Publications by authors named "Jacques Ranger"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Douglas fir stimulates nitrification in French forest soils.

Sci Rep 2019 07 23;9(1):10687. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

INRA Grand-EST Nancy, UR 1138 Biogéochimie des Ecosystèmes Forestiers, Route d'Amance, 54280, Champenoux, France.

Douglas fir trees presumable stimulate nitrification in the soil. We studied in 21 French Douglas fir forests if and how nitrification is modulated by soil properties, past land use and current forest management. Soil (0-10 cm depth) was collected and initial concentrations of N-NH and N-NO, potential net nitrogen mineralization (PNM) and net nitrification (PNN) rates and microbial biomass were measured. At 11 of the 21 sites, annual nitrate fluxes in the soil were measured using anion exchange resin bags. Soils contained between 2.3 to 29.4 mg N-NO kg soil. About 86% (±14%) of mineral N was nitrate. The proportion of nitrate increased to almost 100% during incubation. PNN varied from 0.10 mg N kg soil day to 1.05 mg N kg soil day (21 sites). Neither the initial nitrate concentration nor PNN was related to soil chemistry (pH, % C, %N, P, CEC), microbial biomass, texture, past land use or thinning. In situ net nitrate accumulation (NNA) estimated with resins beds varied from 4 to 100 kg N-NO ha yr (11 sites). It was positively correlated with base saturation, clay content, ELLENBERG N, temperature and negatively with soil organic N, C/N ratio and precipitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47042-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6650478PMC
July 2019

Impact of vegetation on the methane budget of a temperate forest.

New Phytol 2019 02 29;221(3):1447-1456. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Université de Lorraine, AgroParisTech, INRA, UMR Silva, F-54000, Nancy, France.

Upland forest soils are known to be the main biological sink for methane, but studies have shown that net methane uptake of a forest ecosystem can be reduced when methane emissions by vegetation are considered. We estimated the methane budget of a young oak plantation by considering tree stems but also the understorey vegetation. Automated chambers connected to a laser-based gas analyser, on tree stems, bare soil and soil covered with understorey vegetation, recorded CH fluxes for 7 months at 3 h intervals. Tree stem emissions were low and equated to only 0.1% of the soil sink. Conversely, the presence of understorey vegetation increased soil methane uptake. This plant-driven enhancement of CH uptake occurred when the soil was consuming methane. At the stand level, the methane budget shifted from -1.4 ± 0.4 kg C ha when we upscaled data obtained only on bare soil, to -2.9 ± 0.6 kg C ha when we considered soil area that was covered with understorey vegetation. These results indicate that aerenchymatous plant species, which are known to reduce the methane sink in wetlands, actually increase soil methane uptake two-fold in an upland forest by enhancing methane and oxygen transport and/or by promoting growth of methanotrophic populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15452DOI Listing
February 2019

Experimental evidence of large changes in terrestrial chlorine cycling following altered tree species composition.

Environ Sci Technol 2015 Apr 1;49(8):4921-8. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

†Department of Thematic Studies-Environmental Change, Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden.

Organochlorine molecules (Clorg) are surprisingly abundant in soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl(-)) levels. Despite the widespread abundance of Clorg and the common ability of microorganisms to produce Clorg, we lack fundamental knowledge about how overall chlorine cycling is regulated in forested ecosystems. Here we present data from a long-term reforestation experiment where native forest was cleared and replaced with five different tree species. Our results show that the abundance and residence times of Cl(-) and Clorg after 30 years were highly dependent on which tree species were planted on the nearby plots. Average Cl(-) and Clorg content in soil humus were higher, at experimental plots with coniferous trees than in those with deciduous trees. Plots with Norway spruce had the highest net accumulation of Cl(-) and Clorg over the experiment period, and showed a 10 and 4 times higher Cl(-) and Clorg storage (kg ha(-1)) in the biomass, respectively, and 7 and 9 times higher storage of Cl(-) and Clorg in the soil humus layer, compared to plots with oak. The results can explain why local soil chlorine levels are frequently independent of atmospheric deposition, and provide opportunities for improved modeling of chlorine distribution and cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b00137DOI Listing
April 2015

Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2015 May 11;90(2):444-66. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

UMR 1391 ISPA, INRA, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Villenave d'Ornon, 33883 France.

It has been recognized for a long time that the overstorey composition of a forest partly determines its biological and physical-chemical functioning. Here, we review evidence of the influence of evergreen gymnosperm (EG) tree species and deciduous angiosperm (DA) tree species on the water balance, physical-chemical soil properties and biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. We used scientific publications based on experimental designs where all species grew on the same parent material and initial soil, and were similar in stage of stand development, former land use and current management. We present the current state of the art, define knowledge gaps, and briefly discuss how selection of tree species can be used to mitigate pollution or enhance accumulation of stable organic carbon in the soil. The presence of EGs generally induces a lower rate of precipitation input into the soil than DAs, resulting in drier soil conditions and lower water discharge. Soil temperature is generally not different, or slightly lower, under an EG canopy compared to a DA canopy. Chemical properties, such as soil pH, can also be significantly modified by taxonomic groups of tree species. Biomass production is usually similar or lower in DA stands than in stands of EGs. Aboveground production of dead organic matter appears to be of the same order of magnitude between tree species groups growing on the same site. Some DAs induce more rapid decomposition of litter than EGs because of the chemical properties of their tissues, higher soil moisture and favourable conditions for earthworms. Forest floors consequently tend to be thicker in EG forests compared to DA forests. Many factors, such as litter lignin content, influence litter decomposition and it is difficult to identify specific litter-quality parameters that distinguish litter decomposition rates of EGs from DAs. Although it has been suggested that DAs can result in higher accumulation of soil carbon stocks, evidence from field studies does not show any obvious trend. Further research is required to clarify if accumulation of carbon in soils (i.e. forest floor + mineral soil) is different between the two types of trees. Production of belowground dead organic matter appears to be of similar magnitude in DA and EG forests, and root decomposition rate lower under EGs than DAs. However there are some discrepancies and still are insufficient data about belowground pools and processes that require further research. Relatively larger amounts of nutrients enter the soil-plant biogeochemical cycle under the influence of EGs than DAs, but recycling of nutrients appears to be slightly enhanced by DAs. Understanding the mechanisms underlying forest ecosystem functioning is essential to predicting the consequences of the expected tree species migration under global change. This knowledge can also be used as a mitigation tool regarding carbon sequestration or management of surface waters because the type of tree species affects forest growth, carbon, water and nutrient cycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12119DOI Listing
May 2015

Metatranscriptomics reveals the diversity of genes expressed by eukaryotes in forest soils.

PLoS One 2012 6;7(1):e28967. Epub 2012 Jan 6.

Ecologie Microbienne, UMR CNRS 5557, USC INRA 1193, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.

Eukaryotic organisms play essential roles in the biology and fertility of soils. For example the micro and mesofauna contribute to the fragmentation and homogenization of plant organic matter, while its hydrolysis is primarily performed by the fungi. To get a global picture of the activities carried out by soil eukaryotes we sequenced 2×10,000 cDNAs synthesized from polyadenylated mRNA directly extracted from soils sampled in beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) forests. Taxonomic affiliation of both cDNAs and 18S rRNA sequences showed a dominance of sequences from fungi (up to 60%) and metazoans while protists represented less than 12% of the 18S rRNA sequences. Sixty percent of cDNA sequences from beech forest soil and 52% from spruce forest soil had no homologs in the GenBank/EMBL/DDJB protein database. A Gene Ontology term was attributed to 39% and 31.5% of the spruce and beech soil sequences respectively. Altogether 2076 sequences were putative homologs to different enzyme classes participating to 129 KEGG pathways among which several were implicated in the utilisation of soil nutrients such as nitrogen (ammonium, amino acids, oligopeptides), sugars, phosphates and sulfate. Specific annotation of plant cell wall degrading enzymes identified enzymes active on major polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectin, lignin) and glycoside hydrolases represented 0.5% (beech soil)-0.8% (spruce soil) of the cDNAs. Other sequences coding enzymes active on organic matter (extracellular proteases, lipases, a phytase, P450 monooxygenases) were identified, thus underlining the biotechnological potential of eukaryotic metatranscriptomes. The phylogenetic affiliation of 12 full-length carbohydrate active enzymes showed that most of them were distantly related to sequences from known fungi. For example, a putative GH45 endocellulase was closely associated to molluscan sequences, while a GH7 cellobiohydrolase was closest to crustacean sequences, thus suggesting a potentially significant contribution of non-fungal eukaryotes in the actual hydrolysis of soil organic matter.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0028967PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3253082PMC
May 2012

Performance of the COX1 gene as a marker for the study of metabolically active Pezizomycotina and Agaricomycetes fungal communities from the analysis of soil RNA.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2010 Dec 26;74(3):693-705. Epub 2010 Oct 26.

Ecologie Microbienne, UMR CNRS, USC INRA, Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France.

In temperate forest soils, filamentous ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi affiliated to the Agaricomycetes and Pezizomycotina contribute to key biological processes. The diversity of soil fungal communities is usually estimated by studying molecular markers such as nuclear ribosomal gene regions amplified from soil-extracted DNA. However, this approach only reveals the presence of the corresponding genomic DNA in the soil sample and may not reflect the diversity of the metabolically active species. To circumvent this problem, we investigated the performance of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COX1)-encoding gene as a fungal molecular marker for environmental RNA-based studies. We designed PCR primers to specifically amplify Agaricomycetes and Pezizomycotina COX1 partial sequences and amplified them from both soil DNA and reverse-transcribed soil RNA. As a control, we also amplified the nuclear internal transcribed spacer ribosomal region from soil DNA. Fungal COX1 sequences were readily amplified from soil-extracted nucleic acids and were not significantly contaminated by nontarget sequences. We show that the relative abundance of fungal taxonomic groups differed between the different sequence data sets, with for example ascomycete COX1 sequences being more abundant among sequences amplified from soil DNA than from soil cDNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.00983.xDOI Listing
December 2010

Influence of forest trees on the distribution of mineral weathering-associated bacterial communities of the Scleroderma citrinum mycorrhizosphere.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2010 Jul 28;76(14):4780-7. Epub 2010 May 28.

UMR 1136 INRA Nancy Université, Interactions Arbres-Microorganismes, 54280 Champenoux, France.

In acidic forest soils, availability of inorganic nutrients is a tree-growth-limiting factor. A hypothesis to explain sustainable forest development proposes that tree roots select soil microbes involved in central biogeochemical processes, such as mineral weathering, that may contribute to nutrient mobilization and tree nutrition. Here we showed, by combining soil analyses with cultivation-dependent analyses of the culturable bacterial communities associated with the widespread mycorrhizal fungus Scleroderma citrinum, a significant enrichment of bacterial isolates with efficient mineral weathering potentials around the oak and beech mycorrhizal roots compared to bulk soil. Such a difference did not exist in the rhizosphere of Norway spruce. The mineral weathering ability of the bacterial isolates was assessed using a microplaque assay that measures the pH and the amount of iron released from biotite. Using this microplate assay, we demonstrated that the bacterial isolates harboring the most efficient mineral weathering potential belonged to the Burkholderia genus. Notably, previous work revealed that oak and beech harbored very similar pHs in the 5- to 10-cm horizon in both rhizosphere and bulk soil environments. In the spruce rhizosphere, in contrast, the pH was significantly lower than that in bulk soil. Because the production of protons is one of the main mechanisms responsible for mineral weathering, our results suggest that certain tree species have developed indirect strategies for mineral weathering in nutrient-poor soils, which lie in the selection of bacterial communities with efficient mineral weathering potentials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03040-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2901721PMC
July 2010

Influence of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on leaf lifespan and allocation of above-ground growth in Eucalyptus plantations.

Tree Physiol 2009 Jan 5;29(1):111-24. Epub 2008 Dec 5.

CIRAD, Persyst, UPR80, TA10/D, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) leaf traits and tree growth were studied over 3 years after the establishment of two adjacent complete randomized block designs in southern Brazil. In a nitrogen (N) input experiment, a treatment with the application of 120 kg N ha(-1) was compared to a control treatment without N addition, and in a potassium (K) input experiment a control treatment without K addition was compared to a treatment with the application of 116 kg K ha(-1). Young leaves were tagged 9 months after planting to estimate the effect of N and K fertilizations on leaf lifespan. Leaf mass, specific leaf area and nutrient concentrations were measured on a composite sample per plot every 28 days until the last tagged leaf fell. Successive inventories, destructive sampling of trees and leaf litter fall collection made it possible to assess the effect of N and K fertilization on the dynamics of biomass accumulation in above-ground tree components. Whilst the effects of N fertilization on tree growth only occurred in the first 24 months after planting, K fertilization increased the above-ground net primary production from 4478 to 8737 g m(-2) over the first 36 months after planting. The average lifespan of tagged leaves was not modified by N addition but it increased from 111 to 149 days with K fertilization. The peak of leaf production occurred in the second year after planting (about 800 g m(-2) year(-1)) and was not significantly modified (P < 0.05) by N and K fertilizations. By contrast, K addition significantly increased the maximum leaf standing biomass from 292 to 528 g m(-2), mainly as a consequence of the increase in leaf lifespan. Potassium fertilization increased the stand biomass mainly through the enhancement in leaf area index (LAI) since growth efficiency (defined as the ratio between woody biomass production and LAI) was not significantly modified. A better understanding of the physiological processes governing the leaf lifespan is necessary to improve process-based models currently used in Eucalyptus plantations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpn010DOI Listing
January 2009

Diversity and decomposing ability of saprophytic fungi from temperate forest litter.

Microb Ecol 2009 Jul 4;58(1):98-107. Epub 2008 Nov 4.

Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, SLU, P.O. Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

This study was designed to examine saprophytic fungi diversity under different tree species situated in the same ecological context. Further, the link between the diversity and decomposition rate of two broadleaved, two coniferous and two mixed broadleaved-coniferous litter types was targeted. Litter material was decomposed in litter bags for 4 and 24 months to target both early and late stages of the decomposition. Fungal diversity of L and F layers were also investigated as a parallel to the litter bag method. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting was used to assess fungal diversity in the samples. Mass loss values and organic and nutrient composition of the litter were also measured. The results showed that the species richness was not strongly affected by the change of the tree species. Nevertheless, the community compositions differed within tree species and decomposition stages. The most important shift was found in the mixed litters from the litter bag treatment for both variables. Both mixed litters displayed the highest species richness (13.3 species both) and the most different community composition as compared to pure litters (6.3-10.7 species) after 24 months. The mass loss after 24 months was similar or greater in the mixed litter (70.5% beech-spruce, 76.2% oak-Douglas-fir litter) than in both original pure litter types. This was probably due to higher niche variability and to the synergistic effect of nutrient transfer between litter types. Concerning pure litter, mass loss values were the highest in oak and beech litter (72.8% and 69.8%) compared to spruce and D. fir (59.4% and 66.5%, respectively). That was probably caused by a more favourable microclimate and litter composition in broadleaved than in coniferous plantations. These variables also seemed to be more important to pure litter decomposition rates than were fungal species richness or community structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-008-9458-8DOI Listing
July 2009

Microbial diversity during cellulose decomposition in different forest stands: I. microbial communities and environmental conditions.

Microb Ecol 2007 Oct 4;54(3):393-405. Epub 2007 Jul 4.

Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, Charles University, Benátská 2, 128 01, Praha 2, Czech Republic.

We studied the effect of forest tree species on a community of decomposers that colonize cellulose strips. Both fungal and bacterial communities were targeted in a native forest dominated by beech and oak and 30-year-old beech and spruce plantations, growing in similar ecological conditions in the Breuil-Chenue experimental forest site in Morvan (France). Microbial ingrowths from the 3rd to 10th month of strip decomposition (May to December 2004) were studied. Community composition was assessed using temperature gradient gel electrophoresis with universal fungal (ITS1F, ITS2) and bacterial (1401r, 968f) primers. Soil temperature and moisture as well as fungal biomass were also measured to give additional information on decomposition processes. Changing the dominant tree species had no significant influence in the number of decomposer species. However, decomposer community composition was clearly different. If compared to the native forest, where community composition highly differed, young monocultures displayed similar species structure for fungi and bacteria. Both species numbers and community composition evolved during the decay process. Time effect was found to be more important than tree species. Nevertheless, the actual environmental conditions and seasonal effect seemed to be even more determining factors for the development of microbial communities. The course and correlations of the explored variables often differed between tree species, although certain general trends were identified. Fungal biomass was high in summer, despite that species richness (SR) decreased and conversely, that high SR did not necessarily mean high biomass values. It can be concluded that the growth and development of the microbiological communities that colonized a model material in situ depended on the combination of physical and biological factors acting collectively and interdependently at the forest soil microsite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-007-9286-2DOI Listing
October 2007

Microbial community structure and density under different tree species in an acid forest soil (Morvan, France).

Microb Ecol 2005 Nov 13;50(4):614-25. Epub 2005 Dec 13.

UMR Microbiologie et Géochimie des sols, INRA/Université de Bourgogne, CMSE, 17 rue de Sully, BP 86510, 21065 Dijon Cedex, France.

Overexploitation of forests to increase wood production has led to the replacement of native forest by large areas of monospecific tree plantations. In the present study, the effects of different monospecific tree cover plantations on density and composition of the indigenous soil microbial community are described. The experimental site of "Breuil-Chenue" in the Morvan (France) was the site of a comparison of a similar mineral soil under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Douglas fir (Pseudotuga menziesii), oak (Quercus sessiflora), and native forest [mixed stand dominated by oak and beech (Fagus sylvatica)]. Sampling was performed during winter (February) at three depths (0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm). Abundance of microorganisms was estimated via microbial biomass measurements, using the fumigation-extraction method. The genetic structure of microbial communities was investigated using the bacterial- and fungal-automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (B-ARISA and F-ARISA, respectively) DNA fingerprint. Only small differences in microbial biomass were observed between tree species, the highest values being recorded under oak forest and the lowest under Douglas fir. B- and F-ARISA community profiles of the different tree covers clustered separately, but noticeable similarities were observed for soils under Douglas fir and oak. A significant stratification was revealed under each tree species by a decrease in microbial biomass with increasing depths and by distinct microbial communities for each soil layer. Differences in density and community composition according to tree species and depth were related to soil physicochemical characteristics and organic matter composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-005-5130-8DOI Listing
November 2005

The function of the superficial root mat in the biogeochemical cycles of nutrients in congolese eucalyptus plantations.

Ann Bot 2004 Mar 28;93(3):249-61. Epub 2004 Jan 28.

CIRAD/UR2PI, Département Forêt, Programme Arbres et Plantations, TA 10/C, 34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France.

Background And Aims: The importance of superficial root mats inside the forest floor for the nutrition of Amazonian rain forests has been extensively investigated. The present study was aimed at assessing the function of a root mat adherent to decomposing organic material observed in Eucalyptus plantations.

Methods: The development of the root mat was studied through micromorphological observations of thin litter sections, and the influence of soil microtopography and soil water repellency on root mat biomass was assessed in situ on an area of 5 m2. In addition, input-output budgets of nutrients within the forest floor were established from measurements of litterfall, dissolved nutrients in gravitational solutions, and forest floor nutrient contents.

Key Findings: The amounts of nutrients released during litter decay in this ecosystem during the period of study were, on average, 46, 3, 4, 19 and 17 kg ha-1 year-1 for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively. The simultaneous measurements of the chemical composition of throughfall solutions and leachates beneath the forest floor showed a very quick uptake of nutrients by the root mat during the decomposition processes. Indeed, the solutions did not become noticeably enriched in nutrients during their passage through the holorganic layer, despite large amounts of elements being released during litter decay. The root mat biomass decreased significantly during the dry season, and a preferential development in microdepressions at the soil surface was observed. A strong water repellency observed in these depressions might enhance the ability of the roots to take up water and nutrients during the dry periods.

Conclusions: The root mat was active throughout the year to catch the flux of nutrients from the biodegradation of the forest floor, preventing the transfer of dissolved nutrients toward deeper soil horizons. This mechanism is involved in the successful adaptation of this Eucalyptus hybrid in areas covered by 'climacic' savannas in Congo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mch035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4242196PMC
March 2004

Nutrient dynamics throughout the rotation of Eucalyptus clonal stands in Congo.

Ann Bot 2003 Jun;91(7):879-92

CIRAD-Forêt/UR2PI, TA 10/C, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

The dynamics of the main nutrient fluxes of the biological cycle were quantified in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation throughout the whole planted crop rotation: current annual requirements of nutrients, uptake from the soil, internal translocations within trees, return to soil (litterfall and crown leaching) and decomposition in the forest floor. As reported for other species, two growth periods were identified in these short-rotation plantations: (1) a juvenile phase up to canopy closure, during which the uptake of nutrients from the soil reserves supplied most of the current requirements; and (2) a second phase up to harvest, characterized by intense nutrient recycling processes. Internal translocation within trees supplied about 30 % of the annual requirements of N and P from 2 years of age onwards, and about 50 % of the K requirement. The mineralization of large amounts of organic matter returned to the soil with litterfall during stand development represented a key process providing nutrients to the stand at the end of the rotation. The importance of the recycling processes was clearly shown by the small amounts of nutrients permanently immobilized in the ligneous components of trees, compared with the total requirements accumulated over the stand rotation which were two to four times higher. Small pools of nutrients circulating quickly in the ecosystem made it possible to produce high amounts of biomass in poor soils. The sustainability of these plantations will require fertilizer inputs that match the changes in soil fertility over successive rotations, mainly linked to the dynamics of organic matter in this tropical soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcg093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4242395PMC
June 2003

A generic model to describe the dynamics of nutrient concentrations within stemwood across an age series of a eucalyptus hybrid.

Ann Bot 2002 Jul;90(1):65-76

CIRAD Forêt, Montpellier, France.

Nutrient concentrations (N, P, K) were determined within stemwood in an age series of eucalyptus stands. Four trees per stand were selected according to their size to represent the whole range of basal areas in 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-year-old stands. Cross-sections were sampled every 4 m from the ground to the top of the tree, and chemical analyses were performed for each annual ring in the cross-sections. We constructed a new and generic model to describe the dynamics of nutrient concentrations within the stemwood. Three main parameters were used: (1) the initial concentration of the ring, Ic; (2) the final concentration of the ring at harvest, Fc; and (3) the rate of change in concentration, k. The model is very flexible and was adapted to describe N, P and K concentrations within the stems, and their dynamics over time. An analysis of the parameters showed that k was constant for a given nutrient. Ic varied with height within the tree for P, whereas for N and K it was a function of: (1) the age of the tree when the ring was initiated: and (2) height within the tree. Fc was constant for N, and dependent on the age of the tree when the ring was initiated for K and P. The final models showed a low Root Mean Square Error for a limited number of parameters (less than seven). When validated on an independent sample, the models were shown to have high predictive quality.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4233850PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcf146DOI Listing
July 2002