Publications by authors named "Jacques Boulliat"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Emergence of two prion subtypes in ovine PrP transgenic mice infected with human MM2-cortical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2016 Feb 5;4:10. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), UR892, Virologie Immunologie Moléculaires, F-78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Introduction: Mammalian prions are proteinaceous pathogens responsible for a broad range of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. These diseases can occur spontaneously, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, or be acquired or inherited. Prions are primarily formed of macromolecular assemblies of the disease-associated prion protein PrP(Sc), a misfolded isoform of the host-encoded prion protein PrP(C). Within defined host-species, prions can exist as conformational variants or strains. Based on both the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of PrP and the electrophoretic signature of PrP(Sc) in the brain, sporadic CJD is classified in different subtypes, which may encode different strains. A transmission barrier, the mechanism of which remains unknown, limits prion cross-species propagation. To adapt to the new host, prions have the capacity to 'mutate' conformationally, leading to the emergence of a variant with new biological properties. Here, we transmitted experimentally one rare subtype of human CJD, designated cortical MM2 (129 MM with type 2 PrP(Sc)), to transgenic mice overexpressing either human or the VRQ allele of ovine PrP(C).

Results: In marked contrast with the reported absence of transmission to knock-in mice expressing physiological levels of human PrP, this subtype transmitted faithfully to mice overexpressing human PrP, and exhibited unique strain features. Onto the ovine PrP sequence, the cortical MM2 subtype abruptly evolved on second passage, thereby allowing emergence of a pair of strain variants with distinct PrP(Sc) biochemical characteristics and differing tropism for the central and lymphoid tissues. These two strain components exhibited remarkably distinct replicative properties in cell-free amplification assay, allowing the 'physical' cloning of the minor, lymphotropic component, and subsequent isolation in ovine PrP mice and RK13 cells.

Conclusions: Here, we provide in-depth assessment of the transmissibility and evolution of one rare subtype of sporadic CJD upon homologous and heterologous transmission. The notion that the environment or matrix where replication is occurring is key to the selection and preferential amplification of prion substrain components raises new questions on the determinants of prion replication within and between species. These data also further interrogate on the interplay between animal and human prions.
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February 2016

SCA15 due to large ITPR1 deletions in a cohort of 333 white families with dominant ataxia.

Arch Neurol 2011 May;68(5):637-43

INSERM U975, Centre de Recherche de l'Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Épinière, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière, 47 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, Paris Cedex 13, France.

Background: Deletions in ITPR1, coding for the inositol-triphosphate receptor type 1, have been recently identified in spinocerebellar ataxia type 15 (SCA15).

Objective: To determine the frequency and the phenotypical spectrum of SCA15.

Design: Taqman polymerase chain reaction (258 index cases) or single-nucleotide polymorphism genome-wide genotyping (75 index cases).

Setting: A collaboration between the Centre de Recherche de l'Institut de Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière of the Salpêtrière Hospital (Paris, France) and the Molecular Genetics Unit of the National Institute of Aging (Bethesda, Maryland). Patients  Index cases of 333 families with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia negative for CAG repeat expansions in coding exons.

Main Outcome Measures: Detection of ITPR1 copy number alterations.

Results: A deletion of ITPR1 was found in 6 of 333 families (1.8%), corresponding to 13 patients with SCA15. Age at onset ranged from 18 to 66 years (mean [SD] age, 35 [16] years). The symptom at onset was cerebellar gait ataxia, except in 1 patient with isolated upper limb tremor. Although families were tested irrespective of their phenotype, patients with SCA15 had a homogeneous phenotype and were characterized by a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia. However, pyramidal signs (2 patients) and mild cognitive problems (2 patients) were occasionally present. Radiologic findings showed global or predominant vermian cerebellar atrophy in all patients.

Conclusions: In this series, ITPR1 deletions were rare and accounted for approximately 1% of all autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias. The SCA15 phenotype mostly consists of a slowly progressive isolated cerebellar ataxia with variable age at onset; an additional pyramidal syndrome and problems in executive functions may be present.
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May 2011

[Headache after lumbar puncture].

Presse Med 2011 Jun 17;40(6):668-70. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

Centre hospitalier Fleyriat, service de neurologie, 01012 Bourg-en-Bresse, France.

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June 2011

Outcome in 53 patients with spinal cord cavernomas.

Surg Neurol 2008 Aug 22;70(2):176-81; discussion 181. Epub 2008 Jan 22.

Service de Neurologie, CHU de Nîmes, 30029 France.

Background: Prevalence of cerebral cavernomas in the general population is close to 0.5%. In contrast, SCCs are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of SCC in a large sample of patients.

Methods: Clinical and neuroradiologic findings were retrospectively collected in a multicentric study. Diagnosis was based on pathologic criteria or MR findings.

Results: Fifty-three patients were included (26 males, 27 females). Mean age at onset of symptoms was 40.2 years (11-80 years). Initial symptoms were progressive (32) or acute myelopathy (20). One case was asymptomatic. Triggering factors were found in 14 of the patients (26%). Clinical symptoms were related to spinal cord compression (27) and hemorrhage (22). Spinal cord cavernoma was thoracic in 41 cases and cervical in 12. Mean size of the lesions was 16.3 mm (3-54 mm). In the 40 surgical patients, long-term follow-up was available in 37 cases for a mean time of 7.3 years (0.4-50 years). During the follow-up period, 20 patients improved, 6 remained on their preoperative baseline, and 11 got worse. Surgical improvement was more often found in posterior rather than anterior location. Using McCormick classification, 22 patients were autonomous (grades 1-2), 12 handicapped (grade 3), and 3 bedridden (grade 4) at the end of the follow-up.

Conclusions: This study has defined clinical and MR patterns of spinal cavernomas. Surgery lastingly improved more than half of the patients.
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August 2008

Improvement in quality of life after initiation of lamotrigine therapy in patients with epilepsy in a naturalistic treatment setting.

Seizure 2007 Mar 8;16(2):173-84. Epub 2007 Jan 8.

Hôpital de Pontchaillou, Rennes, France.

Quality of life is impaired in patients with epilepsy and can be improved by effective therapy. Randomised clinical trials have shown that lamotrigine treatment is associated with improved quality of life. However, little information is available on quality of life or treatment effects in patients with epilepsy in the general population. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of lamotrigine on quality of life in a naturalistic treatment setting. The study included adult patients with epilepsy in whom lamotrigine therapy was initiated. Each subject completed the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE)-31 quality of life questionnaire at inclusion and at a follow-up visit in the next 4 months. Demographic information and medical history were provided by the investigator. These were evaluated as potential determinants of change in quality of life using logistic regression. Three hundred and forty-one patients were evaluated, 192 starting lamotrigine in combination with another drug, 90 as a first-line monotherapy, 45 as a switch from another drug and 14 as a reduction to monotherapy from a previous combination. Baseline scores on the QOLIE-31 ranged from 53.8 in the combination group to 69.5 in the first-line group. 34.6% of patients were considered to be responders, with no significant differences between treatment regimen. Most improvement was seen for the energy-fatigue and medication effects subscales and, for the first-line group, seizure worry. Seizure type was the only determinant of improvement of quality of life identified. In conclusion, lamotrigine treatment is associated with improved quality of life, regardless of treatment regimen.
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March 2007

Focal thrombi in the common carotid artery.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2004 6;17(1):82-6. Epub 2003 Oct 6.

Department of Neurology, CHU Larrey, FR-49033 Angers, France.

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April 2004