Publications by authors named "Jacqueline Sullivan"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Feeding Infants at the Breast or Feeding Expressed Human Milk: Long-Term Cognitive, Executive Function, and Eating Behavior Outcomes at Age 6 Years.

J Pediatr 2021 Jun 14;233:66-73.e1. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; The Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, OH.

Objective: To examine how expressed milk feeding diverges from feeding at the breast in its association with neurodevelopment and behavior. We hypothesized that longer and exclusive feeding at the breast only (ie, no formula, no feeding expressed milk) would be associated with the optimal cognitive developmental, executive function, and eating behaviors and that expressed milk feeding would be associated with less-optimal outcomes.

Study Design: The Moms2Moms cohort (Ohio, US) reported infant feeding practices at 12 months postpartum and children's global cognitive ability, executive function, and eating behaviors at 6 years. Linear and log-binomial regression models estimated associations with durations of feeding at the breast, expressed milk, human milk (modes combined), and formula.

Results: Among 285 participants, each month of exclusive feeding at the breast only was associated with a decreased risk of clinically meaningful executive function (working memory) deficit (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.96) but was unassociated with inhibition (adjusted RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-1.01). Feeding expressed milk was not clearly related to executive function outcomes. No associations with global cognitive ability were observed. Weak associations were observed with eating behaviors for some feeding practices.

Conclusions: Feeding at the breast may offer advantages to some aspects of executive function that expressed milk may not. Large, prospective studies exploring mechanisms could further distinguish the effect of feeding mode from that of nutrients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.02.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154665PMC
June 2021

Piloting of a nursing and midwifery competence framework in the cultural context of a middle eastern country.

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Feb 29;51:102969. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Acting Director of Nursing, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Clinical competence amongst nurses and midwives is vital for the delivery of safe and consistent patient care. However, worldwide there is a lack of agreement on definitions and notions about what constitutes competence and how it can be determined in everyday clinical practice. This situation poses professional dilemmas in situations where competing dialogues exist. This is particularly evident in countries that employ nurses and midwives from diverse national backgrounds with differing professional and educational experiences. To address potential misunderstandings, ensure a consistent approach to the confirmation of clinical competency and assure patient safety, a strategic decision was taken by the nursing and midwifery leadership of the country's major healthcare organisation to develop an organisationally and culturally sensitive competence framework model. This article reports on the design, development and piloting of an educationally led framework model. The model, referred to as 'Q-PACE: Qatar's Practice, Appraisal, Competence and Education', links previously fragmented activities regarding confirmation of clinical competence of staff into a unified holistic process that provides assurance regarding the competence of new and existing employees.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2021.102969DOI Listing
February 2021

New frontiers in translational research: Touchscreens, open science, and the mouse translational research accelerator platform.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 Jan 10;20(1):e12705. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Brain and Mind Institute, The University of Western Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

Many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases and other brain disorders are accompanied by impairments in high-level cognitive functions including memory, attention, motivation, and decision-making. Despite several decades of extensive research, neuroscience is little closer to discovering new treatments. Key impediments include the absence of validated and robust cognitive assessment tools for facilitating translation from animal models to humans. In this review, we describe a state-of-the-art platform poised to overcome these impediments and improve the success of translational research, the Mouse Translational Research Accelerator Platform (MouseTRAP), which is centered on the touchscreen cognitive testing system for rodents. It integrates touchscreen-based tests of high-level cognitive assessment with state-of-the art neurotechnology to record and manipulate molecular and circuit level activity in vivo in animal models during human-relevant cognitive performance. The platform also is integrated with two Open Science platforms designed to facilitate knowledge and data-sharing practices within the rodent touchscreen community, touchscreencognition.org and mousebytes.ca. Touchscreencognition.org includes the Wall, showcasing touchscreen news and publications, the Forum, for community discussion, and Training, which includes courses, videos, SOPs, and symposia. To get started, interested researchers simply create user accounts. We describe the origins of the touchscreen testing system, the novel lines of research it has facilitated, and its increasingly widespread use in translational research, which is attributable in part to knowledge-sharing efforts over the past decade. We then identify the unique features of MouseTRAP that stand to potentially revolutionize translational research, and describe new initiatives to partner with similar platforms such as McGill's M3 platform (m3platform.org).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12705DOI Listing
January 2021

Lifestyle and Early Achievement in Families (LEAF) study: Design of an ambidirectional cohort study of prenatal marijuana exposure and child development and behaviour.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2020 11 3;34(6):744-756. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Marijuana is the most-used illicit substance during pregnancy in the USA, but only two cohort studies, begun over 30 years ago, were specifically established to assess the association of pregnancy use with childhood outcomes. They found use to be associated with specific deficits in executive function at 8+ years, but did not focus on these outcomes earlier in life when intervention may be more successful. Two general purpose cohorts found increased aggression in exposed female toddlers and increased behavioural problems and tic disorders in exposed school-age children.

Objectives: The Lifestyle and Early Achievement in Families (LEAF) study assesses the association of in utero marijuana exposure, documented prospectively by biomarker, self-report, and medical records, with executive function and aggression at age 3½-7 years.

Methods: This ambidirectional cohort (historical cohort with continued follow-up) includes women enrolled in the Perinatal Research Repository during prenatal care at Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and their children, recontacted 3½-7 years post-birth. Children complete 1-2 study visits including cognitive testing, behavioural observation, and maternal and teacher report of behaviour. Family and social environmental factors are assessed.

Results: Child follow-up began in September 2016; visits continue through August 2020. There are 362 eligible children; 32% had mothers who used marijuana during pregnancy, 10% of mothers completed college, and 23% did not complete high school. Mean maternal age at study registration in pregnancy was 26.4 years, and 63% of mothers were African American. To date, 268 children have completed at least 1 study visit.

Conclusions: The LEAF Study will document the association of prenatal marijuana exposure with development and behaviour in the current era when marijuana is more potent than when previous cohorts were studied. The results may inform policy and interventions to counsel reproductive-aged women about the risks of use during pregnancy and guide prevention and treatment of adverse effects among children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12693DOI Listing
November 2020

Sensory inflow manipulation induces learning-like phenomena in motor behavior.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2020 Apr 15;120(4):811-828. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Perugia, Via Gambuli 1, 06132, Perugia, Italy.

Purpose: Perceptual and goal-directed behaviors may be improved by repetitive sensory stimulations without practice-based training. Focal muscle vibration (f-MV) modulating the spatiotemporal properties of proprioceptive inflow is well-suited to investigate the effectiveness of sensory stimulation in influencing motor outcomes. Thus, in this study, we verified whether optimized f-MV stimulation patterns might affect motor control of upper limb movements.

Methods: To answer this question, we vibrated the slightly tonically contracted anterior deltoid (AD), posterior deltoid (PD), and pectoralis major muscles in different combinations in forty healthy subjects at a frequency of 100 Hz for 10 min in single or repetitive administrations. We evaluated the vibration effect immediately after f-MV application on upper limb targeted movements tasks, and one week later. We assessed target accuracy, movement mean and peak speed, and normalized Jerk using a 3D optoelectronic motion capture system. Besides, we evaluated AD and PD activity during the tasks using wireless electromyography.

Results: We found that f-MV may induce increases (p < 0.05) in movement accuracy, mean speed and smoothness, and changes (p < 0.05) in the electromyographic activity. The main effects of f-MV occurred overtime after repetitive vibration of the AD and PD muscles.

Conclusion: Thus, in healthy subjects, optimized f-MV stimulation patterns might over time affect the motor control of the upper limb movement. This finding implies that f-MV may improve the individual's ability to produce expected motor outcomes and suggests that it may be used to boost motor skills and learning during training and to support functional recovery in rehabilitation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-020-04320-wDOI Listing
April 2020

To attend, or not to attend: Examining caregiver intentions and study compliance in a pediatric, randomized controlled trial.

Clin Trials 2020 04 27;17(2):223-230. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

The Research Institute, Center for Biobehavioral Health, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background/aims: The is a brief questionnaire recommended by the National Research Council to address dropout concerns and improve prediction of missing data in clinical trials, although implementation has been very limited. As a formative study in pediatric research, the relationship between caregiver intentions and study compliance was investigated in a 180-day trial of dietary supplementation of preterm toddlers. Treatment effect estimation in the context of missing data was also explored.

Methods: Study compliance (i.e. study completion, supplement adherence, and diary completion) was tracked over three study visits. Baseline questionnaires asked caregivers about intentions concerning study completion via the , screened for mental health symptoms (depression, trait anxiety), and captured family demographics. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were built to examine associations between caregiver intent and compliance outcomes. The was also employed as an auxiliary variable to account for missing data within mixed models estimating the treatment effect on the primary outcomes.

Results: Of the 316 caregiver-child dyads included, 95% of caregivers with low intentions had a child complete the study, but only 87% of caregivers with high intentions had a child complete the study. Low intentions to complete the study were associated with a more than 60% lower odds of study non-completion, but the confidence interval included the null (odds ratio: 0.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.11, 1.20). No effect measure modification by caregiver mental health, child sex, or annual income was detected. Income was the only significant predictor of study non-completion; the lowest income group was almost four times more likely to be study non-completers compared with the highest income group, even after adjustment for child sex and caregiver mental health (adjusted odds ratio = 3.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.38, 9.31). When using as an auxiliary variable, similar results were obtained when compared with the original treatment effect estimates on the primary outcomes.

Conclusion: Contrary to prior adult studies, there is no clear relationship between caregiver intentions and study compliance. Findings elucidate the complexities of caregiver-child interactions during pediatric trial participation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1740774519893307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211118PMC
April 2020

Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Dallas County Jail: Implications for Screening, Prevention, and Linkage to Care.

Public Health Rep 2019 Nov/Dec;134(6):626-633. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Objectives: Screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in jail provides an opportunity to educate and offer care to a high-risk population. We aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of HCV infection in jail; (2) describe the demographic characteristics, risk factors, and pre-incarceration health insurance status associated with HCV infection; and (3) examine the implementation of HCV screening in jail.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of an opt-out HCV screening program with HCV RNA confirmation and patient education at the Dallas County Jail from April 1 through November 2, 2017. We extracted data on test results, demographic characteristics, and release destination from electronic medical records. A nurse navigator recorded data on patient self-reported risk factors and pre-incarceration health insurance status.

Results: Of 4089 incarcerated persons screened, 708 (17.3%) had a positive HCV antibody result. Of these, 641 (90.5%) had an HCV RNA test ordered; 576 (89.9%) had RNA tests completed, of whom 413 (71.7%) had a positive HCV RNA result. Of these 413, 352 (85.2%) received patient education. Half of HCV RNA-positive incarcerated persons (n = 207, 50.1%) were born outside the birth cohort (1945-1965). Among those with HCV infection, commonly reported risk factors were injection drug use (168 of 352; 47.8%) and tattoos (82 of 352; 23.4%). Most incarcerated persons with HCV infection (284 of 350; 81.1%) did not have health insurance. HCV antibody prevalence was higher among incarcerated persons released to prison (232 of 961; 24.1%) than to outside agencies (38 of 403; 9.4%) or the community (178 of 1026; 17.4%).

Conclusions: Screening for HCV with RNA confirmation in jail provides an opportunity for disease education, transmission prevention, and navigation to HCV treatment. Future efforts should examine post-incarceration linkage to care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354919874081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832085PMC
February 2020

17 beta-estradiol synthesis modulates cerebellar dependent motor memory formation in adult male rats.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2018 11 17;155:276-286. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Experimental Medicine Section of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Perugia, 06127 Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

Neurosteroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) is a steroid synthesized de novo in the nervous system that might influence neuronal activity and behavior. Nevertheless, the impact of E2 on the functioning of those neural systems in which it is slightly synthesized is less questioned. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation, may provide an ideal arena for investigating this issue. Indeed, E2 modulates cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synaptic plasticity that underlies encoding of VOR adaptation. Moreover, aromatase expression in the cerebellum of adult rodents is maintained at very low levels and localized to Purkinje cells. The significance of age-related maintenance of low levels of aromatase expression in the cerebellum on behavior, however, has yet to be explored. Our aim in this study was to determine whether E2 synthesis exerts an effective and persistent modulation of VOR adaptation in adult male rats. To answer this question, we investigated the acute effect of blocking E2 synthesis on gain increases and decreases in VOR adaptation using an oral dose (2.5 mg/kg) of the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole in peri-pubertal and post-pubertal male rats. We found that Letrozole acutely impaired gain increases and decreases in VOR adaptation without altering basal ocular-motor performance and that these effects were similar in peri-pubertal and post-pubertal rats. Thus, in adult male rats neurosteroid E2 effectively modulates VOR adaptation in both of the periods studied. These findings imply that the adult cerebellum uses E2 synthesis for modulating motor memory formation and suggest that low and extremely localized E2 production may play a role in adaptive phenomena.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2018.08.011DOI Listing
November 2018

How landmark suitability shapes recognition memory signals for objects in the medial temporal lobes.

Neuroimage 2018 02 7;166:425-436. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

The Brain and Mind Institute, Department of Psychology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

A role of perirhinal cortex (PrC) in recognition memory for objects has been well established. Contributions of parahippocampal cortex (PhC) to this function, while documented, remain less well understood. Here, we used fMRI to examine whether the organization of item-based recognition memory signals across these two structures is shaped by object category, independent of any difference in representing episodic context. Guided by research suggesting that PhC plays a critical role in processing landmarks, we focused on three categories of objects that differ from each other in their landmark suitability as confirmed with behavioral ratings (buildings > trees > aircraft). Participants made item-based recognition-memory decisions for novel and previously studied objects from these categories, which were matched in accuracy. Multi-voxel pattern classification revealed category-specific item-recognition memory signals along the long axis of PrC and PhC, with no sharp functional boundaries between these structures. Memory signals for buildings were observed in the mid to posterior extent of PhC, signals for trees in anterior to posterior segments of PhC, and signals for aircraft in mid to posterior aspects of PrC and the anterior extent of PhC. Notably, item-based memory signals for the category with highest landmark suitability ratings were observed only in those posterior segments of PhC that also allowed for classification of landmark suitability of objects when memory status was held constant. These findings provide new evidence in support of the notion that item-based memory signals for objects are not limited to PrC, and that the organization of these signals along the longitudinal axis that crosses PrC and PhC can be captured with reference to landmark suitability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.11.004DOI Listing
February 2018

Acute inhibition of estradiol synthesis impacts vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation and cerebellar long-term potentiation in male rats.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Mar 23;223(2):837-850. Epub 2017 Sep 23.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Perugia, 06127, Perugia, Italy.

The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation is an ideal model for investigating how the neurosteroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) contributes to the modification of behavior by regulating synaptic activities. We hypothesized that E2 impacts VOR adaptation by affecting cerebellar synaptic plasticity at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF) synapse. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the acute effect of blocking E2 synthesis on gain increases and decreases in adaptation of the VOR in male rats using an oral dose (2.5 mg/kg) of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. We also assessed the effect of letrozole on synaptic plasticity at the PF synapse in vitro, using cerebellar slices from male rats. We found that letrozole acutely impaired both gain increases and decreases adaptation of the VOR without altering basal ocular-motor performance. Moreover, letrozole prevented long-term potentiation at the PF synapse (PF-LTP) without affecting long-term depression (PF-LTD). Thus, in male rats neurosteroid E2 has a relevant impact on VOR adaptation and affects exclusively PF-LTP. These findings suggest that E2 might regulate changes in VOR adaptation by acting locally on cerebellar and extra-cerebellar synaptic plasticity sites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1514-zDOI Listing
March 2018

A Response to: Commentary: Stabilizing Constructs through Collaboration across Different Research Fields as a Way to Foster the Integrative Approach of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project.

Front Hum Neurosci 2016 31;10:448. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Department of Philosophy, Rotman Institute of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario London, ON, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5006646PMC
September 2016

Stabilizing Constructs through Collaboration across Different Research Fields as a Way to Foster the Integrative Approach of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project.

Front Hum Neurosci 2016 28;10:309. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

Department of Philosophy, Rotman Institute of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario London, ON, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4923248PMC
July 2016

Qualitative assessment of self-identity in people with advanced dementia.

Dementia (London) 2016 Sep 22;15(5):1260-78. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

This study aimed to understand the preserved elements of self-identity in persons with moderate to severe dementia attributable to Alzheimer's disease. A semi-structured interview was developed to explore the narrative self among residents with dementia in a residential care facility, and residents without dementia in an independent living setting. The interviews were transcribed verbatim from audio recordings and analyzed for common themes, while being sensitive to possible differences between the groups. The participants with dementia showed evidence of self-reference even though losses in explicit memory were evident. The most noticeable difference between the two groups was time frame reference. Nonetheless, all participants showed understanding of their role in relationships and exhibited concrete preferences. Our findings suggest that memory loss and other cognitive deficits associated with moderate to severe dementia do not necessarily lead to a loss of "self."
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1471301215601619DOI Listing
September 2016

Physicians-in-training attitudes on patient safety: 2003 to 2008.

J Patient Saf 2011 Sep;7(3):133-8

Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Divisions of Internal Medicine Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: : Physician trainees will embody medicine's future culture. We assess whether trainees' patient safety attitudes have evolved over time.

Methods: : We anonymously surveyed more than 800 house staff and fourth-year medical students (MS 4) in 2008, at 1 academic institution, with a 19-item questionnaire and compared their responses to the 2003 responses at the same institution on the same questionnaire.

Results: : A total of 463 trainees (53%) completed the 2008 survey, with a mean overall safety score of 3.54, which significantly improved from the 2003 overall score of 3.41 (P < 0.001). Compared with those from 2003, respondents in 2008 more strongly agree that physician-nurse teamwork (P = 0.001), attending supervision (P = 0.017), 80-hour workweek (P < 0.001), computer order entry (P < 0.001), and improved resident sign-out (P < 0.001) help reduce adverse events. The 2008 trainees feel more prepared to prevent adverse events (P = 0.030) and more acknowledge the ethical responsibility to disclose adverse events to patients (P = 0.002). However, compared with 2003, fewer 2008 respondents felt that reducing nurses' patient load would reduce adverse events (P = 0.015); on 8 questionnaire items, there were no significant attitudinal changes between 2003 and 2008.

Conclusions: : Physician trainee safety attitudes at 1 institution improved between 2003 and 2008, and these trainees support many system-based solutions to adverse events. The changes seem incremental and responses do not fully align with all aspects of a safety culture. Cultural change in health care must involve trainees and address their attitudes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0b013e31822a9c5eDOI Listing
September 2011

Are roadside pedestrian injury patterns predictable in a densely populated, urban setting?

J Surg Res 2010 Oct 24;163(2):323-6. Epub 2010 Apr 24.

Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

Background: Roadside pedestrian injuries represent a significant portion of trauma team activations, especially at urban trauma centers. Patient demographics and severity of injury vary greatly in this patient population. Herein, we hypothesize that injury patterns may be predictable, especially with respect to age.

Materials And Methods: All patients with roadside pedestrian injuries evaluated at our urban, level one trauma center from January 2006 through December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected from the institutional trauma registry. Age was used as an independent variable and compared with injury type, substance abuse, discharge setting, and mortality.

Results: There were 226 roadside pedestrian injuries during the study period. Patients were divided into groups according to age, under 20 y, 21-40 y, 41-65 y, and over 65 y. Head injuries were more prevalent in patients over age 65, 30.4% versus 14.0% (P = 0.05). There was a trend for increasing alcohol use in the younger population. The likelihood of discharge to a rehab facility increased with age, 0%, 11.8%, 38.2%, 50.0%, respectively (P < 0.001). Mortality was significantly higher in patients older than 65 y, 15.2% versus 3.3% (P = 0.049).

Conclusions: Roadside pedestrian injuries have predictable injury patterns based on age. Older patients are more likely to have a head injury, longer length of stay, need for a rehab stay, and have a higher mortality. Further studies are needed to correlate precise injuries with collision mechanism and evaluate specific risk factors in this high risk population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2010.03.073DOI Listing
October 2010

Reliability and validity of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy in undergraduate nursing students.

J Nurs Meas 2009 ;17(1):73-88

Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson College of Health Professions, Jefferson School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

Evidence has been reported in support of the reliability and validity of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) when used with physicians, medical students, and nurses. This study examined the psychometrics of a modified version of the scale in undergraduate nursing students. The modified version of the JSPE was administered to 333 nursing students at different levels of training. Three underlying constructs, that is, "Perspective Taking," "Compassionate Care," and "Standing in Patient's Shoes" emerged from the factor analysis of the scale that were consistent with the conceptual framework of empathy, thus supporting the construct validity of the scale. The coefficient alpha was .77. Scores of the empathy scale were significantly correlated with the scores of the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (r = .38, p < .001). Women scored higher than men, and those with more clinical experiences scored higher than others. It was concluded that the empathy scale used in this study is a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring empathy in undergraduate nursing students.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1061-3749.17.1.73DOI Listing
January 2010

The Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration: a study with undergraduate nursing students.

J Interprof Care 2008 Aug;22(4):375-86

Jefferson School of Nursing, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

The Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC) was administered to 333 undergraduate nursing students. The underlying factors, item-total score correlations and reliability of the JSAPNC were examined. A significant correlation was observed between scores of the JSAPNC and the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (r = 0.38). It was hypothesized that: (1) Women would score higher than men on the JSAPNC, (2) Scores on the JSAPNC would increase as students progress in their nursing education, (3) Scores on the JSAPNC would be higher for students with work experiences in health care, and (4) Scores on the JSAPNC would be higher for those with a higher level of education prior to nursing school. Hypotheses 1, 3 and 4 were confirmed at a conventional statistical level of significance (p < 0.05), and hypothesis 2 was confirmed at a marginal significance level (p = 0.06). No significant differences were observed on scores of the JSAPNC among undergraduate nursing students grouped by ethnic minority, specialty plan, academic major prior to nursing school, or marital status. Implications for future studies in nursing education are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13561820802190533DOI Listing
August 2008

A staffing-effectiveness methodology for analyzing human resource and clinical/service screening indicator data.

Jt Comm J Qual Saf 2004 Jun;30(6):322-30

Department of Nursing Services, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, USA.

Background: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), a university-affiliated academic health center, developed and pilot tested a method for analyzing staffing effectiveness. SCREENING INDICATORS: Human resource screening indicators chosen for analysis included direct caregiver indicators (based on nursing and allied health resource data), such as registered nurse (R.N.) turnover rate, and indirect caregiver indicators (based on overall health care organization resource data), such as overall hospital turnover rate. Clinical/service screening indicators consisted of five nursing-sensitive outcome variables.

Data Collection: Patient unit-based data collection at the hospital was institutionally aggregated on a quarterly basis for all human resource and clinical service indicators. Initial methodological development and pilot testing focused on statistical process control chart (SPCC) methodology for longitudinal measurements and the use of spider diagrams for examination of potential relationships within and among all variables, with all variables considered simultaneously in an interrelational analytical process.

Discussion: The design, development, and pilot-testing of the staffing-effectiveness methodology led to recommendations for clinical and operational interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1549-3741(04)30036-5DOI Listing
June 2004

Designing a leadership development program for nurse managers: an evidence-driven approach.

J Nurs Adm 2003 Oct;33(10):544-9

Translational Nursing Research, Quality and Outcomes, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 19104, USA.

The authors describe an evidence-driven approach used in designing a leadership development program targeted for nurses in middle management positions in an academically affiliated integrated healthcare system. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate leadership development needs and experiences of nurse managers across the health system. Study findings were used to inform educational programs and organizational initiatives responsive to needs of both novice and expert nurse managers across diverse clinical settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005110-200310000-00010DOI Listing
October 2003

Evidence-based oncology oral care clinical practice guidelines: development, implementation, and evaluation.

Clin J Oncol Nurs 2003 Mar-Apr;7(2):222-7

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1188/03.CJON.222-227DOI Listing
May 2003