Publications by authors named "Jacques Dantal"

93 Publications

Clinical utility of C-peptide measurement after pancreas transplantation with especial focus on early graft thrombosis.

Transpl Int 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institut de Transplantation-Urologie-Néphrologie (ITUN), Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France.

Since the beginning of our pancreas transplant programme, plasma C-peptide was routinely measured daily during the postoperative period. We aimed to evaluate the clinical interest of the C-peptide in the follow-up of pancreas transplantation with a particular look on early graft failure. From 2000 to 2016, 384 pancreas transplantations were evaluated. We collected and compared C-peptide, glycaemia and adjusted C-peptide (aCP; calculated based on C-peptide, glycaemia and creatininaemia) in patients with and without pancreas failure within 30 days after surgery. Variations of glycaemia, C-peptide and aCP between the day before and the day of failure were also recorded. The difference of aCP was significant during the first week after transplantation between patients with thrombosis and those with functional allograft: 63.2 vs. 26.7 on day 1, P = 0.0003; 61.4 vs. 26.7 on day 3, P < 0.0001; 64.8 vs. 5.7 on day 7, P < 0.0001, respectively. Glycaemia had a median increase of 8% on the day of failure, whereas C-peptide and aCP had, respectively, a median decrease of 88% and 83%. C-peptide monitoring after pancreas transplantation may help to identify graft function and early failure. This sensitive biomarker could allow pre-emptive diagnosis of an early thrombotic event allowing the possibility of rescue interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13866DOI Listing
March 2021

Characteristics of T and NK-cell Lymphomas After Renal Transplantation: a French National Multicentric Cohort Study.

Transplantation 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Transplantation, Nephrology and Clinical Immunology, HCL Hôpital Edouard Herriot, and Université de Lyon, France Department of Hematology, HCL Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, and Université de Lyon, France CRCL, INSERM U1052, Pierre-Bénite, France CIRI, INSERM U1111, Lyon, France French PTLD Registry, University Hospital of Strasbourg, France Renal Transplantation Department, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Necker Hospital, Paris, France Department of Nephrology, AP-HM Hôpital de la Conception, Marseille, France Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, Hôpital Hôtel Dieu, Nantes, France Transplant Unit, Nephrology Department, University Hospital, Reims, France Transplant Unit, Department of Nephrology, University Hospital, Rennes, France Department of Nephrology, Transplantation, Dialysis and Apheresis, Bordeaux University Hospital, Bordeaux, France Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Le Kremlin Bicetre, France Transplant Unit, Nephrology Department, University Hospital, Lille, France Transplant Unit, Nephrology Department, Besançon University Hospital, Besançon, France Transplant Unit, Nephrology Department, University Hospital, Amiens, France Nephrology Department, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France Department of Nephrology, Dupuytren Hospital, Limoges, France Department of Urology, Nephrology and Transplantation, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Groupe Hospitalier Henri-Mondor, Créteil, France Nephrology Department, CHU de Caen, Caen, France Transplant Unit, Nephrology Department, Dijon University Hospital, Dijon, France Department of Nephrology, University Hospital, Grenoble, France Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Lapeyronie University Hospital, Montpellier, France Transplant Unit, Nephrology Department, Nancy University Hospital, Nancy, France epartment of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Hospital Pasteur, Nice, France Urgences Néphrologiques et Transplantation Rénale, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Tenon Hospital, Paris, France Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Saint Louis Hospital, Paris, France Department of Nephrology Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation, CHU de Poitiers, Poitiers, France Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Department, Hôpital Nord, CHU de Saint-Etienne, France Nephrology, Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Department, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire Tours, France INSERM U955, Université Paris-Est, and Department of pathology, APHP Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil, France Department of Hematology, APHP Hôpital Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris, France. Etablissement Français du Sang, Lyon, France Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, University Hospital of Strasbourg, France.

Background: Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders (PTLD) encompass a spectrum of heterogeneous entities. Because the vast majority of cases PTLD arise from B cells, available data on PTLD of T or NK phenotype (T/NK-cell PTLD) are scarce, which limits the quality of the management of these patients.

Methods: All adult cases of PTLD diagnosed in France were prospectively recorded in the national registry between 1998 and 2007. Crosschecking the registry data with 2 other independent national databases identified 58 cases of T/NK-cell PTLD. This cohort was then compared with: i) the 395 cases of B-cell PTLD from the registry, and of ii) a cohort of 148 T/NK-cell lymphomas diagnosed in nontransplanted patients.

Results: T/NK-cell PTLD occurred significantly later after transplantation and had a worse overall survival than B-cell PTLD. Two subtypes of T/NK-cell PTLD were distinguished: i) cutaneous (28%) and ii) systemic (72%), the latter being associated with a worse prognosis. Compared with T/NK-cell lymphomas of nontransplanted patients, overall survival of systemic T/NK-cell PTLD was worse (HR: 2.64[1.76-3.94]; p<0.00001).

Conclusions: This difference, which persisted after adjustment on tumoral mass, histological subtype, and extension of the disease at diagnosis could be explained by the fact that transplanted patients were less intensively treated and responded less to chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000003568DOI Listing
February 2021

Association between Use of Hydrochlorothiazide and Risk of Keratinocyte Cancers in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 Dec 10;15(12):1804-1813. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Nephrology and Urology, Institut de Transplantation Urologie Néphrologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Nantes, Nantes, France

Background And Objectives: Keratinocyte cancers, which primarily comprise squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas, represent a major concern and potential risk for kidney transplant recipients. Hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic widely used to treat hypertension, has been implicated in skin photosensitivity reaction. Recent studies conducted in the general population have found that hydrochlorothiazide use is associated with a higher risk of keratinocyte cancer, especially squamous cell carcinomas. High-risk groups, however, including transplant recipients were excluded from these. Our aim was to investigate whether hydrochlorothiazide use was associated with keratinocyte cancer in kidney transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: In a single-center cohort of kidney (=2155), combined kidney-pancreas (=282), and pancreas (=59) transplant recipients from the Données Informatisées VAlidées Transplantation (DIVAT) database transplanted between 2000 and 2017 in Nantes, France, we evaluated the association between hydrochlorothiazide exposure and keratinocyte cancers. Multivariable cause-specific, time-varying Cox models were used to estimate the relationship between hydrochlorothiazide exposure and the hazard of squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, with hydrochlorothiazide designated as the time-dependent variable.

Results: Among the participants, 279 of 2496 (11%) were exposed to hydrochlorothiazide after the transplantation. Cumulative incidence rates of keratinocyte cancer by 10 and 15 years were 7% and 9% for squamous cell carcinomas, respectively, and 8% and 11% for basal cell carcinomas, respectively. We found a relationship between exposure to hydrochlorothiazide and the risk of squamous cell carcinomas (hazard ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.27 to 3.28). In contrast, we found no association between hydrochlorothiazide exposure and basal cell carcinomas (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 1.15).

Conclusions: In a single-center cohort of kidney, combined kidney-pancreas, and pancreas transplant recipients, exposure to hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a two-fold higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma and no higher risk of basal cell carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.02560220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769023PMC
December 2020

Clinical and immunological follow-up of very long-term kidney transplant recipients treated with calcineurin inhibitors indicates dual phenotypes.

Kidney Int 2020 Nov 1. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Nantes Université, CHU Nantes, Inserm, Centre de Recherche en Transplantation et Immunologie, UMR 1064, Institut de Transplantation Urologie Néphrologie (ITUN), Nantes, France; Service de Néphrologie et Immunologie Clinique, CHU Nantes, Nantes Université, ITUN, Nantes, France.

Operationally tolerant kidney transplant recipients harbor an immunological signature, associated with low rejection risk, and focused on B lymphocytes. Here, we investigated whether patients with long-term transplantation and still on immunosuppressive therapy would present such a signature of low immunological rejection risk, compared to more recently transplanted patients. Of 114 kidney transplant recipients enrolled, 38 with more than 25 years of graft survival and stable graft function under calcineurin inhibitors, were matched with two different groups of transplanted patients (10-15 and 5-7 years after transplantation). Three phenotypes associated with low immunological rejection risk (Tfh, B and regulatory T cells), initially found in operationally tolerant kidney transplant recipients, and the composite score of tolerance (combination of six transcriptomic markers, age at transplantation and age at sampling) were analyzed. We found that very long-term patients were characterized by a significantly lower percentage of total B cells, a significantly higher proportion of CD24CD38 memory B cells, significantly fewer CD24CD38 naive B cells, and a significantly lower proportion of PD1CCR7 Tfh lymphocytes than more recently transplanted patients. This phenotype is associated with a positive composite score of tolerance in patients transplanted for more than 25 years. Thus, our study suggests a dual phenotype in very long-term kidney transplanted patients with an immunological profile associated with low rejection risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.09.036DOI Listing
November 2020

Prognostic value for long-term graft survival of estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria quantified at 3 months after kidney transplantation.

Clin Kidney J 2020 Oct 26;13(5):791-802. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Department of Nephrology and Kidney Transplantation, Nancy University Hospital, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Background: The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measured at 1 year is the usual benchmark applied in kidney transplantation (KT). However, acting on earlier eGFR values could help in managing KT during the first post-operative year. We aimed to assess the prognostic value for long-term graft survival of the early (3 months) quantification of eGFR and proteinuria following KT.

Methods: The 3-, 6- and 12-month eGFR using the Modified Diet in Renal Disease equation (eGFR) was determined and proteinuria was measured in 754 patients who underwent their first KT between 2000 and 2010 (with a mean follow-up of 8.3 years) in our centre. Adjusted associations with graft survival were estimated using a multivariable Cox model. The predictive accuracy was estimated using the C-index and net reclassification index. These same analyses were measured in a multicentre validation cohort of 1936 patients.

Results: Both 3-month eGFR and proteinuria were independent predictors of return to dialysis (all P < 0.05) and there was a strong correlation between eGFR at 3 and 12 months (Spearman's ρ = 0.76). The predictive accuracy of the 3-month eGFR was within a similar range and did not differ significantly from the 12-month eGFR in either the derivation cohort [C-index 62.6 (range 57.2-68.1) versus 66.0 (range 60.1-71.9), P = 0.41] or the validation cohort [C-index 69.3 (range 66.4-72.1) versus 71.7 (range 68.7-74.6), P = 0.25].

Conclusion: The 3-month eGFR was a valuable predictor of the long-term return to dialysis whose predictive accuracy was not significantly less than that of the 12-month eGFR in multicentre cohorts totalling >2500 patients. Three-month outcomes may be useful in randomized controlled trials targeting early therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfaa044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577768PMC
October 2020

Induction therapy in kidney transplant recipients: Description of the practices according to the calendar period from the French multicentric DIVAT cohort.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(10):e0240929. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Background: There is extensive literature with comparisons between Anti-Thymocyte Globulin (ATG) and Basiliximab (BSX) as induction therapy in kidney transplant recipients. The purpose of our benchmarking study was to describe the consequences in terms of practices in 6 transplantation centers of a French prospective cohort.

Methods: We included adult patients who received a first or second kidney graft between 2013 and 2019 (n = 4157). We used logistic regressions to identify characteristics associated with the use of ATG or BSX.

Results: Use of ATG between the centers ranged from 41% to 75%. We observed different factors associated with the treatment decision. Compared to a first transplant, performing a second graft was the only factor significantly associated with the choice of ATG in all centers. The AUC ranged from 0.67 to 0.91, indicating that the centers seemed to define their own rules. As a result, for patients with the same low immunological risk, the probability of receiving ATG varied from 7% to 36%. We stratified the analyses according to two periods, from 2013 to 2015 and from 2016 to 2019. A similar heterogeneity was observed, and in some cases ATG indications between the centers were inverted.

Conclusions: The heterogeneity of induction therapy practices did not decrease in France, even if the reated literature is prolific. This illustrates the necessity to improve the literature by using meta-analyses of recent studies stratified by graft and patient profiles.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240929PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7580969PMC
December 2020

Resurgence of BK virus following Covid-19 in kidney transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Feb 23;23(1):e13465. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Nephrology and Transplantation Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nantes, France.

Kidney transplant recipients have been supposed vulnerable to severe Covid-19 infection, due to their comorbidities and immunosuppressive therapies. Mild-term complications of Covid-19 are currently unknown, especially in this population. Herein, we report two cases of BKV replication after non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The first case was a 59-year-old man, transplanted 3 months ago, with recent history of slight BKV viremia (3.3 log DNA copies/ml). Despite strong reduction of maintenance immunosuppression (interruption of mycophenolic acid and important decrease of calcineurin inhibitors), BKV replication largely increased after Covid-19 and viremia persisted at 4.5 log copy/ml few months later. The second case was a 53-year-old woman, transplanted 15 years ago. She had a recent history of BKV cystitis, which resolved with a decrease of MPA dosage. Few weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection, she presented recurrence of lower urinary tract symptoms. Our reports highlight that SARS-CoV-2 infection, even without severity, could disrupt immune system and particularly lymphocytes, thus leading to viral replication. Monitoring of viral replications after Covid-19 in kidney transplant recipients could permit to confirm these preliminary observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13465DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison of machine perfusion versus cold storage in kidney transplant recipients from expanded criteria donors: a cohort-based study.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 06;35(6):1043-1070

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Background: Most studies comparing the efficacy of hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) versus static cold storage (SCS) are based on short-term outcomes. We aimed to better evaluate the mid-term impact of HMP in patients receiving expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys.

Methods: The analyses were based on the French Données Informatisées et VAlidées en Transplantation (DIVAT) observational cohort. Patients aged ≥45 years transplanted for the first or second times from an ECD donor since 2010 were studied. Our study reported the graft and/or patient survivals and the incidence of acute rejection episode. The Cox models and the Kaplan-Meier estimators, weighted on the propensity score, were used to study the times-to-events.

Results: Among the 2019 included patients, 1073 were in the SCS group versus 946 in the HMP group. The mean life expectancy with functioning graft was 5.7 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.4-6.1] for the HMP cohort followed-up for 8 years post-transplantation versus 6.0 years (95% CI 5.7-6.2) for the SCS group. These mid-term results were comparable in the patients receiving grafts from donors aged ≥70 years and in the transplantations with cold ischaemia time ≥18 h.

Conclusions: Our study challenges the utility of using HMP to improve mid-term patient and graft survival. Nevertheless, the improvement of the short-term outcomes is indisputable. It is necessary to continue technological innovations to obtain long-term results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfz175DOI Listing
June 2020

The weekend effect in kidney transplantation outcomes: a French cohort-based study.

Transpl Int 2020 09 13;33(9):1030-1039. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

CRTI UMR 1064, Université de Nantes, ITUN, RTRS Centaure, Inserm, Nantes, France.

Numerous studies have reported a weekend effect on outcomes for diseases treated at hospitals. No study has been conducted in France for kidney transplantation. We therefore performed a cohort-based study to evaluate whether outcomes of kidney transplant recipients display a weekend effect. Data were extracted from the French DIVAT cohort. Patients aged 18 years and older, transplanted with a single kidney from deceased donors between 2005 and 2017 were studied. Linear regression, logistic regression, and cause-specific Cox model were used. Among the 6652 studied patients, 4653 patients were transplanted during weekdays (69.9%) versus 1999 during weekends (30.1%). The only statistically significant difference was the percentage of patients with vascular surgical complication(s) at 30 days: 13.3% in the weekend group versus 16.2% in the weekday group 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68; 0.92). We did not observe other significant differences for the other outcomes: patient or graft survival, the risk of acute rejection episodes, the 30-day percentage of urological complications, and the 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate. Our study highlights a small protective weekend effect with less post-surgery vascular complications compared to weekdays. This paradox might be explained by a different handling of weekend transplantations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13653DOI Listing
September 2020

Multitarget anti-EBV therapy to prevent primary infection in kidney transplant recipients from deceased donor, at risk of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV D+/R-).

Transpl Int 2020 09 9;33(9):1144-1145. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institut de Transplantation Urologie Néphrologie (ITUN), CHU Nantes, Nantes, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13652DOI Listing
September 2020

Ofatumumab treatment for nephrotic syndrome recurrence after pediatric renal transplantation.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 08 18;35(8):1499-1506. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Pediatric Department, University Hospital of Nantes, Nantes, France.

Background: Relapsing nephrotic syndrome (NS) after transplantation can be a challenge to treat. The result of the consequent long-lasting proteinuria is the loss of the graft. Disease recurrence after renal transplantation occurs in around half of cases, and the efficacy of therapeutic strategies is often limited. Recently, ofatumumab, a second-generation and fully human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been shown to be effective in severe situations.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data from the medical records of children with recurrence of NS after renal transplantation treated with ofatumumab in France, after failure of previous treatments.

Results: Six patients were included in this study in five centers with a median duration of follow-up of 10.5 months. Two different ofatumumab regimens were administered. The primary outcome was proteinuria at 6 months after the last dose of ofatumumab. No patient achieved a complete remission, 3/6 had a partial remission, and 3/6 had no response to ofatumumab. Four patients exhibited a minor allergic reaction with the first infusion. One patient died of infection, as a consequence of multiple factors. No malignancies were observed; however, the time of follow-up was not sufficient to see such disease.

Conclusions: Altogether, these results suggest ofatumumab has a poor efficacy in treating recurrence of NS after renal transplantation. However, it could be discussed in multidrug-resistant refractory NS, but infectious complications and overimmunosuppression have to be balanced. There is a need for further studies to confirm these findings and safety and to determine a standardized protocol in this indication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04567-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Tacrolimus- versus sirolimus-based immunosuppression after simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation: 5-year results of a randomized trial.

Am J Transplant 2020 06 28;20(6):1679-1690. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

CHU Nantes, Université de Nantes, Institut de Transplantation, Urologie, Néphrologie, Nantes, France.

Tacrolimus, the cornerstone immunosuppression after simultaneous pancreas and -kidney (SPK) transplantation, may exert nephrotoxic and diabetogenic effects. We therefore prospectively compared in an open-label, randomized, monocentric, 5-year follow-up study, a tacrolimus- and a sirolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen. Randomization using the block method allowing a blind allocation was done at the time of surgery. All patients received anti-thymocyte globulin and maintenance therapy with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. At month 3, tacrolimus was continued or replaced by sirolimus. The primary endpoint was kidney and pancreas graft survival at 1 and 5 years. Fifty patients were included in the final analysis in each group. At 1 year, differences for kidney and pancreas graft survival between sirolimus and tacrolimus were 0% (90% confidence interval -4.61% to 4.61%) and 6% (90% confidence interval -6.32% to 18.32%), respectively. There was no difference in renal and pancreas graft survival at 5 years. Thirty-four patients (68%) in the sirolimus group vs three (6%) in the tacrolimus group needed definitive withdrawal of the study drug. Despite noninferiority of sirolimus compared to tacrolimus for kidney and pancreas graft survival, the high rate of sirolimus discontinuation does not favor its use as cornerstone therapy after SPK transplantation (NCT00693446).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15809DOI Listing
June 2020

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Clin Kidney J 2021 Jan 30;14(1):156-166. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Service d'Urgences Néphrologiques et Transplantation Rénale, Hôpital Tenon, AP-HP, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

Background: The increased survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) raises the question of kidney transplantation (KT) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Methods: We included 13 patients with MM or smoldering myeloma (SMM) and ESRD transplanted between 2007 and 2015, including 7 MM with cast nephropathy, 3 with MM-associated amyloid light chain amyloidosis or light chain deposition disease and 3 SMM and compared them with 65 control-matched kidney-transplanted patients. Nine of the MM patients with KT were also compared with 63 matched MM patients on haemodialysis.

Results: Pre-transplantation parameters were comparable, except for the duration of renal replacement therapy (57.8 versus 37.0 months; P = 0.029) in MM versus control patients, respectively. The median follow-up post-KT was 44.4 versus 36.4 months (P = 0.40). The median MM graft and patient survival were 80.1 and 117.2 months, respectively, and were not significantly different from control patients, although mortality tended to be higher in the 10 symptomatic MM patients (P = 0.059). MM patients had significantly more viral and fungal infections and immunosuppressive maintenance therapy modifications while they received lower induction therapy. Two MM patients relapsed and two SMM cases evolved to MM after KT. Three cast nephropathies occurred, two of them leading to ESRD. Moreover, survival of MM with KT increased relative to control haemodialysed patients (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: Selected MM patients may benefit from KT but need careful surveillance in the case of KT complications and MM evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfz128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857822PMC
January 2021

Induction Therapy in Elderly Kidney Transplant Recipients With Low Immunological Risk.

Transplantation 2020 03;104(3):613-622

Centre de Recherche en Transplantation et Immunologie INSERM UMR1064, Université de Nantes, RTRS "Centaure", Nantes, France.

Background: In nonimmunized patients, similar rejection rates are observed for patients who have undergone thymoglobulin (antithymocyte globulins [ATG]) or basiliximab (BSX) therapy. While ATG may improve delayed graft function, it may also be associated with higher infection rates and malignancy risk. We compared survival and clinical outcomes in elderly recipients with low immunological risk according to their induction therapy.

Methods: We conducted a multicentric study on nonimmunized patients ≥65 years of age receiving a first kidney transplant between 2010 and 2017. The principal outcome was patient and graft survival. Secondary outcomes were cumulative probabilities of infection, first acute rejection episode, malignancy, de novo donor specific antibody, posttransplant diabetes (PTD), cardiac complications, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and occurrence of delayed graft function. Cox, logistic, or linear statistical models were used depending on the outcome studied, and models were weighted on the propensity scores.

Results: Two hundred and four patients were included in the BSX group and 179 in the ATG group with the average age of 71.0 and 70.5 years, respectively. Patient and graft survival at 3 years posttransplantation were 74% (95% CI, 65%-84%) and 68% (95% CI, 60%-78%) in ATG and BSX group, respectively, without significant difference. Occurrence of PTD was significatively higher in BSX group (23% versus 15%, P = 0.04) due to higher trough levels of Tacrolimus on month 3 (9.48 versus 7.30 ng/mL, P = 0.023). There was no difference in other evaluated outcomes.

Conclusions: In elderly recipients, ATG does not lead to poorer outcomes compared with BSX and could permit lower trough levels of Tacrolimus, thus reducing occurrence of PTD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000002804DOI Listing
March 2020

An open-label randomized controlled trial of low-dose corticosteroid plus enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium versus standard corticosteroid treatment for minimal change nephrotic syndrome in adults (MSN Study).

Kidney Int 2018 12 29;94(6):1217-1226. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

AP-HP (Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris), Groupe Hospitalier Henri-Mondor, Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Créteil, France; UPEC (Université Paris Est Créteil), INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) U955, Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale (IMRB), Equipe 21, Créteil, France. Electronic address:

First-line therapy of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) in adults is extrapolated largely from pediatric studies and consists of high-dose oral corticosteroids. We assessed whether a low corticosteroid dose combined with mycophenolate sodium was superior to a standard oral corticosteroid regimen. We enrolled 116 adults with MCNS in an open-label randomized controlled trial involving 32 French centers. Participants randomly assigned to the test group (n=58) received low-dose prednisone (0.5 mg/kg/day, maximum 40 mg/day) plus enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium 720 mg twice daily for 24 weeks; those who did not achieve complete remission after week 8 were eligible for a second-line regimen (increase in the prednisone dose to 1 mg/kg/day with or without Cyclosporine). Participants randomly assigned to the control group (n=58) received conventional high-dose prednisone (1 mg/kg/day, maximum 80 mg/day) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint of complete remission after four weeks of treatment was ascertained in 109 participants, with no significant difference between the test and control groups. Secondary outcomes, including remission after 8 and 24 weeks of treatment, did not differ between the two groups. During 52 weeks of follow-up, MCNS relapsed in 15 participants (23.1%) who had achieved the primary outcome. Median time to relapse was similar in the test and control groups (7.1 and 5.1 months, respectively), as was the incidence of serious adverse events. Five participants died from hemorrhage (n=2) or septic shock (n=3), including 2 participants in the test group and 3 in the control group. Thus, in adult patients, treatment with low-dose prednisone plus enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium was not superior to a standard high-dose prednisone regimen to induce complete remission of MCNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.07.021DOI Listing
December 2018

Identification of genetic causes for sporadic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in adults.

Kidney Int 2018 11;94(5):1013-1022

Inserm U1163, Imagine Institute, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France; Adult Nephrology & Transplantation, Centre de référence des Maladies Rénales Héréditaires de l'Enfant et de l'Adulte, Necker Hospital, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Monogenic forms of Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome (SRNS) have been widely characterized, but genetic screening paradigms preferentially address congenital, infantile onset, and familial cases. Our aim was to characterize the distribution of disease-causing gene mutations in adults with sporadic SRNS or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We selected adult patients with non-syndromic, biopsy-proven FSGS or SRNS in the absence of known family history. Strict clinical criteria included lack of response to glucocorticoids and cyclosporine, and no recurrence after kidney transplantation. Mutations in SRNS genes were detected using a targeted gene panel. Sixteen of 135 tested participants (11.8%) carried pathogenic mutations in monogenic SRNS genes, and 14 others (10.4%) carried two APOL1 high-risk alleles. Autosomal recessive disease was diagnosed in 5 participants, autosomal dominant disease in 9, and X-linked disease in 2. Four participants carried a de novo heterozygous mutation. Among the 16 participants with identified mutations in monogenic SNRS genes, 7 (43.7%) had type IV collagen mutations. Mutations in monogenic SNRS genes were identified primarily in participants with proteinuria onset before 25 years of age, while the age at disease onset was variable in those with APOL1 high-risk genotype. Mean age at diagnosis was lower and renal survival was worse in participants with identified mutations in SNRS genes than in those without mutations. We found a significant rate of pathogenic mutations in adults with SRNS, with Type IV collagen mutations being the most frequent. These findings may have immediate impact on clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.07.024DOI Listing
November 2018

Sirolimus for Secondary Prevention of Skin Cancer in Kidney Transplant Recipients: 5-Year Results.

J Clin Oncol 2018 09 17;36(25):2612-2620. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Jacques Dantal and Anabelle Brocard, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes; Emmanuel Morelon, Claire Pouteil-Noble, Jean Kanitakis, and Sylvie Euvrard, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Edouard Herriot Hospital Group; Adeline Roux and Evelyne Decullier, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Unité de Recherche Clinique, Lyon; Lionel Rostaing and Nassim Kamar, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse; Valérie Chatelet and Anne Dompmartin, University Hospital of Caen, Caen; Michèle Kessler, University Hospital of Nancy, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Eric Goffin and Isabelle Tromme, St Luc University Hospital, Woluwe-Saint-Lambert; Nilufer Broeders and Véronique del Marmol, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium; and Andreas Serra and Günther F.L. Hofbauer, Zürich University Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland.

Purpose Transplant recipients who develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are at high risk for multiple subsequent skin cancers. Sirolimus has been shown to reduce the occurrence of secondary skin cancers, but no study included a follow-up exceeding 2 years. We extended at 5 years the TUMORAPA randomized trial of sirolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen versus calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression. Methods Kidney transplant recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitors who had at least one cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were randomly assigned to receive sirolimus as a substitute for calcineurin inhibitors (n = 64) or to maintain their initial treatment (n = 56). The primary end point was survival free of squamous cell carcinoma at 5 years. Secondary end points included the occurrence of other skin cancers, renal function, patient and graft survival, and treatment tolerance. Results Survival free of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was significantly longer in the sirolimus group than in the calcineurin inhibitor group ( P = .007). In the sirolimus group, the number of patients with new skin cancers was significantly lower compared with the calcineurin inhibitor group: 22% versus 59% for squamous cell carcinomas ( P < .001), 34% versus 66% for other skin cancers ( P < .001), and 20% versus 37.5% for basal cell carcinomas ( P < .05). Kidney graft function, patients, and graft survival were similar in both groups. In the sirolimus group, the mean number of serious adverse effects per patient decreased from 1.16 during the first 2 years, to 0.83 between years 2 and 5. Conclusion In kidney transplant recipients with previous cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, the antitumoral effect of conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus was maintained at 5 years, and sirolimus tolerance was satisfactory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.76.6691DOI Listing
September 2018

APOL1 risk genotype in European steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis patients of different African ancestries.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2019 11;34(11):1885-1893

Inserm U1163, Institut Imagine, University Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

Background: Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk variants are strongly associated with sporadic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in populations with African ancestry. We determined the frequency of G1/G2 variants in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS)/FSGS patients with African or French West Indies ancestry in France and its relationships with other SRNS genes.

Methods: In a cohort of 152 patients (139 families), the APOL1 risk variants were genotyped by direct Sanger sequencing and pathogenic mutations were screened by next-generation sequencing with a panel including 35 SRNS genes.

Results: The two risk allele [high-risk (HR)] genotypes were found in 43.1% (66/152) of subjects compared with 18.9% (106/562) in a control population (P < 0.0001): 33 patients homozygous for APOL1 G1 alleles, 4 homozygous for G2 and 29 compound heterozygous for G1 and G2. Compared with patients in the low-risk (LR) group, patients in the HR group were more likely to originate from the French West Indies than from Africa [45/66 (68.2%) versus 30/86 (34.9%); P < 0.0001]. There were more familial cases in the HR group [27 (41.5%) versus 8 (11.4%); P < 0.0001]. However, causative mutations in monogenic SRNS genes were found in only 1 patient in the HR group compared with 16 patients (14 families) in the LR group (P = 0.0006). At diagnosis, patients in the HR group without other mutations were more often adults [35 (53.8%) versus 19 (27.1%); P = 0.003] and had a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (78.9 versus 98.8 mL/min/1.73 m2; P = 0.02).

Conclusions: The HR genotype is frequent in FSGS patients with African ancestry in our cohort, especially in those originating from the West Indies, and confer a poor renal prognosis. It is usually not associated with other causative mutations in monogenic SRNS genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy176DOI Listing
November 2019

Candida utilis fungaemia following endoscopic intervention on ureteral stent in a kidney transplant recipient: Case report and a review of the literature.

Mycoses 2018 Aug 11;61(8):594-599. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Nephrology and Transplantation Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nantes, France.

Infection due to species other than Candida albicans is increasing among solid organ transplant recipients. Candida utilis, commonly used in the food industry, is considered as a low-virulence yeast. We report the first case of C. utilis fungaemia involving a solid organ transplant recipient. The infection was triggered by the withdrawal of a ureteral stent and was successfully treated with intravenous micafungin. We also propose a review of all reported cases of infection caused by C. utilis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.12766DOI Listing
August 2018

Ofatumumab in post-transplantation recurrence of a pediatric steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

Pediatr Transplant 2018 06 23;22(4):e13175. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Pediatric Department, University Hospital of Nantes, Nantes, France.

Treatment of SRNS is a challenge. Antiproliferative agents and depleting antibodies have been reported to be effective. However, these agents are not always successful, and use of ofatumumab could provide a different treatment option. Our patient was diagnosed with a SRNS at 5 years of age. She developed ESRD, with FSGS. This was cause for a first renal transplantation. The NS relapsed, leading to loss of the graft, and a second renal transplantation was performed. Due to the recurrence of the NS, IAds were initiated and led to a complete remission. Our patient remained dependent on IAds, however, despite treatments with calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids, rituximab, and abatacept. Ofatumumab was introduced and led to a remission, thus allowing cessation of the IAd treatment. Another infusion of ofatumumab was administered 8 months after the last one, due to the recurrence of the NS and a renewed increase in B cells. Although it did not result in a complete remission, the proteinuria was stabilized in the absence of IAds. Ofatumumab may be an alternative treatment for post-transplantation rituximab-resistant SRNS, although this needs to be confirmed by further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.13175DOI Listing
June 2018

Clinical and genetic heterogeneity in familial steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome.

Pediatr Nephrol 2018 03 23;33(3):473-483. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

INSERM UMR1163, Laboratory of Hereditary Kidney Diseases, Imagine Institute, 24 Boulevard du Montparnasse, 75015, Paris, France.

Background: Familial steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) is a rare condition. The disease pathophysiology remains elusive. However, bi-allelic mutations in the EMP2 gene were identified, and specific variations in HLA-DQA1 were linked to a high risk of developing the disease.

Methods: Clinical data were analyzed in 59 SSNS families. EMP2 gene was sequenced in families with a potential autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance. Exome sequencing was performed in a subset of 13 families with potential AR inheritance. Two variations in HLA-DQA1 were genotyped in the whole cohort.

Results: Transmission was compatible with an AR (n = 33) or autosomal dominant (AD, n = 26) inheritance, assuming that familial SSNS is a monogenic trait. Clinical features did not differ between AR and AD groups. All patients, including primary (n = 7) and secondary steroid resistant nephrotic syndrone (SRNS), (n = 13) were sensitive to additional immunosuppressive therapy. Both HLA-DQA1 variations were found to be highly linked to the disease (OR = 4.34 and OR = 4.89; p < 0.001). Exome sequencing did not reveal any pathogenic mutation, neither did EMP2 sequencing.

Conclusions: Taken together, these results highlight the clinical and genetic heterogeneity in familial SSNS. Clinical findings sustain an immune origin in all patients, whatever the initial steroid-sensitivity. The absence of a variant shared by two families and the HLA-DQA1 variation enrichments suggest a complex mode of inheritance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-017-3819-9DOI Listing
March 2018

Impact of antiviral prophylaxis in adults Epstein-Barr Virus-seronegative kidney recipients on early and late post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder onset: a retrospective cohort study.

Transpl Int 2018 05 16;31(5):484-494. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Centre de Recherche en Transplantation et Immunologie UMR 1064, INSERM, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) pathogenesis is related to EBV infection. Mismatch with the donor (EBV D+/R-) is the main risk factor for both early PTLD (<1 year post-transplantation) and late (>1 year). In these at-risk patients, the role of antiviral prophylaxis for preventing PTLD remains controversial. We analyzed the impact of antiviral drugs given to prevent CMV disease in a monocentric retrospective cohort of 73 adult kidney or kidney-pancreas EBV-seronegative recipients, transplanted between 01/01/2000 and 01/01/2016. Thirty-seven (50.7%, prophylaxis group) received (val-)aciclovir or (val-)ganciclovir for 3-6 months and 36 (49.3%, no-prophylaxis group) received no-prophylaxis. Mean follow-up was 69 ± 7.2 months in the prophylaxis group and 91 ± 10.3 months in the no-prophylaxis group. Monitoring of EBV PCR revealed that prophylaxis delayed primary infection at 100 days (43% vs. 84%, P = 0.02). Early PTLD incidence was not different between groups (4/37 vs. 4/36, P = 0.99). Concerning late events, EBV-related neoplasia incidence was significantly lower in treated patients among whom no cases were observed, while in the no-prophylaxis group 6 cases were reported (P = 0.02). Despite a weak level of evidence our study suggests that antiviral prophylaxis could prevent late onset PTLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13085DOI Listing
May 2018

Lytic EBV infection investigated by detection of Soluble Epstein-Barr virus ZEBRA in the serum of patients with PTLD.

Sci Rep 2017 09 5;7(1):10479. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS), Université Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, Grenoble, France.

The ZEBRA protein (encoded by the BZLF1 gene), is the major transcription factor of EBV, expressed upon EBV lytic cycle activation. Several studies highlighted the critical role of EBV lytic infection as a risk factor for lymphoproliferative disorders like post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Here, we use an antigen-capture ELISA assay specifically designed to detecting the circulating soluble ZEBRA (sZEBRA) in serum samples (threshold value determined at 40ng/mL). We retrospectively investigated a population of 66 transplanted patients comprising 35 PTLD. All the samples from a control population (30 EBV-seronegative subjects and 25 immunocompetent individuals with EBV serological reactivation), classified as sZEBRA < 40ng/mL were assigned as negative. At PTLD diagnosis, EBV genome (quantified by qPCR with EBV DNA>200 copies/mL) and sZEBRA were detectable in 51% and 60% of cases, respectively. In the patients who developed a pathologically-confirmed PTLD, the mean sZEBRA value in cases, was 399 ng/mL +/- 141 versus 53ng/mL +/- 7 in patients who did not (p  < 0,001). This is the first report relating to the detection of the circulating ZEBRA in serum specimens, as well as the first analysis dealing with the lytic cycle of EBV in PTLD patients with this new biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09798-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5585268PMC
September 2017

A French Cohort Study of Kidney Retransplantation after Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Oct 17;12(10):1663-1670. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Due to the number of contributing authors, the affiliations are provided in the Supplemental Material.

Background And Objectives: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders arising after kidney transplantation portend an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Retransplantation of patients who had developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder remains questionable owing to the potential risks of recurrence when immunosuppression is reintroduced. Here, we investigated the feasibility of kidney retransplantation after the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: We reviewed the data from all patients who underwent kidney retransplantation after post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in all adult kidney transplantation centers in France between 1998 and 2015.

Results: We identified a total of 52 patients with kidney transplants who underwent 55 retransplantations after post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. The delay from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder to retransplantation was 100±44 months (28-224); 98% of patients were Epstein-Barr virus seropositive at the time of retransplantation. Induction therapy for retransplantation was used in 48 patients (, 17 [31%] patients received thymoglobulin, and 31 [57%] patients received IL-2 receptor antagonists). Six patients were also treated with rituximab, and 53% of the patients received an antiviral drug. The association of calcineurin inhibitors, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids was the most common maintenance immunosuppression regimen. Nine patients were switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor. One patient developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder recurrence at 24 months after retransplantation, whereas post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder did not recur in 51 patients.

Conclusions: The recurrence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder among patients who underwent retransplantation in France is a rare event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03790417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5628715PMC
October 2017

Plasma cell neoplasia after kidney transplantation: French cohort series and review of the literature.

PLoS One 2017 21;12(6):e0179406. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Service d'Urgences Néphrologiques et Transplantation Rénale, Hôpital Tenon, APHP, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

Although post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is the second most common type of cancer in kidney transplantation (KT), plasma cell neoplasia (PCN) occurs only rarely after KT, and little is known about its characteristics and evolution. We included twenty-two cases of post-transplant PCN occurring between 1991 and 2013. These included 12 symptomatic multiple myeloma, eight indolent myeloma and two plasmacytomas. The median age at diagnosis was 56.5 years and the median onset after transplantation was 66.7 months (2-252). Four of the eight indolent myelomas evolved into symptomatic myeloma after a median time of 33 months (6-72). PCN-related kidney graft dysfunction was observed in nine patients, including six cast nephropathies, two light chain deposition disease and one amyloidosis. Serum creatinine was higher at the time of PCN diagnosis than before, increasing from 135.7 (±71.6) to 195.9 (±123.7) μmol/l (p = 0.008). Following transplantation, the annual rate of bacterial infections was significantly higher after the diagnosis of PCN, increasing from 0.16 (±0.37) to 1.09 (±1.30) (p = 0.0005). No difference was found regarding viral infections before and after PCN. Acute rejection risk was decreased after the diagnosis of PCN (36% before versus 0% after, p = 0.004), suggesting a decreased allogeneic response. Thirteen patients (59%) died, including twelve directly related to the hematologic disease. Median graft and patient survival was 31.7 and 49.4 months, respectively. PCN after KT occurs in younger patients compared to the general population, shares the same clinical characteristics, but is associated with frequent bacterial infections and relapses of the hematologic disease that severely impact the survival of grafts and patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179406PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5479561PMC
October 2017

PKD2-Related Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Mutation Spectrum, and Prognosis.

Am J Kidney Dis 2017 Oct 27;70(4):476-485. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Service de Néphrologie, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Brest, Brest, France; Université européenne de Bretagne, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France.

Background: PKD2-related autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is widely acknowledged to be of milder severity than PKD1-related disease, but population-based studies depicting the exact burden of the disease are lacking. We aimed to revisit PKD2 prevalence, clinical presentation, mutation spectrum, and prognosis through the Genkyst cohort.

Study Design: Case series, January 2010 to March 2016.

Settings & Participants: Genkyst study participants are individuals older than 18 years from 22 nephrology centers from western France with a diagnosis of ADPKD based on Pei criteria or at least 10 bilateral kidney cysts in the absence of a familial history. Publicly available whole-exome sequencing data from the ExAC database were used to provide an estimate of the genetic prevalence of the disease.

Outcomes: Molecular analysis of PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Renal survival, age- and sex-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Results: The Genkyst cohort included 293 patients with PKD2 mutations (203 pedigrees). PKD2 patients with a nephrology follow-up corresponded to 0.63 (95% CI, 0.54-0.72)/10,000 in Brittany, while PKD2 genetic prevalence was calculated at 1.64 (95% CI, 1.10-3.51)/10,000 inhabitants in the European population. Median age at diagnosis was 42 years. Flank pain was reported in 38.9%; macroscopic hematuria, in 31.1%; and cyst infections, in 15.3% of patients. At age 60 years, the cumulative probability of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 9.8% (95% CI, 5.2%-14.4%), whereas the probability of hypertension was 75.2% (95% CI, 68.5%-81.9%). Although there was no sex influence on renal survival, men had lower kidney function than women. Nontruncating mutations (n=36) were associated with higher age-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rates. Among the 18 patients with more severe outcomes (ESRD before age 60), 44% had associated conditions or nephropathies likely to account for the early progression to ESRD.

Limitations: Younger patients and patients presenting with milder forms of PKD2-related disease may not be diagnosed or referred to nephrology centers.

Conclusions: Patients with PKD2-related ADPKD typically present with mild disease. In case of accelerated degradation of kidney function, a concomitant nephropathy should be ruled out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.01.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5610929PMC
October 2017

Outcome and Treatment of Nocardiosis After Solid Organ Transplantation: New Insights From a European Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 May;64(10):1396-1405

Division of Infectious Diseases, CUB-Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.

Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of nocardiosis, a rare opportunistic bacterial infection, but prognosis and outcome of these patients are poorly defined. Our objectives were to identify factors associated with 1-year mortality after nocardiosis and describe the outcome of patients receiving short-course antibiotics (≤120 days).

Methods: We analyzed data from a multicenter European case-control study that included 117 SOT recipients with nocardiosis diagnosed between 2000 and 2014. Factors associated with 1-year all-cause mortality were identified using multivariable conditional logistic regression.

Results: One-year mortality was 10-fold higher in patients with nocardiosis (16.2%, 19/117) than in control transplant recipients (1.3%, 3/233, P < .001). A history of tumor (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.8), invasive fungal infection (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5), and donor age (OR, 1.0046; 95% CI, 1.0007-1.0083) were independently associated with 1-year mortality. Acute rejection in the year before nocardiosis was associated with improved survival (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.98). Seventeen patients received short-course antibiotics (median duration 56 [24-120] days) with a 1-year success rate (cured and surviving) of 88% and a 5.9% risk of relapse (median follow-up 49 [6-136] months).

Conclusions: One-year mortality was 10-fold higher in SOT patients with nocardiosis than in those without. Four factors, largely reflecting general medical condition rather than severity and/or management of nocardiosis, were independently associated with 1-year mortality. Patients who received short-course antibiotic treatment had good outcomes, suggesting that this may be a strategy for further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix124DOI Listing
May 2017

Kidney transplantation in patients with systemic sclerosis: a nationwide multicentre study.

Transpl Int 2017 Mar;30(3):256-265

Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rouen, Rouen, Haute-Normandie, France.

Kidney transplantation is one of the therapeutic options for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in systemic sclerosis (SS). Current evidence demonstrates poorer patient and graft survival after transplantation in SS than in other primary kidney diseases. All the patients presenting ESRD associated with SS who had received a kidney allograft between 1987 and 2013 were systematically included from 20 French kidney transplantation centres. Thirty-four patients received 36 kidney transplants during the study period. Initial kidney disease was scleroderma renal crisis in 76.4%. Extrarenal involvement of SS was generally stable, except cardiac and gastrointestinal involvements, which worsened after kidney transplantation in 45% and 26% of cases, respectively. Patient survival was 100%, 90.3% and 82.5% at 1, 3 and 5 years post-transplant, respectively. Pulmonary involvement of SS was an independent risk factor of death after transplantation. Death-censored graft survival was 97.2% after 1 and 3 years, and 92.8% after 5 years. Recurrence of scleroderma renal crisis was diagnosed in three cases. In our study, patient and graft survivals after kidney transplantation can be considered as excellent. On this basis, we propose that in the absence of extrarenal contraindication, SS patients presenting with ESRD should be considered for kidney transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.12923DOI Listing
March 2017

Risk of Aggressive Skin Cancers After Kidney Retransplantation in Patients With Previous Posttransplant Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas: A Retrospective Study of 53 Cases.

Transplantation 2017 Apr;101(4):e133-e141

1 Department of Dermatology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France. 2 Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. 3 Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pôle Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Unité de Recherche Clinique, Lyon, France. 4 Université de Lyon, Laboratoire Santé Individu Société, Lyon, France. 5 Department of Dermatology, Nantes University Medical Center, Nantes, France. 6 Department of Dermatology, Saint Louis Hospital, APHP, University Paris VII, Paris, France. 7 Department of Dermatology, Tenon Hospital, APHP, University Paris VI, Paris, France. 8 Department of Transplantation and Nephrology, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France. 9 Department of Nephrology-Transplantation, Necker Hospital, APHP, Paris, France. 10 Department of Dermatology, Charles-Nicolle University Medical Center, Rouen, France. 11 Department of Renal Medicine and Transplantation, Nantes University Medical Center, Nantes, France.

Background: The course of skin cancer after retransplantation in organ-transplant recipients who have already developed posttransplant skin cancer has not been assessed.

Methods: This retrospective multicentric study included 53 patients with a history of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after a first kidney transplantation who received a second kidney transplantation. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of aggressive cutaneous SCC after the second transplantation. Secondary endpoints included the course of skin cancers over 3 periods (first transplantation, return to dialysis, second transplantation), the time to occurrence, and risk factors for aggressive SCC after retransplantation.

Results: The first SCC developed in 47 patients with a functional graft and in 6 after return to dialysis. After the first transplantation, 17 (33.3%) patients developed SCC in dialysis and 39 (73.6%) after the second transplantation, respectively. Twenty aggressive SCC developed over the study period. They occurred in 14 (26.4%) patients after retransplantation vs 5 (9.4%) after the first transplantation with a median delay of 50 months and were responsible for 5 deaths. Fair skin type, multiple tumors before retransplantation, treatment with azathioprine, T cell-depleting antibodies, and delayed revision of immunosuppression were associated with an increased risk of aggressive cutaneous SCC after retransplantation.

Conclusions: Candidates to retransplantation with a history of posttransplant SCC have a high risk of aggressive SCC. Our data suggest that the risk could be reduced by a tailored immunosuppression. A wait period may be required depending on the clinicopathological characteristics of the previous SCC and discussed on an individual patient basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000001644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228575PMC
April 2017