Publications by authors named "Jacques Guillot"

111 Publications

In vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns of Trichophyton benhamiae complex isolates from diverse origin.

Mycoses 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Health Research Institute, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Background: Species from the Trichophyton benhamiae complex are mostly zoophilic dermatophytes which cause inflammatory dermatophytosis in animals and humans worldwide.

Objectives: This study was purposed to (a) to identify 169 reference and clinical dermatophyte strains from the T benhamiae complex species by molecular method and adhering to the newest taxonomy in the complex (b) to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile of these strains against eight common and new antifungal agents that may be used for the treatment of dermatophytosis.

Methods: All isolates, mainly originated from Europe but also from Iran, Japan and USA, were subjected to ITS-rDNA sequencing. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of eight common and new antifungal drugs against the isolates were determined by CLSI M38-A2 protocol and according to microdilution method.

Results: Based on the ITS-rDNA sequencing, T benhamiae was the dominant species (n = 102), followed by T europaeum (n = 29), T erinacei (n = 23), T japonicum (n = 10), Trichophyton sp (n = 4) and T eriotrephon (n = 1). MIC ranges across all isolates were as follows: luliconazole: 0.0002-0.002 µg/ml, terbinafine: 0.008-0.125 µg/ml, efinaconazole: 0.008-0.125 µg/ml, ciclopirox olamine: 0.03-0.5 µg/ml, itraconazole: 0.06-2 µg/ml, griseofulvin: 0.25-4 µg/ml, amorolfine hydrochloride: 0.125-4 µg/ml and tavaborole: 1-16 µg/ml.

Conclusion: Luliconazole, efinaconazole and terbinafine were the most potent antifungals against T benhamiae complex isolates, regardless of the geographic locations where strains were isolated. These data might help dermatologists to develop effective therapies for successful treatment of infections due to T benhamiae complex species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13287DOI Listing
April 2021

Aspergillosis in Wild Birds.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;7(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Dynamic Research Group UPEC, EnvA, USC Anses, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

The ubiquitous fungi belonging to the genus are able to proliferate in a large number of environments on organic substrates. The spores of these opportunistic pathogens, when inhaled, can cause serious and often fatal infections in a wide variety of captive and free-roaming wild birds. The relative importance of innate immunity and the level of exposure in the development of the disease can vary considerably between avian species and epidemiological situations. Given the low efficacy of therapeutic treatments, it is essential that breeders or avian practitioners know the conditions that favor the emergence of Aspergillosis in order to put adequate preventive measures in place.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7030241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004873PMC
March 2021

as a screening tool to study virulence factors of .

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):818-834

EA 7380 Dynamic, Université Paris Est Créteil, EnvA, USC ANSES, Créteil, France.

The invertebrate has increasingly and widely been used in the last few years to study complex host-microbe interactions. is one of the most pathogenic fungi causing life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. larvae has been proven as a reliable model for the analysis of pathogenesis and virulence factors, enable to screen a large number of strains. This review describes the different uses of to study and provides a comparison of the different protocols to trace fungal pathogenicity. The review also includes a summary of the diverse mutants tested in , and their respective contribution to virulence. Previous investigations indicated that should be considered as an interesting tool even though a mammalian model may be required to complete and verify initial data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2021.1893945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946008PMC
December 2021

Detection and Control of Dermatophytosis in Wild European Hedgehogs () Admitted to a French Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Jan 21;7(2). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire de la Faune Sauvage (Chuv-FS), Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

The rising number of European hedgehogs () admitted every year to wildlife rehabilitation centres might be a source of concern to animal and public health since transmissible diseases, such as dermatophytosis, can be easily disseminated. This study seeks to evaluate the frequency of dermatophyte detection in hedgehogs admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation centre located near Paris, France, and to assess the risk of contamination in the centre in order to adapt prevention measures. A longitudinal cohort study was performed on 412 hedgehogs hosted at the Wildlife Animal Hospital of the Veterinary College of Alfort from January to December 2016. Animals were sampled once a month for fungal culture. Dermatophyte colonies were obtained from 174 out of 686 skin samples (25.4%). Besides , and were also found. Dermatophyte detection seemed to be associated with the presence of skin lesions, while more than one-third of -positive animals were asymptomatic carriers. Healing required several months of treatment with topical and systemic azoles, but dermatophytosis did not seem to reduce the probability of release. Daily disinfection procedures and early detection and treatment of infected and asymptomatic carriers succeeded in limiting dermatophyte transmission between hedgehogs and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7020074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911743PMC
January 2021

Modulated Response of and to Antimicrobial Agents in Polymicrobial Biofilm.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 6;10:574028. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

EA 7380 Dynamyc, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Ecole nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort, USC Anses, Créteil, France.

The complexity of biofilms constitutes a therapeutic challenge and the antimicrobial susceptibility of fungal-bacterial biofilms remains poorly studied. The filamentous fungus (Af) and the Gram-negative bacillus (Sm) can form biofilms and can be co-isolated from the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We previously developed an biofilm model which highlighted the antibiosis effect of Sm on Af, which was dependent on the bacterial fitness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Af and Sm in mono- or polymicrobial biofilms to five antimicrobial agents alone and in two-drug combinations. Af and Sm clinical reference strains and two strains from CF sputa were tested through a planktonic and biofilm approaches. Af, Sm, or Af-Sm susceptibilities to amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), levofloxacin (LVX), and rifampicin (RFN) were evaluated by conventional planktonic techniques, crystal violet, XTT, qPCR, and viable plate count. Af planktonic cells and biofilms in formation were more susceptible to AMB, ITC, and VRC than Af mature biofilms. Af mature biofilms were susceptible to AMB, but not to ITC and VRC. Based on viable plate count, a lower concentration of LVX and RFN was required to reduce Sm cell numbers on biofilms in formation compared with mature biofilms. The antibiosis effect of Sm on Af growth was more pronounced for the association of CF strains that exhibited a higher fitness than the reference strains. In Af-Sm biofilms, the fungal susceptibility to AMB was increased compared with Af biofilms. In contrast, the bacterial susceptibility to LVX decreased in Af-Sm biofilms and was fungal biomass-dependent. The combination of AMB (64 μg/mL) with LVX or RFN (4 μg/mL) was efficient to impair Af and Sm growth in the polymicrobial biofilm. Sm increased the Af susceptibility to AMB, whereas Af protected Sm from LVX. Interactions between Af and Sm within biofilms modulate susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, opening the way to new antimicrobial strategies in CF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.574028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573239PMC
October 2020

Cellular and molecular insights on the regulation of innate immune responses to experimental aspergillosis in chicken and turkey poults.

Med Mycol 2021 May;59(5):465-475

Dynamic research group EA 7380, Ecole nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort, UPEC, USC ANSES, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Across the world, many commercial poultry flocks and captive birds are threatened by infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. Susceptibility to aspergillosis varies among birds; among galliform birds specifically, morbidity and mortality rates seem to be greater in turkeys than in chickens. Little is known regarding the features of avian immune responses after inhalation of Aspergillus conidia, and to date, scarce information on inflammatory responses during aspergillosis exists. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to improve our understanding of the interactions between A. fumigatus and economically relevant galliform birds in terms of local innate immune responses. Intra-tracheal aerosolization of A. fumigatus conidia in turkey and chicken poults led to more severe clinical signs and lung lesions in turkeys, but leukocyte recovery from lung lavages was higher in chickens at 1dpi only. Interestingly, only chicken CD8+ T lymphocyte proportions increased after infection. Furthermore, the lungs of infected chickens showed an early upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-6, whereas in turkeys, most of these cytokines showed a downregulation or a delayed upregulation. These results confirmed the importance of an early pro-inflammatory response to ensure the development of an appropriate anti-fungal immunity to avoid Aspergillus dissemination in the respiratory tract. In conclusion, we show for the first time that differences in local innate immune responses between chickens and turkeys during aspergillosis may determine the outcome of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myaa069DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparing acaricidal and ovicidal activity of five terpenes from essential oils against Psoroptes cuniculi.

Parasitol Res 2020 Dec 28;119(12):4219-4223. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Essential oils and their components represent an appealing alternative strategy against parasitic mites. The chemical complexity and variability of essential oils limit their use and additional work is required to analyze the efficacy and application rate of essential oils' individual components. In the present study, the activity of five terpenes (terpinen-4-ol, citral, linalool, eugenol, and geraniol) was evaluated against Psoroptes cuniculi motile stages and eggs collected from naturally infected rabbits. Eugenol presented the best acaricidal efficacy with a median lethal concentration (LC) value of less than 0.1% at 24 h, followed by geraniol (0.33%), linalool (0.38%), citral (0.46%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.66%). Geraniol and eugenol were able to kill all mites within 5 min at 1% concentration. The effective concentration to inhibit 50% (EC) of egg hatching was 0.65%, 0.66%, 0.85%, 1.47%, and 2.87% for eugenol, geraniol, citral, terpinen-4-ol, and linalool, respectively. In conclusion, eugenol, geraniol, citral, terpinen-4-ol, and linalool should be considered as promising agents for the development of botanical acaricides against Psoroptes cuniculi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06823-zDOI Listing
December 2020

Haemosporidian parasites from captive Strigiformes in France.

Parasitol Res 2020 Sep 18;119(9):2975-2981. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Parc zoologique et botanique de Mulhouse, Mulhouse, France.

Haemosporidia infections may cause major damage to avian populations and represent a concern for veterinarians working in zoological parks or wildlife rescue centres. Following the fatal infection of 9 Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) at Mulhouse zoological park, between summer 2013 and 2015, a prospective epidemiological investigation was performed in captive strigiform birds in France in 2016. The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in captive Strigiformes and to estimate the infection dynamics around the nesting period. Blood samples were taken from 122 strigiform birds representing 14 species from 15 French zoological parks. Parasites were detected by direct examination of blood smears and by PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Haemosporidian parasites were detected in 59 birds from 11 zoos. Three distinct Haemoproteus mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (haplotypes A and C for H. syrnii and haplotype B for Haemoproteus sp.) as well as two species of Plasmodium were detected. The overall prevalence of Haemoproteus infection was 12.8%. The percentage of birds infected by Haemoproteus varied according to the period of sampling. Nesting season seemed to be at greater risk with an average prevalence of 53.9% compared with winter season with an average prevalence of 14.8%, related to the abundance of the vectors. The prevalence of Plasmodium infection in Strigiformes did not exceed 8% throughout the year. This study confirmed how significant Haemosporidia infection could be in Strigiformes from zoological parks in France. The nesting season was identified as a period of higher risk of infection and consequently the appropriate period to apply prophylactic measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06801-5DOI Listing
September 2020

Antifungal Resistance Regarding : Where Are We Now?

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Jun 25;6(2). Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie, Università di Torino, Largo Paolo Braccini 2, Grugliasco, 10095 Torino, Italy.

is a yeast inhabiting the skin and ear canals in healthy dogs. In the presence of various predisposing conditions it can cause otitis and dermatitis, which are treated with multiple antifungal agents, mainly azole derivatives. This manuscript aims to review the available evidence regarding the occurrence of resistance phenomena in this organism. Various findings support the capacity of for developing resistance. These include some reports of treatment failure in dogs, the reduced antifungal activity found against yeast isolates sampled from dogs with exposure to antifungal drugs and strains exposed to antifungal agents in vitro, and the description of resistance mechanisms. At the same time, the data reviewed may suggest that the development of resistance is a rare eventuality in canine practice. For example, only three publications describe confirmed cases of treatment failure due to antifungal resistance, and most claims of resistance made by past studies are based on interpretive breakpoints that lack sound support from the clinical perspective. However, it is possible that resistant cases are underreported in literature, perhaps due to the difficulty of obtaining a laboratory confirmation given that a standard procedure for susceptibility testing of is still unavailable. These considerations highlight the need for maintaining surveillance for the possible emergence of clinically relevant resistance, hopefully through a shared strategy put in place by the scientific community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof6020093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345795PMC
June 2020

Gut Microbiota Abrogates Anti-α-Gal IgA Response in Lungs and Protects against Experimental Infection in Poultry.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jun 7;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 7.

UMR BIPAR, INRAE, ANSES, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est, 14 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 94706 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Naturally occurring human antibodies (Abs) of the isotypes IgM and IgG and reactive to the galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) epitope are associated with protection against infectious diseases, caused by pathogens expressing the glycan. Gut microbiota bacteria expressing α-Gal regulate the immune response to this glycan in animals lacking endogenous α-Gal. Here, we asked whether the production of anti-α-Gal Abs in response to microbiota stimulation in birds, confers protection against infection by , a major fungal pathogen that expresses α-Gal in its surface. We demonstrated that the oral administration of O86:B7 strain, a bacterium with high α-Gal content, reduces the occurrence of granulomas in lungs and protects turkeys from developing acute aspergillosis. Surprisingly, the protective effect of O86:B7 was not associated with an increase in circulating anti-α-Gal IgY levels, but with a striking reduction of anti-α-Gal IgA in the lungs of infected turkeys. Subcutaneous immunization against α-Gal did not induce a significant reduction of lung anti-α-Gal IgA and failed to protect against an infectious challenge with . Oral administration of O86:B7 was not associated with the upregulation of lung cytokines upon infection. We concluded that the oral administration of bacteria expressing high levels of α-Gal decreases the levels of lung anti-α-Gal IgA, which are mediators of inflammation and lung damage during acute aspergillosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350254PMC
June 2020

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil: A promising miticidal and ovicidal agent against Sarcoptes scabiei.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 04 6;14(4):e0008225. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Parasitology Department, College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Background: Essential oils may represent an alternative strategy for controlling scabies, a neglected tropical disease caused by the infestation of mite from the species Sarcoptes scabiei. Lemongrass (Cymbopogen citratus) oil is reported to possess pharmacological properties including antiparasitc, antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential efficacy of lemongrass oil against the mites and eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei.

Methodology/principal Findings: Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the main component presented in lemongrass oil was citral. Lemongrass oil at concentrations of 10% and 5% killed all Sarcoptes mites within 10 and 25 min, respectively. The median lethal concentration value was 1.37%, 1.08%, 0.91%, 0.64%, and 0.48% at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. Lemongrass oil at all concentrations (10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.1%) was able to significantly decrease the hatching rate of Sarcoptes eggs.

Conclusions/significance: Lemongrass oil should be considered as a promising miticidal and ovicidal agent for scabies control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162540PMC
April 2020

Yeasts in Veterinary Dermatology: An Updated Overview.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 28;10:79. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

Lipophilic yeasts of the genus are important skin commensals and opportunistic skin pathogens in a variety of animals. The species was first isolated from the skin of a captive Indian rhinoceros with an exfoliative dermatitis in 1925, recognized as an important otic pathogen of dogs in the 1950's, and finally accepted, after several years of controversy, as a common cause of canine dermatitis in the 1990's. Since then, there has been considerable research into the biology of yeasts and their interaction with their animal hosts. In dogs and cats, is associated with ceruminous otitis externa and a "seborrhoeic" dermatitis, wherein pruritic, erythematous skin lesions, often with brown/black greasy, malodourous material matting hairs, preferentially develop in intertriginous areas. Skin disease is favored by folds, underlying hypersensitivity disorders, endocrinopathies, defects of cornification, and in cats, various visceral paraneoplastic syndromes. Diagnosis is based on detecting the yeast in compatible skin lesions, usually by cytology, and observing a clinical and mycological response to therapy. Treatment normally comprises topical or systemic azole therapy, often with miconazole-chlorhexidine shampoos or oral itraconazole or ketoconazole. Management of concurrent diseases is important to minimize relapses. Historically, wild-type isolates from dogs and cats were typically susceptible to azoles, with the exception of fluconazole, but emerging azole resistance in field strains has recently been associated with either mutations or quadruplication of the gene. These observations have prompted increased interest in alternative topical antifungal drugs, such as chlorhexidine, and various essential oils. Further clinical trials are awaited with interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059102PMC
March 2021

for the Evaluation of Antifungal Efficacy against Medically Important Fungi, a Narrative Review.

Microorganisms 2020 Mar 11;8(3). Epub 2020 Mar 11.

EA Dynamyc UPEC, EnvA, USC Anses, Faculté de Médecine de Créteil, 94000 Créteil, France.

The treatment of invasive fungal infections remains challenging and the emergence of new fungal pathogens as well as the development of resistance to the main antifungal drugs highlight the need for novel therapeutic strategies. Although in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing has come of age, the proper evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of current or new antifungals is dependent on the use of animal models. Mammalian models, particularly using rodents, are the cornerstone for evaluation of antifungal efficacy, but are limited by increased costs and ethical considerations. To circumvent these limitations, alternative invertebrate models, such as , have been developed. Larvae of have been widely used for testing virulence of fungi and more recently have proven useful for evaluation of antifungal efficacy. This model is suitable for infection by different fungal pathogens including yeasts (, , ) and filamentous fungi (, Mucorales). Antifungal efficacy may be easily estimated by fungal burden or mortality rate in infected and treated larvae. The aim of the present review is to summarize the actual data about the use of for testing the in vivo efficacy of licensed antifungal drugs, new drugs, and combination therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142887PMC
March 2020

Activity of Beauvericin against All Developmental Stages of .

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 04 21;64(5). Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Research Group Dynamyc, EA7380, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, USC ANSES, Maisons-Alfort, France

Scabies is a frequent cutaneous infection caused by the mite in a large number of mammals, including humans. As the resistance of against several chemical acaricides has been previously documented, the establishment of alternative and effective control molecules is required. In this study, the potential acaricidal activity of beauvericin was assessed against different life stages of var. and in comparison with dimpylate and ivermectin, two commercially available molecules used for the treatment of infection in animals and/or humans. The toxicity of beauvericin against cultured human fibroblast skin cells was evaluated using an MTT proliferation assay. In our model, developmental stages of were placed in petri dishes filled with Columbia agar supplemented with pig serum and different concentrations of the drugs. Cell sensitivity assays demonstrated low toxicity of beauvericin against primary human fibroblast skin cells. At 0.5 and 5 mM, beauvericin showed higher activity against adults and eggs of compared to dimpylate and ivermectin. These results revealed that the use of beauvericin is promising and might be considered for the treatment of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02118-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179650PMC
April 2020

Biology, diagnosis and treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs and cats Clinical Consensus Guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology.

Vet Dermatol 2020 Feb;31(1):28-74

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5005, Australia.

Background: The genus Malassezia is comprised of a group of lipophilic yeasts that have evolved as skin commensals and opportunistic cutaneous pathogens of a variety of mammals and birds.

Objectives: The objective of this document is to provide the veterinary community and other interested parties with current information on the ecology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of skin diseases associated with Malassezia yeasts in dogs and cats.

Methods And Material: The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to October 2018. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) Clinical Consensus Guideline committee provided guidance and oversight for this process. The document was presented at two international meetings of veterinary dermatology societies and one international mycology workshop; it was made available for comment on the WAVD website for a period of six months. Comments were shared with the GP electronically and responses incorporated into the final document.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: There has been a remarkable expansion of knowledge on Malassezia yeasts and their role in animal disease, particularly since the early 1990's. Malassezia dermatitis in dogs and cats has evolved from a disease of obscurity and controversy on its existence, to now being a routine diagnosis in general veterinary practice. Clinical signs are well recognised and diagnostic approaches are well developed. A range of topical and systemic therapies is known to be effective, especially when predisposing factors are identified and corrected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12809DOI Listing
February 2020

Chrysomya bezziana: a case report in a dog from Southern China and review of the Chinese literature.

Parasitol Res 2019 Dec 26;118(12):3237-3240. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

Parasitology Department, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France.

Chrysomya bezziana is an obligate, myiasis-causing fly in humans and warm-blooded animals throughout the tropical and subtropical Old World. We report a case of cutaneous myiasis due to C. bezziana in a dog from Guangxi province in China. A total of 35 maggots were removed from the lesions. Direct sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene showed that the specimen belonged to haplotype CB_bezz02, which was previously reported in Malaysia and the Gulf region. This paper also reviews reported cases of screwworm myiasis from humans and animals in China. Geographical records indicate that the distribution of C. bezziana is expanding, suggesting that an integrated pest management control should be taken into consideration in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06464-xDOI Listing
December 2019

In vitro activities of 15 antifungal drugs against a large collection of clinical isolates of Microsporum canis.

Mycoses 2019 Nov 1;62(11):1069-1078. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Invasive Fungi Research Center, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.

Background: Microsporum canis is a zoophilic species, found to be the most frequently isolated species in animals. M. canis causes sporadic outbreaks of infections in humans, such as the one that occurred in Canada, where more than 1000 human cases were detected over an 8-year period. Despite the medical importance of M. canis infections, there are limited in vitro data on the antifungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs, including new generation triazoles and imidazoles.

Objective: The aim of the current study was to comprehensively evaluate the in vitro activity of new azoles and comparator drugs against a large panel of M. canis isolates using a microdilution assay.

Methods: The in vitro susceptibility to novel triazoles and imidazoles was compared to that of other antifungal drugs using a large collection of M. canis clinical isolates (n = 208) obtained from patients and animals with dermatophytosis in Iran, France and Turkey.

Results: All isolates exhibited high susceptibility to the majority of the tested antifungal agents. However, luliconazole, lanoconazole and efinaconazole, as well as econazole, demonstrated superior activity against all strains in comparis on with the other drugs.

Conclusion: FDA-approved antifungal drugs, that is luliconazole, efinaconazole and lanoconazole, showed the highest antifungal activity and should be promising candidates for the treatment of dermatophytosis caused by M canis. However, their therapeutic effectiveness remains to be determined in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.12986DOI Listing
November 2019

Comparison of acetate tape impression, deep skin scraping, and microscopic examination of hair for therapeutic monitoring of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis: A pilot study.

Can Vet J 2019 06;60(6):596-600

Consultorio de Especialidades en Dermatología y Alergología en Perros y Gatos, Parroquia 329, Colonia del Valle Sur, 03100, Ciudad de México, México (Barillas); Veterinary Dermatology & Ear Referral Medical Clinic, Burnaby, British Columbia (Bajwa); Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Dermatology, Dynamic Research Group, École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, UPE, 94704, Maisons-Alfort, France (Guillot); Specialty in Medicine and Surgery in Small Species, School of Veterinary Medicine of the DelaSalle Bajío University, Av. Universidad 602 Col. Lomas del Campestre, C.P. 37150, León, Gto, Mexico (Arcique).

The standard method for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of dogs with demodicosis is microscopic examination of deep skin scrapings. Previous studies have compared deep skin scraping and microscopic hair examination to acetate tape impression with skin squeezing for the diagnosis of demodicosis but the latter has never been evaluated for therapeutic monitoring. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate acetate tape impression with skin squeezing as a therapeutic monitoring tool for dogs with juvenile onset generalized demodicosis. An area of skin with primary lesions for demodicosis was chosen and the 3 techniques were performed. The total number of mites including each of the life stages were recorded. This was done weekly until negative results were obtained. There were no significant differences in the total number of mites in the weekly counts between the deep skin scrapings and the acetate tape impressions with skin squeezing. Acetate tape impression with skin squeezing can be used for therapeutic monitoring of dogs with juvenile onset generalized demodicosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515801PMC
June 2019

Prevention of canine ocular thelaziosis (Thelazia callipaeda) with a combination of milbemycin oxime and afoxolaner (Nexgard Spectra) in endemic areas in France and Spain.

Parasite 2019 15;26. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, 29 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007 Lyon, France.

In the past decade, canine thelaziosis due to Thelazia callipaeda has been diagnosed in an increasing number of European countries, with endemic areas being identified. A multi-center field trial was conducted in endemic areas in France and Spain to evaluate the efficacy of monthly administrations of the oral milbemycin oxime/afoxolaner combination (NexGard Spectra) for the prevention of T. callipaeda infection in at-risk dogs. A total of 79 dogs negative for T. callipaeda and with a clinical history of eyeworm infection in the past two years completed the study. Dogs were randomly allocated either to a negative control group (42 dogs) or to the NexGard Spectra treated group (37 dogs). All dogs were followed up for a 6-month period and assessed monthly for the presence of nematodes on the eyes and for the signs of ocular thelaziosis (e.g., conjunctivitis, keratitis, and ocular discharge). When the presence of nematodes was confirmed, the conjunctival fornix was flushed with a saline solution for parasite recovery and counting, and the dogs were treated appropriately. Recovered parasites were stored in 70% alcohol for subsequent morphological identification. During the course of the study, 57.1% (24/42) of the control dogs were diagnosed positive for Thelazia infection, which illustrates a high incidence rate of parasite infection. Conversely, no eyeworm was recovered from any of the 37 dogs that received NexGard Spectra. All parasites sampled were confirmed to be T. callipaeda. This clinical field study demonstrated that monthly administrations of NexGard Spectra provided 100% preventive efficacy against canine thelaziosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2019001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333103PMC
January 2019

Interactions of and in an Mixed Biofilm Model: Does the Strain Matter?

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2850. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

EA 7380 Dynamyc, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Créteil, France.

(Af) and (Sm) are pathogenic microorganisms, which coexist in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We recently developed an model of mixed biofilm associating Af ATCC 13073-GFP (Af13073) and Sm ATCC 13637 (Sm13637) and described an antibiosis effect. The present study aim was to assess the antibiosis of Sm on Af using different strains and to analyze the potential synergistic virulence of these strains in an model. The effect of Sm13637 was evaluated on eight Af strains and the effect of nine Sm strains was evaluated on Af13073. The strains originated from clinical cases (human and animal) and from environment. Fungal and bacterial inocula were simultaneously inoculated to initiate mixed biofilm formation. Fungal growth inhibition was analyzed by qPCR and CLSM and the fungal cell wall modifications by TEM analysis. The virulence of different Sm strains was assessed in association with Af in larvae. All strains of Af and Sm were able to produce single and mixed biofilms. The antibiosis effect of Sm13637 was similar whatever the Af strain tested. On the other hand, the antibiosis effect of Sm strains was bacterial-fitness and strain dependent. One strain (1/9) originated from animal clinical case was never able to induce an antibiosis, even with high bacterial concentration. In the model, co-inoculation with Sm13637 and Af13073 showed synergism since the mortality was 50%, i.e., more than the summed virulence of both. Human clinical strains of Sm yielded in higher antibiosis effect on Af and in a thinner mixed biofilm, probably due to an adaptive effect of these strains. Further research covering Af increased wall thickness in the presence of Sm strains, and its correlation with modified antifungal susceptibility is encouraged in patients with chronic respiratory infections by these 2 microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277776PMC
November 2018

Occurrence and species diversity of human-pathogenic Mucorales in commercial food-stuffs purchased in Paris area.

Med Mycol 2019 Aug;57(6):739-744

Dynamyc Research Group (EA 7380), Paris Est Créteil University, Ecole nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort, France.

Mucormycoses are life-threatening fungal diseases that affect a variety of patients including those with diabetes mellitus or hematological malignancies. The responsible agents, the Mucorales, are opportunistic pathogens originating from the environment such as soil or decaying organic matter. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of human-pathogenic species of Mucorales in commercially available foodstuffs in France. All food samples were purchased from January 2014 to May 2015 in France. A total of 159 dried food samples including spices and herbs (n = 68), herbal tea (n = 19), cereals (n = 19), vegetables (n = 14), and other foodstuffs (n = 39) were analyzed. Each strain of Mucorales was identified phenotypically, and molecular identification was performed by ITS sequencing. From the 28 (17.6%) samples that were culture-positive for Mucorales, 30 isolates were recovered. Among the isolates, 13 were identified as Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus, 10 R. arrhizus var. delemar, two Rhizopus microsporus, one Lichtheimia corymbifera, three Lichtheimia ramosa, and one Syncephalastrum racemosum. Culture-positive samples originated from different countries (Europe, Asia) and brands. The samples most frequently contaminated by Mucorales were spices and herbs (19/68, 27.9%), followed by herbal tea (2/19, 10.5%), cereals (2/19, 10.5%), other food products (5/39, 12.8%). The present study showed that human-pathogenic Mucorales were frequently recovered from commercially available foodstuffs in France with a large diversity of species. The potential danger represented by Mucorales present in food for immunocompromised patients should be further analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myy121DOI Listing
August 2019

Non-Histaminergic Itch Mediators Elevated in the Skin of a Porcine Model of Scabies and of Human Scabies Patients.

J Invest Dermatol 2019 04 2;139(4):971-973. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA; Miami Itch Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2018.09.032DOI Listing
April 2019

Investigation of the Relationships Between Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus by Multiple-locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis During Major Demolition Work in a French Hospital.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 01;68(2):321-329

Equipe Epidémiologie et Santé Internationale, Laboratoire des Pathogènes Emergents-Fondation Mérieux, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, INSERM U1111, CNRS UMR5308, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon.

Background: Genotyping is needed to explore the link between clinical cases from colonization of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and major building construction. Attempts to correlate Aspergillus fumigatus strains from clinical infection or colonization with those found in the environment remain controversial due to the lack of a large prospective study. Our aim in this study was to compare the genetic diversity of clinical and environmental A. fumigatus isolates during a demolition period.

Methods: Fungal contamination was monitored daily for 11 months in 2015. Environmental surveillance was undertaken indoors and outdoors at 8 locations with automatic agar samplers. IA infection cases were investigated according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group criteria. Isolates were identified by amplification and sequencing of the β- tubulin gene. They were genotyped by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). The phylogenetic relationships between isolates were assessed by generating a minimum spanning tree.

Results: Based on 3885 samples, 394 A. fumigatus isolates (383 environmental and 11 clinical) were identified and genotyped using MLVA. Clinical isolates were collected from patients diagnosed as having probable IA (n = 2), possible IA (n = 1), or bronchial colonization (n = 6). MLVA generated 234 genotypes. Seven clinical isolates shared genotypes identical to environmental isolates.

Conclusions: Among the diversity of genotypes described, similar genotypes were found in clinical and environmental isolates, indicating that A. fumigatus infection and colonization may originate from hospital environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy498DOI Listing
January 2019

Efficacy of two formulations of afoxolaner (NexGard® and NexGard Spectra®) for the treatment of generalised demodicosis in dogs, in veterinary dermatology referral centers in Europe.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Sep 10;11(1):506. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, 29 avenue Tony Garnier, 69007, Lyon, France.

Background: A multi-centre field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of afoxolaner based chewables (NexGard® or NexGard Spectra®) for the treatment of generalised demodicosis caused by Demodex canis in dogs under field conditions in France, Italy and Poland.

Methods: Client-owned dogs, diagnosed positive for Demodex mites by pre-treatment skin scrapings and presenting clinical signs of generalised demodicosis were included. Dogs were orally treated with afoxolaner three times at monthly intervals. Of the 50 dogs enrolled, 48 completed the whole study. Efficacy of the treatments was assessed monthly by Demodex mite counts and physical examination with special regard to the severity and extension of skin lesions.

Results: Treatments were well tolerated in all dogs and resulted in a rapid reduction of mites, with all post-treatment mite counts significantly lower than baseline. The number of mites was reduced by 87.6%, 96.5% and 98.1% on Days 28, 56 and 84, respectively. In addition, the skin lesion severity and extent scores as well as the pruritus were all significantly lower at all post-treatment visits compared to the pre-treatment assessment.

Conclusions: This clinical field study demonstrated that monthly administrations of afoxolaner in NexGard® or NexGard Spectra®, offered a convenient and reliable solution for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3083-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6131853PMC
September 2018

Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics Evaluation of a Single Oral Dose of Afoxolaner against Sarcoptes scabiei in the Porcine Scabies Model for Human Infestation.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 09 27;62(9). Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Research Group Dynamyc, EA7380, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Créteil, France.

Scabies is a major and potentially growing public health problem worldwide with an unmet need for acaricidal agents with greater efficacy and improved pharmacological properties for its treatment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficacy and describe the pharmacokinetics profile of a novel acaricide, afoxolaner (AFX), in a relevant experimental porcine model. Twelve pigs were experimentally infested and either treated with 2.5 mg/kg single dose oral AFX ( = 4) or 0.2 mg/kg, two doses 8 days apart, oral ivermectin ([IVM] = 4) or not treated for scabies ( = 4). The response to treatment was assessed by the reduction of mite counts in skin scrapings as well as clinical and pruritus scores over time. Plasma and skin pharmacokinetics profiles for both AFX and IVM were evaluated. AFX efficacy was 100% at days 8 and 14 posttreatment and remained unchanged until the study end (day 45). IVM efficacy was 86% and 97% on days 8 and 14, respectively, with a few mites recovered at the study end. Clinical and pruritus scores decreased in both treated groups and remained constant in the control group. Plasma mean residence times (MRT) were 7.1 ± 2.4 and 1.1 ± 0.2 days for AFX and IVM, respectively. Skin MRT values were 16.2 ± 16.9 and 2.7 ± 0.5 days for AFX and IVM, respectively. Overall, a single oral dose of AFX was efficacious for the treatment of scabies in experimentally infested pigs and showed remarkably long MRTs in plasma and, notably, in the skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02334-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125498PMC
September 2018

Analysis of Dipylidium caninum tapeworms from dogs and cats, or their respective fleas - Part 1. Molecular characterization of Dipylidium caninum: genetic analysis supporting two distinct species adapted to dogs and cats.

Parasite 2018 28;25:30. Epub 2018 May 28.

Clinvet, P.O. Box 11186, Universitas, 9321, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

A 28S rDNA PCR detection assay was previously developed to identify Dipylidium caninum DNA inside single fleas collected from both cats and dogs. Sequence analysis of the 28S rDNA fragment indicated two genetically distinct variations of the target region. The two genotypes, so-called "D. caninum canine genotype" and "D. caninum feline genotype", based on host origin, are further investigated and described in this paper. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and hydrolysis probe-based genotyping assays were developed and validated for genotyping D. caninum DNA. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the "feline genotype" was sequenced and compared to the D. caninum mt genome available in GenBank. The molecular characterization of D. caninum isolates collected from infected fleas, and also proglottids collected from dogs and cats, confirmed the existence of two distinct genotypes. These genotypes are related to host origin (dogs or cats), irrespective of their geographical origin, and they present a biological adaptation to their respective host, as confirmed by the comparison of biological development and host preference in another study. The genetic differences (Part 1, present paper) and biological observations (Part 2, in this journal) enabled us to suggest the existence of two distinct species within D. caninum, which will have to be clarified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2018028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6013089PMC
January 2019

Questionnaire-based survey on distribution of canine ocular thelaziosis in southwestern France.

Vet Parasitol 2018 Apr 14;253:26-29. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Department of Parasitology, Mycology, Dermatology, EA Dynamyc, UPEC, Ecole nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France. Electronic address:

The distribution of Thelazia callipaeda, commonly known as "oriental eyeworm'', has been considered for a long time to be confined to the former soviet Republics and Asia where the nematode causes infections in domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and sometimes humans. However, since 2000, thelaziosis has been diagnosed in dogs and sometimes in cats from a growing number of European countries, including France. In 2006, a survey demonstrated that many autochthonous cases of canine thelaziosis were present in the department of Dordogne (southwestern France) in three hyperenzootic counties where strawberry production was predominant. The objective of the present study was to obtain an updated evaluation of the enzootic occurrence of T. callipaeda in France. In April 2016, an electronic questionnaire was sent to 1670 veterinary clinics from 24 French departments of southwestern France. Among 279 responses, 97 veterinary clinics reported cases of canine thelaziosis during the last 12 months. Most of them (72/97, 74.2%) reported a limited number of cases. Two veterinary clinics in previously-identified hyperenzootic counties of Dordogne reported the higher incidence (50 and 68 new cases annually). Noteworthly, two clinics located in another department (Landes) also reported many autochthonous cases (30 cases annually) demonstrating the existence of new enzootic foci. The present investigation confirmed that Dordogne is still an enzootic area of ocular thelaziosis and that the disease is spreading in new areas of southwestern France since a decade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.02.021DOI Listing
April 2018

Fungal infections in animals: a patchwork of different situations.

Med Mycol 2018 04;56(suppl_1):165-187

Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Dermatology, EA Dynamyc UPEC, EnvA, Ecole nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort, Maisons-Alfort, France.

The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed. Opportunistic mycoses are responsible for a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, such as aspergillosis, mucormycosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis and infections caused by melanized fungi. The amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis and the Bat White-nose syndrome are due to obligatory fungal pathogens. Zoonotic agents are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. The list of zoonotic fungal agents is limited but some species, like Microsporum canis and Sporothrix brasiliensis from cats, have a strong public health impact. Mycotoxins are defined as the chemicals of fungal origin being toxic for warm-blooded vertebrates. Intoxications by aflatoxins and ochratoxins represent a threat for both human and animal health. Resistance to antifungals can occur in different animal species that receive these drugs, although the true epidemiology of resistance in animals is unknown, and options to treat infections caused by resistant infections are limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myx104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251577PMC
April 2018