the original analyses. To assess the robustness of the ETHOS mortality findings after additional data retrieval for patients missing Week 52 vital status in the original analyses. Patients with moderate to very severe COPD and prior history of exacerbation received twice-daily dosing with 320/18/9.6 μg of BGF (BGF 320), 160/18/9.6 μg of BGF (BGF 160), 18/9.6 μg of GFF, or 320/9.6 μg of budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BFF) (all delivered via a single metered-dose Aerosphere inhaler). Time to death (all-cause) was a prespecified secondary endpoint. In the final retrieved dataset, which included Week 52 vital status for 99.6% of the intent-to-treat population, risk of death with BGF 320 was significantly lower than GFF (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.80; unadjusted  = 0.0035). There were no significant differences in mortality when comparing BGF 320 with BFF (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.16;  = 0.1721), nor were significant differences observed when comparing BGF 160 against either dual comparator. Results were similar when the first 30, 60, or 90 days of treatment were excluded from the analysis. Deaths from cardiovascular causes occurred in 0.5%, 0.8%, 1.4%, and 0.5% of patients in the BGF 320, BGF 160, GFF, and BFF groups, respectively. Using final retrieved vital status data, triple therapy with BGF 320 reduced the risk of death compared with GFF, but was not shown to significantly reduce the risk of death compared with BFF, in patients with COPD. Triple therapy containing a lower dose of inhaled corticosteroid (BGF 160) was not shown to significantly reduce the risk of death compared with the dual therapy comparators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202006-2618OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924571PMC
March 2021

Intra-alveolar neutrophil-derived microvesicles are associated with disease severity in COPD.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 01 4;320(1):L73-L83. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Division of Anaesthetics, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Despite advances in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is a distinct lack of biochemical markers to aid clinical management. Microvesicles (MVs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases including COPD, but their association to COPD disease severity remains unknown. We analyzed different MV populations in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) taken from 62 patients with mild to very severe COPD (51% male; mean age: 65.9 yr). These patients underwent comprehensive clinical evaluation (symptom scores, lung function, and exercise testing), and the capacity of MVs to be clinical markers of disease severity was assessed. We successfully identified various MV subtype populations within BALF [leukocyte, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN; i.e., neutrophil), monocyte, epithelial, and platelet MVs] and plasma (leukocyte, PMN, monocyte, and endothelial MVs) and compared each MV population to disease severity. BALF neutrophil MVs were the only population to significantly correlate with the clinical evaluation scores including forced expiratory volume in 1 s, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score, 6-min walk test, hyperinflation, and gas transfer. BALF neutrophil MVs, but not neutrophil cell numbers, also strongly correlated with BODE index. We have undertaken, for the first time, a comprehensive evaluation of MV profiles within BALF/plasma of COPD patients. We demonstrate that BALF levels of neutrophil-derived MVs are unique in correlating with a number of key functional and clinically relevant disease severity indexes. Our results show the potential of BALF neutrophil MVs for a COPD biomarker that tightly links a key pathophysiological mechanism of COPD (intra-alveolar neutrophil activation) with clinical severity/outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00099.2020DOI Listing
January 2021

Bacteria and sputum inflammatory cell counts; a COPD cohort analysis.

Respir Res 2020 Nov 1;21(1):289. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: There is evidence that bacterial colonisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased neutrophilic airway inflammation. This study tested the hypothesis that different bacterial phyla and species cause different inflammatory profiles in COPD patients.

Methods: Sputum was analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify bacterial load and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify taxonomic composition. Sputum differential cell counts (DCC) and blood DCC were obtained at baseline and 6 months. Patients were categorised into five groups based on bacterial load defined by genome copies/ml of ≥ 1 × 10, no colonisation and colonisation by Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae), Moraxella catarrhalis (M. catarrhalis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), or > 1 potentially pathogenic microorganism (PPM).

Results: We observed an increase in sputum neutrophil (%), blood neutrophil (%) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients colonised with H. influenzae (82.6, 67.1, and 3.29 respectively) compared to those without PPM colonisation at baseline (69.5, 63.51 and 2.56 respectively) (p < 0.05 for all analyses), with similar findings at 6 months. The bacterial load of H. influenzae and Haemophilus determined by qPCR and 16s rRNA gene sequencing respectively, and sputum neutrophil % were positively correlated between baseline and 6 months visits (p < 0.0001, 0.0150 and 0.0002 with r = 0.53, 0.33 and 0.44 respectively).

Conclusions: These results demonstrate a subgroup of COPD patients with persistent H. influenzae colonisation that is associated with increased airway and systemic neutrophilic airway inflammation, and less eosinophilic airway inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01552-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603729PMC
November 2020

Inhaled corticosteroids downregulate the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 in COPD through suppression of type I interferon.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Feb 15;147(2):510-519.e5. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: The mechanisms underlying altered susceptibility and propensity to severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease in at-risk groups such as patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poorly understood. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are widely used in COPD, but the extent to which these therapies protect or expose patients to risk of severe COVID-19 is unknown.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ICSs following pulmonary expression of the SARS-CoV-2 viral entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2).

Methods: We evaluated the effect of ICS administration on pulmonary ACE2 expression in vitro in human airway epithelial cell cultures and in vivo in mouse models of ICS administration. Mice deficient in the type I IFN-α/β receptor (Ifnar1) and administration of exogenous IFN-β were used to study the functional role of type-I interferon signaling in ACE2 expression. We compared sputum ACE2 expression in patients with COPD stratified according to use or nonuse of ICS.

Results: ICS administration attenuated ACE2 expression in mice, an effect that was reversed by exogenous IFN-β administration, and Ifnar1 mice had reduced ACE2 expression, indicating that type I interferon contributes mechanistically to this effect. ICS administration attenuated expression of ACE2 in airway epithelial cell cultures from patients with COPD and in mice with elastase-induced COPD-like changes. Compared with ICS nonusers, patients with COPD who were taking ICSs also had reduced sputum expression of ACE2.

Conclusion: ICS therapies in COPD reduce expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2. This effect may thus contribute to altered susceptibility to COVID-19 in patients with COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558236PMC
February 2021

Blood eosinophils as a biomarker of future COPD exacerbation risk: pooled data from 11 clinical trials.

Respir Res 2020 Sep 17;21(1):240. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Clinical Science Centre, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by progressive airflow limitation and chronic inflammation. Predicting exacerbations of COPD, which contribute to disease progression, is important to guide preventative treatment and improve outcomes. Blood eosinophils are a biomarker for patient responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS); however, their effectiveness as a predictive biomarker for COPD exacerbations is unclear.

Methods: This post hoc analysis pooled data from 11 Boehringer Ingelheim-sponsored Phase III and IV randomised COPD studies with similar methodologies. Exacerbation data were collected from these studies, excluding patients from the ICS withdrawal arm of the WISDOM® study. Patients were grouped according to their baseline blood eosinophil count, baseline ICS use and number of exacerbations in the year prior to each study.

Results: Exacerbation rate data and baseline eosinophil count were available for 22,125 patients; 45.6% presented with a baseline blood eosinophil count of ≤ 150 cells/μL, 34.3% with 150-300 cells/μL and 20.1% with > 300 cells/μL. The lowest exacerbation rates were observed in patients with ≤ 150 cells/μL, with small increases in exacerbation rate observed with increasing eosinophil count. When stratified by exacerbation history, the annual rate of exacerbations for patients with 0 exacerbations in the previous year increased in line with increasing eosinophil counts (0.38 for ≤ 150 cells/μL, 0.39 for 150-300 cells/μL and 0.44 for > 300 cells/μL respectively). A similar trend was identified for patients with one exacerbation in the previous year, 0.62, 0.66 and 0.67 respectively. For patients with ≥ 2 exacerbations, exacerbation rates fluctuated between 1.02 (≤ 150 cells/μL) to 1.10 (150-300 cells/μL) and 1.07 (> 300 cells/μL). Higher exacerbation rates were noted in patients treated with ICS at baseline (range 0.75 to 0.82 with increasing eosinophil count) compared with patients not on ICS (range 0.45 to 0.49).

Conclusion: We found no clinically important relationship between baseline blood eosinophil count and exacerbation rate. Hence, the current analysis does not support the use of blood eosinophils to predict exacerbation risk; however, previous exacerbation history was found to be a more reliable predictor of future exacerbations.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00168844 , NCT00168831 , NCT00387088 , NCT00782210 , NCT00782509 , NCT00793624 , NCT00796653 , NCT01431274 , NCT01431287 , NCT02296138 and NCT00975195 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01482-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499955PMC
September 2020

Early Clinically Important Improvement (ECII) and Exacerbation Outcomes in COPD Patients.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 28;15:1831-1838. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Respiratory Clinical Science Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are difficult outcomes to measure in clinical trials. It would be valuable to be able to predict which patients are likely to benefit in terms of exacerbation prevention based on their early response in lung function and symptoms.

Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis from the 52-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority FLAME trial. Early clinically important improvement (ECII) was defined as achievement of minimal clinically important difference in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV; ≥100 mL increase) and one patient-reported outcome (PRO): either St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD (≥4-unit reduction; D1), or COPD assessment test (≥2-point reduction; D2) at Week 4 or 12.

Results: Approximately 18-20% of patients achieved ECII at Week 4 or 12 post-randomization according to any of the two definitions. The rate of subsequent exacerbations was lower in patients who achieved ECII at Week 4 (D1: ratio of rates [95% CI], 0.85 [0.74 to 0.98]; D2, 0.88 [0.77 to 1.00]) or at Week 12 (D1, 0.85 [0.74 to 0.98]; D2, 0.86 [0.75 to 1.00]) versus patients not achieving ECII. Patients who achieved ECII experienced longer time-to-first exacerbation between Week 4 or 12 to end of study. More patients achieved ECII with indacaterol/glycopyrronium versus salmeterol/fluticasone according to both definitions at Week 4 (D1, odds ratio [95% CI], 1.69 [1.40 to 2.04]; D2, 1.61 [1.34 to 1.93]), and 12 (D1, 2.01 [1.66 to 2.44]; D2, 1.80 [1.48 to 2.18]).

Conclusion: ECII is a novel composite endpoint, based on clinically relevant improvement in lung function and PROs in the early phase of treatment intervention that may predict subsequent exacerbation risk and may be used in clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S247966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435751PMC
July 2020

Definition, Causes, Pathogenesis, and Consequences of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations.

Clin Chest Med 2020 09;41(3):421-438

National Heart and Lung Institute, Guy Scadding Building, Imperial College London, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6JY, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are episodes of symptom worsening which have significant adverse consequences for patients. Exacerbations are highly heterogeneous events associated with increased airway and systemic inflammation and physiological changes. The frequency of exacerbations is associated with accelerated lung function decline, quality of life impairment and increased mortality. They are triggered predominantly by respiratory viruses and bacteria, which infect the lower airway and increase airway inflammation. A proportion of patients appear to be more susceptible to exacerbations, with poorer quality of life and more aggressive disease progression than those who have infrequent exacerbations. Exacerbations also contribute significantly to healthcare expenditure. Prevention and mitigation of exacerbations are therefore key goals of COPD management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccm.2020.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7423341PMC
September 2020

Tiotropium/Olodaterol Decreases Exacerbation Rates Compared with Tiotropium in a Range of Patients with COPD: Pooled Analysis of the TONADO/DYNAGITO Trials.

Adv Ther 2020 10 10;37(10):4266-4279. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Clinical Science Centre, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Introduction: Previous studies demonstrated that tiotropium/olodaterol reduced rates of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, this should be examined in a wider population.

Methods: This post hoc analysis pooled data from TONADO 1 + 2 and DYNAGITO, three 52-week, parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, phase III trials investigating patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD, with and without previous exacerbations, who received tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg or tiotropium 5 µg. Subgroup analyses were conducted on patients stratified by exacerbation history, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 2-4 disease severity and baseline inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use.

Results: In 9942 patients, tiotropium/olodaterol was associated with lower rates of moderate/severe exacerbations (0.68 vs. 0.77 per patient-year; rate ratio (RR) vs. tiotropium 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84, 0.95; P = 0.0003) and exacerbations requiring hospitalisation (0.11 vs. 0.13 per patient-year; RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75, 0.99; P = 0.0380) versus tiotropium. Lower rates of moderate/severe exacerbations with tiotropium/olodaterol versus tiotropium were evident in patients with 0-1 moderate exacerbation in the previous year (0.54 vs. 0.60 per patient-year; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82, 0.98; P = 0.0187) and at least two moderate or at least one severe exacerbation(s) in the previous year (0.97 vs. 1.09 per patient-year; RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82, 0.97; P = 0.0096). In patients with GOLD 2 and GOLD 3 COPD, moderate/severe exacerbation rates were lower with tiotropium/olodaterol versus tiotropium; GOLD 4 patients showed negligible difference between treatments. When evaluating patients by baseline ICS use, there was a significantly lower rate of moderate/severe exacerbations with tiotropium/olodaterol versus tiotropium in patients receiving ICS.

Conclusions: Tiotropium/olodaterol decreased the rate of moderate/severe exacerbations and exacerbations leading to hospitalisation versus tiotropium. Results from this large, pooled, post hoc analysis support the use of dual bronchodilation with tiotropium/olodaterol in a broad range of patients, reflective of patients with COPD in clinical practice.

Trial Registration: TONADO 1 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01431274); TONADO 2 (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01431287); DYNAGITO (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02296138). People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may have times when their symptoms worsen, known as exacerbations. This may mean that they need to take additional medications, such as antibiotics or oral steroids. Studies have shown that a combination of two types of inhaled medicine-tiotropium and olodaterol-can help to reduce exacerbations in some people. To see if this is also the case across a larger and more diverse range of people, we combined the results from three studies (TONADO 1 + 2 and DYNAGITO) that looked at people who were taking tiotropium and olodaterol together and people who were taking tiotropium alone. We showed that, across a wide range of people, treatment with tiotropium/olodaterol was generally better at reducing exacerbations than tiotropium. Tiotropium/olodaterol also decreased the number of exacerbations that led to hospitalisation compared with tiotropium. Overall, our results support the use of combined tiotropium/olodaterol in people at different stages of COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01438-3DOI Listing
October 2020

The sputum microbiome is distinct between COPD and health, independent of smoking history.

Respir Res 2020 Jul 14;21(1):183. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Institute for Lung Health, NIHR, BRC, Department of Respiratory Sciences, College of Life Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK.

Background: Airway bacterial dysbiosis is a feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is limited comparative data of the lung microbiome between healthy smokers, non-smokers and COPD.

Methods: We compared the 16S rRNA gene-based sputum microbiome generated from pair-ended Illumina sequencing of 124 healthy subjects (28 smokers and 96 non-smokers with normal lung function), with single stable samples from 218 COPD subjects collected from three UK clinical centres as part of the COPDMAP consortium.

Results: In healthy subjects Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the major phyla constituting 88% of the total reads, and Streptococcus, Veillonella, Prevotella, Actinomyces and Rothia were the dominant genera. Haemophilus formed only 3% of the healthy microbiome. In contrast, Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum accounting for 50% of the microbiome in COPD subjects, with Haemophilus and Moraxella at genus level contributing 25 and 3% respectively. There were no differences in the microbiome profile within healthy and COPD subgroups when stratified based on smoking history. Principal coordinate analysis on operational taxonomic units showed two distinct clusters, representative of healthy and COPD subjects (PERMANOVA, p = 0·001).

Conclusion: The healthy and COPD sputum microbiomes are distinct and independent of smoking history. Our results underline the important role for Gammaproteobacteria in COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01448-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362436PMC
July 2020

Triple Inhaled Therapy at Two Glucocorticoid Doses in Moderate-to-Very-Severe COPD.

N Engl J Med 2020 07 24;383(1):35-48. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

From LungenClinic Grosshansdorf and Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Grosshansdorf, Germany (K.F.R.); the Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York (F.J.M.); the Pulmonary Research Institute of Southeast Michigan, Farmington Hills (G.T.F.); the National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (C.W.); the Medicines Evaluation Unit, University of Manchester, Manchester University NHS Foundation Hospitals Trust, Manchester (D.S.), and the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (J.A.W.) - both in the United Kingdom; AstraZeneca, Durham, NC (R.T., P. Dorinsky); AstraZeneca, Morristown, NJ (E.S.R., S.B., P. Darken, C.R.); AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD (J.M.); and AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden (M.A.).

Background: Triple fixed-dose regimens of an inhaled glucocorticoid, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), and a long-acting β-agonist (LABA) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been studied at single dose levels of inhaled glucocorticoid, but studies at two dose levels are lacking.

Methods: In a 52-week, phase 3, randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple therapy at two dose levels of inhaled glucocorticoid in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD and at least one exacerbation in the past year, we assigned patients in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive twice-daily inhaled doses of triple therapy (inhaled glucocorticoid [320 μg or 160 μg of budesonide], a LAMA [18 μg of glycopyrrolate], and a LABA [9.6 μg of formoterol]) or one of two dual therapies (18 μg of glycopyrrolate plus 9.6 μg of formoterol or 320 μg of budesonide plus 9.6 μg of formoterol). The primary end point was the annual rate (the estimated mean number per patient per year) of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations, as analyzed in the modified intention-to-treat population with the use of on-treatment data only.

Results: The modified intention-to-treat population comprised 8509 patients. The annual rates of moderate or severe exacerbations were 1.08 in the 320-μg-budesonide triple-therapy group (2137 patients), 1.07 in the 160-μg-budesonide triple-therapy group (2121 patients), 1.42 in the glycopyrrolate-formoterol group (2120 patients), and 1.24 in the budesonide-formoterol group (2131 patients). The rate was significantly lower with 320-μg-budesonide triple therapy than with glycopyrrolate-formoterol (24% lower: rate ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 0.83; P<0.001) or budesonide-formoterol (13% lower: rate ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.95; P = 0.003). Similarly, the rate was significantly lower with 160-μg-budesonide triple therapy than with glycopyrrolate-formoterol (25% lower: rate ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.83; P<0.001) or budesonide-formoterol (14% lower: rate ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.95; P = 0.002). The incidence of any adverse event was similar across the treatment groups (range, 61.7 to 64.5%); the incidence of confirmed pneumonia ranged from 3.5 to 4.5% in the groups that included inhaled glucocorticoid use and was 2.3% in the glycopyrrolate-formoterol group.

Conclusions: Triple therapy with twice-daily budesonide (at either the 160-μg or 320-μg dose), glycopyrrolate, and formoterol resulted in a lower rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations than glycopyrrolate-formoterol or budesonide-formoterol. (Funded by AstraZeneca, ETHOS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02465567.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1916046DOI Listing
July 2020

Impact of baseline symptoms and health status on COPD exacerbations in the FLAME study.

Respir Res 2020 Apr 22;21(1):93. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: COPD is a heterogeneous disease and patients may respond differently to therapies depending on baseline symptom burden.

Methods: This post-hoc analysis from the 52-week FLAME study investigated the impact of baseline symptom burden in terms of health status, dyspnoea, bronchitis status, eosinophil levels and smoking status on the subsequent risk of moderate or severe exacerbations. Health status was measured by St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (higher ≥46.6 and lower < 46.6) and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score (higher ≥17 and lower < 17); dyspnoea and bronchitis were assessed via an electronic diary (eDiary). Differential response to once-daily indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) 110/50 μg versus twice-daily salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) 50/500 μg was assessed.

Results: Data from 3354 patients was analysed. The risk of exacerbations was lower in patients who had less severe health impairment (rate ratio [RR] [95% CI]): SGRQ-C, (0.88 [0.78, 0.99]); CAT, 0.85 [0.75, 0.96]) and lower dyspnoea (0.79 [0.69, 0.90]) at baseline versus those with more severe health impairment and higher dyspnoea, respectively. Compared with SFC, IND/GLY led to better prevention of moderate-to-severe exacerbations in the majority of groups studied.

Conclusion: Patients with more severe health status impairment and greater symptom burden at baseline subsequently experienced more exacerbations in the FLAME study. IND/GLY was overall more effective in preventing exacerbations versus SFC, regardless of baseline symptom burden. Our results suggest that future studies on novel exacerbation therapies should consider targeting patients with higher symptom burden at baseline.

Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT01782326.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01354-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179005PMC
April 2020

Pharmacologic Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 05;201(9):e56-e69

: This document provides clinical recommendations for the pharmacologic treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It represents a collaborative effort on the part of a panel of expert COPD clinicians and researchers along with a team of methodologists under the guidance of the American Thoracic Society.: Comprehensive evidence syntheses were performed on all relevant studies that addressed the clinical questions and critical patient-centered outcomes agreed upon by the panel of experts. The evidence was appraised, rated, and graded, and recommendations were formulated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach.: After weighing the quality of evidence and balancing the desirable and undesirable effects, the guideline panel made the following recommendations: ) a strong recommendation for the use of long-acting β-agonist (LABA)/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) combination therapy over LABA or LAMA monotherapy in patients with COPD and dyspnea or exercise intolerance; ) a conditional recommendation for the use of triple therapy with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)/LABA/LAMA over dual therapy with LABA/LAMA in patients with COPD and dyspnea or exercise intolerance who have experienced one or more exacerbations in the past year; ) a conditional recommendation for ICS withdrawal for patients with COPD receiving triple therapy (ICS/LABA/LAMA) if the patient has had no exacerbations in the past year; ) no recommendation for or against ICS as an additive therapy to long-acting bronchodilators in patients with COPD and blood eosinophilia, except for those patients with a history of one or more exacerbations in the past year requiring antibiotics or oral steroids or hospitalization, for whom ICS is conditionally recommended as an additive therapy; ) a conditional recommendation against the use of maintenance oral corticosteroids in patients with COPD and a history of severe and frequent exacerbations; and ) a conditional recommendation for opioid-based therapy in patients with COPD who experience advanced refractory dyspnea despite otherwise optimal therapy.: The task force made recommendations regarding the pharmacologic treatment of COPD based on currently available evidence. Additional research in populations that are underrepresented in clinical trials is needed, including studies in patients with COPD 80 years of age and older, those with multiple chronic health conditions, and those with a codiagnosis of COPD and asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202003-0625STDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193862PMC
May 2020

Targeted Retreatment of Incompletely Recovered Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations with Ciprofloxacin. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Multicenter, Phase III Clinical Trial.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 08;202(4):549-557

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are prone to nonrecovery, but there are no data about the effectiveness of retreatment for these prolonged events. We examined whether further therapy with ciprofloxacin for incompletely resolved COPD exacerbations prolonged the time until the next event. To assess whether incompletely recovered COPD exacerbations benefit from additional treatment with ciprofloxacin, at Day 14. In a multicenter, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, we studied retreatment with oral ciprofloxacin 500 mg or matched placebo twice daily for 7 days in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV COPD and persistent symptoms and/or serum C-reactive protein ≥8 mg/L initiated 14 (±3) days after an index COPD exacerbation. The primary outcome was the time to the next exacerbation within a 90-day period. Among 826 patients screened at four centers, 144 eligible participants with incomplete recovery were randomized to receive ciprofloxacin ( = 72) or placebo ( = 72). Within 90 days of randomization, 57% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin group and 53% in the placebo group experienced one or more exacerbations. The median time to the next exacerbation was 32.5 days (interquartile range 13-50) in the placebo arm and 34 days (interquartile range 17-62) in the ciprofloxacin arm, which was not significantly different (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.68;  = 0.76). No significant differences were seen in quality-of-life scores or lung function between the treatment groups. In patients with persistent symptoms and/or raised C-reactive protein 14 days after a COPD exacerbation, an additional course of ciprofloxacin resulted in no additional benefit compared with placebo. This suggests that nonrecovered exacerbations are not driven by ongoing bacterial infection and may potentially be targeted with antiinflammatory therapy.Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02300220).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201910-2058OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427375PMC
August 2020

Immunological and Inflammatory Biomarkers of Susceptibility and Severity in Adult Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections.

J Infect Dis 2020 10;222(Suppl 7):S584-S591

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in young infants. However, it is also a significant pathogen in older adults. Validated biomarkers of RSV disease severity would benefit diagnostics, treatment decisions, and prophylactic interventions. This review summarizes knowledge of biomarkers for RSV disease in adults.

Methods: A literature review was performed using Ovid Medline, Embase, Global health, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles published 1946-October 2016. Nine articles were identified plus 9 from other sources.

Results: From observational studies of natural infection and challenge studies in volunteers, biomarkers of RSV susceptibility or disease severity in adults were: (1) lower anti-RSV neutralizing antibodies, where neutralizing antibody (and local IgA) may be a correlate of susceptibility/severity; (2) RSV-specific CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid preinfection (subjects with higher levels had less severe illness); and (3) elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and myeloperoxidase levels in the airway are indicative of severe infection.

Conclusions: Factors determining susceptibility to and severity of RSV disease in adults have not been well defined. Respiratory mucosal antibodies and CD8+ T cells appear to contribute to preventing infection and modulation of disease severity. Studies of RSV pathogenesis in at-risk populations are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa063DOI Listing
October 2020

The Effects of a Video Intervention on Posthospitalization Pulmonary Rehabilitation Uptake. A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 06;201(12):1517-1524

Harefield Respiratory Research Group and.

Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) after hospitalizations for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) improves exercise capacity and health-related quality of life and reduces readmissions. However, posthospitalization PR uptake is low. To date, no trials of interventions to increase uptake have been conducted. To study the effect of a codesigned education video as an adjunct to usual care on posthospitalization PR uptake. The present study was an assessor- and statistician-blinded randomized controlled trial with nested, qualitative interviews of participants in the intervention group. Participants hospitalized with COPD exacerbations were assigned 1:1 to receive either usual care (COPD discharge bundle including PR information leaflet) or usual care plus the codesigned education video delivered via a handheld tablet device at discharge. Randomization used minimization to balance age, sex, FEV % predicted, frailty, transport availability, and previous PR experience. The primary outcome was PR uptake within 28 days of hospital discharge. A total of 200 patients were recruited, and 196 were randomized (51% female, median FEV predicted, 36 [interquartile range, 27-48]). PR uptake was 41% and 34% in the usual care and intervention groups, respectively ( = 0.37), with no differences in secondary (PR referral and completion) or safety (readmissions and death) endpoints. A total of 6 of the 15 participants interviewed could not recall receiving the video. A codesigned education video delivered at hospital discharge did not improve posthospitalization PR uptake, referral, or completion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201909-1878OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301747PMC
June 2020

Development and Reporting of Prediction Models: Guidance for Authors From Editors of Respiratory, Sleep, and Critical Care Journals.

Crit Care Med 2020 May;48(5):623-633

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Prediction models aim to use available data to predict a health state or outcome that has not yet been observed. Prediction is primarily relevant to clinical practice, but is also used in research, and administration. While prediction modeling involves estimating the relationship between patient factors and outcomes, it is distinct from casual inference. Prediction modeling thus requires unique considerations for development, validation, and updating. This document represents an effort from editors at 31 respiratory, sleep, and critical care medicine journals to consolidate contemporary best practices and recommendations related to prediction study design, conduct, and reporting. Herein, we address issues commonly encountered in submissions to our various journals. Key topics include considerations for selecting predictor variables, operationalizing variables, dealing with missing data, the importance of appropriate validation, model performance measures and their interpretation, and good reporting practices. Supplemental discussion covers emerging topics such as model fairness, competing risks, pitfalls of "modifiable risk factors", measurement error, and risk for bias. This guidance is not meant to be overly prescriptive; we acknowledge that every study is different, and no set of rules will fit all cases. Additional best practices can be found in the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) guidelines, to which we refer readers for further details.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161722PMC
May 2020

COPD clinical control as a predictor of future exacerbations: concept validation in the SPARK study population.

Thorax 2020 04 10;75(4):351-353. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

National Heart Lung Institute, Airways Disease Section, Imperial College London, London, UK.

The concept of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) control has been proposed to guide treatment decisions in COPD. In this study, we aimed to validate the prospective value of this concept in the SPARK study population. Control was assessed based on COPD stability and impact. Patients with low impact and stability during weeks 1-12 were classified as controlled, and exacerbations were measured during a 52-week follow-up. Of the 2044 patients included a majority were non-controlled (80%), frequently due to high impact. During the follow-up, the rate of moderate/severe exacerbations was significantly lower in controlled patients (rate ratio, 0.56, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.65 p<0.0001) and time-to-first moderate/severe exacerbation was significantly delayed. This study demonstrated an association between control status and risk of exacerbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212752DOI Listing
April 2020

The stability of blood Eosinophils in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Respir Res 2020 Jan 10;21(1):15. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Blood eosinophils are a predictive biomarker of inhaled corticosteroid response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated blood eosinophil stability over 1 year using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2019 thresholds of < 100, 100- < 300 and ≥ 300 eosinophils/μL in 225 patients from the COPDMAP cohort. Blood eosinophils showed good stability (rho: 0.71, p < 0.001, ICC 0.84), and 69.3% of patients remained in the same eosinophil category at 1 year. 85.3% of patients with eosinophils < 100 cells/μL had stable counts. The majority of blood eosinophil counts remain stable over 1 year using the GOLD 2019 thresholds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-1279-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954589PMC
January 2020

Update on Clinical Aspects of COPD. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2019 12;381(25):2485-2486

Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1914600DOI Listing
December 2019

Effect of Erdosteine on COPD Exacerbations in COPD Patients with Moderate Airflow Limitation.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2019 2;14:2733-2744. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Respiratory Division, National Heart And Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background: The RESTORE study, a multi-national randomized, placebo-controlled study, showed that erdosteine - a muco-active antioxidant that modulates bacterial adhesiveness - reduced the rate and duration of exacerbations in moderate and severe COPD with a history of exacerbations. How much benefit patients with less severe disease experience when taking this drug remains unclear.

Methods: This post hoc analysis of the 254 RESTORE participants with spirometrically-defined moderate COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV] 50‒79% predicted) examined exacerbation rate and duration, time to first exacerbation, and exacerbation-free time. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and comparisons between treatment groups used Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, Mann-Whitney -tests, or log rank tests.

Results: Patients with moderate COPD received erdosteine 300 mg twice daily (n=126) or placebo (n=128) added to usual COPD therapy for 12 months. During this time, there were 53 exacerbations in the erdosteine group and 74 in the placebo group, with 42.1% and 57.8% of patients, respectively, experiencing an exacerbation. There was a 47% reduction in the mean exacerbation rate with erdosteine compared to placebo (0.27 vs 0.51 exacerbations per-patient per-year, respectively, =0.003), and a 58.3% reduction in the mild exacerbation rate (0.23 vs 0.53 mild exacerbations per-patient per-year, =0.001). Mean duration of exacerbations was 26% shorter in erdosteine-treated patients (9.1 vs 12.3 days for placebo, =0.022), with significant reductions in the duration of mild and moderate-to-severe exacerbations. Mean time to first exacerbation was prolonged by 7.7% (182 days for erdosteine vs 169 days for placebo, <0.001) and the mean exacerbation-free time was increased by 51 days (279 days for erdosteine vs 228 days for placebo; <0.001).

Conclusion: These results indicate that adding erdosteine to usual COPD maintenance therapy reduces the number of mild, and duration of all, exacerbations in patients with moderate COPD and a history of exacerbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S221852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896911PMC
April 2020

A phase III study of triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler 320/18/9.6 μg and 160/18/9.6 μg using co-suspension delivery technology in moderate-to-very severe COPD: The ETHOS study protocol.

Respir Med 2019 Oct - Nov;158:59-66. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

AstraZeneca, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Single inhaler triple therapies providing an inhaled corticosteroid, a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, and a long-acting β-agonist (ICS/LAMA/LABAs) are an emerging treatment option for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, questions remain regarding the optimal patient population for triple therapy as well as the benefit:risk ratio of ICS treatment.

Methods: ETHOS is an ongoing, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group, 52-week study in symptomatic patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD and a history of exacerbation(s) in the previous year. Two doses of single inhaler triple therapy with budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (BGF MDI 320/18/9.6 μg and 160/18/9.6 μg) will be compared to glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate (GFF) MDI 18/9.6 μg and budesonide/formoterol fumarate (BFF) MDI 320/9.6 μg, all formulated using co-suspension delivery technology. Outcomes include the rate of moderate/severe (primary endpoint) and severe COPD exacerbations, symptoms, quality of life, and all-cause mortality. Sub-studies will assess lung function and cardiovascular safety.

Study Population: From June 2015-July 2018, 16,044 patients were screened and 8572 were randomized. Preliminary baseline demographics show that 55.9% of patients had experienced ≥2 moderate/severe exacerbations in the previous year, 79.1% were receiving an ICS-containing treatment at study entry, and 59.9% had blood eosinophil counts ≥150 cells/mm.

Conclusions: ETHOS will provide data on exacerbations, patient-reported outcomes, mortality, and safety in 8572 patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD receiving triple and dual fixed-dose combinations. For the first time, ICS/LAMA/LABA triple therapy with two different doses of ICS will be compared to dual ICS/LABA and LAMA/LABA therapies.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02465567.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2019.08.010DOI Listing
August 2020

Update on Clinical Aspects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

N Engl J Med 2019 09;381(13):1257-1266

From the Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School - both in Boston (B.R.C.); and the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (J.A.W.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1900500DOI Listing
September 2019

Inhaled corticosteroid suppression of cathelicidin drives dysbiosis and bacterial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Sci Transl Med 2019 08;11(507)

National Heart and Lung Institute, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK.

Bacterial infection commonly complicates inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanisms of increased infection susceptibility and how use of the commonly prescribed therapy inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) accentuates pneumonia risk in COPD are poorly understood. Here, using analysis of samples from patients with COPD, we show that ICS use is associated with lung microbiota disruption leading to proliferation of streptococcal genera, an effect that could be recapitulated in ICS-treated mice. To study mechanisms underlying this effect, we used cellular and mouse models of streptococcal expansion with , an important pathogen in COPD, to demonstrate that ICS impairs pulmonary clearance of bacteria through suppression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin. ICS impairment of pulmonary immunity was dependent on suppression of cathelicidin because ICS had no effect on bacterial loads in mice lacking cathelicidin () and exogenous cathelicidin prevented ICS-mediated expansion of streptococci within the microbiota and improved bacterial clearance. Suppression of pulmonary immunity by ICS was mediated by augmentation of the protease cathepsin D. Collectively, these data suggest a central role for cathepsin D/cathelicidin in the suppression of antibacterial host defense by ICS in COPD. Therapeutic restoration of cathelicidin to boost antibacterial immunity and beneficially modulate the lung microbiota might be an effective strategy in COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aav3879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237237PMC
August 2019

Indacaterol/glycopyrronium versus tiotropium or glycopyrronium in long-acting bronchodilator-naïve COPD patients: A pooled analysis.

Respirology 2020 Apr 24;25(4):393-400. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Background And Objective: Indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) 110/50 μg once daily (q.d.) has demonstrated greater improvements in lung function, patient-reported outcomes and lower exacerbation rates versus mono long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, data are limited on initial treatment with IND/GLY 110/50 μg q.d. versus mono LAMA in COPD patients, not previously on maintenance treatment with long-acting bronchodilators (LABD).

Methods: A pooled analysis of ARISE, SHINE and SPARK trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of IND/GLY 110/50 μg q.d. versus open-label (OL) tiotropium (TIO) 18 μg q.d. and GLY 50 μg q.d. in COPD patients, not on maintenance treatment with LABD at study entry (LABD-naïve). Efficacy was assessed after 24/26 weeks of treatment.

Results: In total, 998 LABD-naïve patients were included (IND/GLY: 353; OL TIO: 328; GLY: 317). Patients treated with IND/GLY 110/50 μg q.d. experienced greater improvements in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV ) versus OL TIO 18 μg q.d. (least squares mean treatment difference (Δ): 0.086 L) and GLY 50 μg q.d. (Δ: 0.080 L) after 24/26 weeks. Improvements in electronic diary (eDiary) symptom scores, transition dyspnoea index (TDI) focal score, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score and rescue medication use were also greater with IND/GLY versus OL TIO and GLY. Greater proportion of patients achieved minimal clinically important difference in trough FEV , TDI and SGRQ with IND/GLY versus OL TIO and GLY.

Conclusion: LABD-naïve patients treated with IND/GLY 110/50 μg q.d. achieved improvements in lung function, daily symptoms, dyspnoea, health-related quality of life and rescue medication use versus those who received single LAMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7155057PMC
April 2020

Defective bacterial phagocytosis is associated with dysfunctional mitochondria in COPD macrophages.

Eur Respir J 2019 10 10;54(4). Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Airway Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK

Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study examined the effect of exogenous and endogenous oxidative stress on macrophage phagocytosis in patients with COPD.Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) were generated from non-smoker, smoker and COPD subjects, differentiated in either granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (G-Mφ) or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-Mφ). Alveolar macrophages were isolated from lung tissue or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Macrophages were incubated in ±200 µM HO for 24 h, then exposed to fluorescently labelled or for 4 h, after which phagocytosis, mitochondrial ROS (mROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were measured.Phagocytosis of bacteria was significantly decreased in both G-Mφ and M-Mφ from COPD patients compared with from non-smoker controls. In non-smokers and smokers, bacterial phagocytosis did not alter mROS or ΔΨm; however, in COPD, phagocytosis increased early mROS and decreased ΔΨm in both G-Mφ and M-Mφ. Exogenous oxidative stress reduced phagocytosis in non-smoker and COPD alveolar macrophages and non-smoker MDMs, associated with reduced mROS production.COPD macrophages show defective phagocytosis, which is associated with altered mitochondrial function and an inability to regulate mROS production. Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction may restore the phagocytic defect in COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02244-2018DOI Listing
October 2019