Publications by authors named "Jacqueline Petkewicz"

8 Publications

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Association of prostate cancer polygenic risk score with number and laterality of tumor cores in active surveillance patients.

Prostate 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is characterized by its tendency to be multifocal. However, few studies have investigated the endogenous factors that explain the multifocal disease. The primary objective of the current study is to test whether inherited PCa risk is associated with multifocal tumors in PCa patients.

Methods: Subjects in this study were PCa patients of European ancestry undergoing active surveillance at Johns Hopkins Hospital (N = 805) and NorthShore University HealthSystem (N = 432). The inherited risk was measured by genetic risk score (GRS), an odds ratio-weighted and population-standardized polygenic risk score based on known risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. PCa multifocality was indirectly measured by the number and laterality of positive tumor cores from a 12-core systematic biopsy.

Results: In the combined cohort, 35.7% and 66.3% of patients had ≥2 tumor cores at the initial diagnostic biopsy and on at least one subsequent surveillance biopsy, respectively. For tumor laterality, 7.8% and 47.8% of patients had bilateral tumor cores at diagnostic and surveillance biopsies, respectively. We found, for the first time, that patients with higher numbers of positive cores at diagnostic and surveillance biopsies, respectively, had significantly higher mean GRS values; p = .01 and p = 5.94E-04. Additionally, patients with bilateral tumors at diagnostic and surveillance biopsies, respectively, had significantly higher mean GRS values than those with unilateral tumors; p = .04 and p = .01. In contrast, no association was found between GRS and maximum core length of tumor or tumor grade at diagnostic/surveillance biopsies (all p > .05). Finally, we observed a modest trend that patients with higher GRS quartiles had a higher risk for tumor upgrading on surveillance biopsies. The trend, however, was not statistically significant (p > .05).

Conclusions: The associations of GRS with two measurements of PCa multifocality (core numbers and laterality) provide novel and consistent evidence for the link between inherited PCa risk and multifocal tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24140DOI Listing
May 2021

Feasibility and performance of a novel probe panel to detect somatic DNA copy number alterations in clinical specimens for predicting prostate cancer progression.

Prostate 2020 10 17;80(14):1253-1262. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Program for Personalized Cancer Care, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois.

Background: To assess the feasibility of a novel DNA-based probe panel to detect copy number alterations (CNAs) in prostate tumor DNA and its performance for predicting clinical progression.

Methods: A probe panel was developed and optimized to measure CNAs in trace amounts of tumor DNA (2 ng) isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Ten genes previously associated with aggressive disease were targeted. The panel's feasibility and performance were assessed in 175 prostate cancer (PCa) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy with a median 10-year follow-up, including 42 men who developed disease progression (either metastasis and/or PCa-specific death). Association with disease progression was tested using univariable and multivariable analyses.

Results: The probe panel detected CNAs in all 10 genes in tumor DNA isolated from either diagnostic biopsies or surgical specimens. A four-gene model (PTEN/MYC/BRCA2/CDKN1B) had the strongest association with disease progression; 64.3% of progressors and 22.5% of non-progressors had at least one CNA in these four genes, odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) = 6.21 (2.77-13.87), P = 8.48E-06. The association with disease progression remained significant after adjusting for known clinicopathological variables. Among the seven progressors of the 65 patients with clinically low-risk disease, three (42.9%) had at least one CNA in these four genes.

Conclusions: The probe panel can detect CNAs in trace amounts of tumor DNA from biopsies or surgical tissues at the time of diagnosis or surgery. CNAs independently predict metastatic/lethal cancer, particularly among men with clinically low-risk disease at diagnosis. If validated, this may improve current abilities to assess tumor aggressiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.24057DOI Listing
October 2020

Heterogeneity of human prostate carcinoma-associated fibroblasts implicates a role for subpopulations in myeloid cell recruitment.

Prostate 2020 02 25;80(2):173-185. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois.

Background: Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are a heterogeneous group of cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME) that can promote tumorigenesis in the prostate. By understanding the mechanism(s) by which CAF contributes to tumor growth, new therapeutic targets for the management of this disease may be identified. These studies determined whether unique sub-populations of human prostate CAF can be identified and functionally characterized.

Methods: Single-cell RNA-seq of primary human prostate CAF followed by unsupervised clustering was utilized to generate cell clusters based on differentially expressed (DE) gene profiles. Potential communication between CAF and immune cells was analyzed using in vivo tissue recombination by combining CAF or normal prostate fibroblasts (NPF) with non-tumorigenic, initiated prostate epithelial BPH-1 cells. Resultant grafts were assessed for inflammatory cell recruitment.

Results: Clustering of 3321 CAF allows for visualization of six subpopulations, demonstrating heterogeneity within CAF. Sub-renal capsule recombination assays show that the presence of CAF significantly increases myeloid cell recruitment to resultant tumors. This is supported by significantly increased expression of chemotactic chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 in large clusters compared to other subpopulations. Bayesian analysis topologies also support differential communication signals between chemokine-related genes of individual clusters. Migration of THP-1 monocyte cells in vitro is stimulated in the presence of CAF conditioned medium (CM) compared with NPF CM. Further in vitro analyses suggest that CAF-derived chemokine CCL2 may be responsible for CAF-stimulated migration of THP-1 cells, since neutralization of this chemokine abrogates migration capacity.

Conclusions: CAF clustering based on DE gene expression supports the concept that clusters have unique functions within the TME, including a role in immune/inflammatory cell recruitment. These data suggest that CCL2 produced by CAF may be involved in the recruitment of inflammatory cells, but may also directly regulate the growth of the tumor. Further studies aimed at characterizing the subpopulation(s) of CAF which promote immune cell recruitment to the TME and/or stimulate prostate cancer growth and progression will be pursued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23929DOI Listing
February 2020

Germline Mutations in ATM and BRCA1/2 Are Associated with Grade Reclassification in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer.

Eur Urol 2019 05 8;75(5):743-749. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Program for Personalized Cancer Care, North Shore University Health System, Evanston, IL, USA; Fudan Institute of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Mutations in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa).

Objective: To assess whether germline mutations are associated with grade reclassification (GR) in patients undergoing active surveillance (AS).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Two independent cohorts of PCa patients undergoing AS; 882 and 329 patients from Johns Hopkins and North Shore, respectively.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Germline DNA was sequenced for DNA repair genes, including BRCA1/2 and ATM (three-gene panel). Pathogenicity of mutations was defined according to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Association of mutation carrier status and GR was evaluated by a competing risk analysis.

Results And Limitations: Of 1211, 289 patients experienced GR; 11 of 26 with mutations in a three-gene panel and 278 of 1185 noncarriers; adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.004-3.84, p=0.04). Reclassification occurred in six of 11 carriers of BRCA2 mutations and 283 of 1200 noncarriers; adjusted HR=2.74 (95% CI=1.26-5.96, p=0.01). The carrier rates of pathogenic mutations in the three-gene panel, and BRCA2 alone, were significantly higher in those reclassified (3.8% and 2.1%, respectively) than in those not reclassified (1.6% and 0.5%, respectively; p=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Carrier rates for BRCA2 were greater for those reclassified from Gleason score (GS) 3+3 at diagnosis to GS ≥4+3 (4.1% vs 0.7%, p=0.01) versus GS 3+4 (2.1% vs 0.6%; p=0.03). Results are limited by the small number of mutation carriers and an intermediate end point.

Conclusions: Mutation status of BRCA1/2 and ATM is associated with GR among men undergoing AS.

Patient Summary: Men on active surveillance with inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM are more likely to harbor aggressive prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2018.09.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699614PMC
May 2019

A comprehensive evaluation of CHEK2 germline mutations in men with prostate cancer.

Prostate 2018 06 9;78(8):607-615. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Fudan Institute of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Germline mutations in CHEK2 have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Our objective is to examine whether germline pathogenic CHEK2 mutations can differentiate risk of lethal from indolent PCa.

Methods: A case-case study of 703 lethal PCa patients and 1455 patients with low-risk localized PCa of European, African, and Chinese origin was performed. Germline DNA samples from these patients were sequenced for CHEK2. Mutation carrier rates and their association with lethal PCa were analyzed using the Fisher exact test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

Results: In the entire study population, 40 (1.85%) patients were identified as carrying one of 15 different germline CHEK2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations. CHEK2 mutations were detected in 16 (2.28%) of 703 lethal PCa patients compared with 24 (1.65%) of 1455 low-risk PCa patients (P = 0.31). No association was found between CHEK2 mutation status and early-diagnosis or PCa-specific survival time. However, the most common mutation in CHEK2, c.1100delC (p.T367 fs), had a significantly higher carrier rate (1.28%) in lethal PCa patients than low-risk PCa patients of European American origin (0.16%), P = 0.0038. The estimated Odds Ratio of this mutation for lethal PCa was 7.86. The carrier rate in lethal PCa was also significantly higher than that (0.46%) in 32 461 non-Finnish European subjects from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: While overall CHEK2 mutations were not significantly more common in men with lethal compared to low-risk PCa, the specific CHEK2 mutation, c.1100delC, appears to contribute to an increased risk of lethal PCa in European American men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23505DOI Listing
June 2018

Life after prostate cancer treatment: a mixed methods study of the experiences of men with sexual dysfunction and their partners.

BMC Urol 2017 Jun 15;17(1):45. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

The Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA.

Background: Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in men and sexual dysfunction is the most frequently reported long-term side effect of prostate cancer surgery or radiation. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of men with sexual dysfunction and their partners following prostate cancer treatment.

Methods: Men with sexual dysfunction from either surgical removal or radiation therapy 1-5 years after treatment were interviewed, as well as their partners. A mixed method design was used to determine the lived experience of men with sexual dysfunction. Open-ended questions guided the interviews.

Results: Twenty seven men completed the study with a mean age of 61 years (SD = 8.0; range = 44-77 years). Nine partners also participated. The majority of men (92.6%) had surgery. The average time from treatment to the interview was 23.5 months (SD = 11.7). Themes were frustration with sexual dysfunction, importance of support and understanding from others, depression and anxiety related to sexual dysfunction, importance of intimacy with partner, factors that impact treatment satisfaction, and education and comprehensive information about sex.

Conclusions: Prostate cancer survivors and partners need accurate information about sexual side effects before during and after treatment. Men and partners required individualized help and guidance to manage sexual dysfunction. Support and understanding from partners, family, and others was also identified as an important aspect of healing and adjustment after prostate cancer treatment. Prostate cancer education/support groups played a key role in helping men and partners gain advocacy, education, and support. Psychological problems such as depression and anxiety need to be identified and addressed in men after prostate cancer treatment. Men and partners need assistance in understanding and navigating their way through intimacy to move forward with connectedness in their relationship. Satisfaction with treatment and with providers is dependent on patient education and understanding of all aspects of prostate cancer treatment including sexual side effects and incontinence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-017-0231-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5472970PMC
June 2017

Germline Mutations in ATM and BRCA1/2 Distinguish Risk for Lethal and Indolent Prostate Cancer and are Associated with Early Age at Death.

Eur Urol 2017 05 15;71(5):740-747. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk.

Objective: To directly assess whether germline mutations in these three genes distinguish lethal from indolent PCa and whether they confer any effect on age at death.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective case-case study of 313 patients who died of PCa and 486 patients with low-risk localized PCa of European, African, and Chinese descent. Germline DNA of each of the 799 patients was sequenced for these three genes.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Mutation carrier rates and their effect on lethal PCa were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test and Cox regression analysis, respectively.

Results And Limitations: The combined BRCA1/2 and ATM mutation carrier rate was significantly higher in lethal PCa patients (6.07%) than localized PCa patients (1.44%), p=0.0007. The rate also differed significantly among lethal PCa patients as a function of age at death (10.00%, 9.08%, 8.33%, 4.94%, and 2.97% in patients who died ≤ 60 yr, 61-65 yr, 66-70 yr, 71-75 yr, and over 75 yr, respectively, p=0.046) and time to death after diagnosis (12.26%, 4.76%, and 0.98% in patients who died ≤ 5 yr, 6-10 yr, and>10 yr after a PCa diagnosis, respectively, p=0.0006). Survival analysis in the entire cohort revealed mutation carriers remained an independent predictor of lethal PCa after adjusting for race and age, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score at the time of diagnosis (hazard ratio=2.13, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-3.66, p=0.004). A limitation of this study is that other DNA repair genes were not analyzed.

Conclusions: Mutation status of BRCA1/2 and ATM distinguishes risk for lethal and indolent PCa and is associated with earlier age at death and shorter survival time.

Patient Summary: Prostate cancer patients with inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM are more likely to die of prostate cancer and do so at an earlier age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2016.11.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5535082PMC
May 2017

Nanocytological field carcinogenesis detection to mitigate overdiagnosis of prostate cancer: a proof of concept study.

PLoS One 2015 23;10(2):e0115999. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America.

Purpose: To determine whether nano-architectural interrogation of prostate field carcinogenesis can be used to predict prognosis in patients with early stage (Gleason 6) prostate cancer (PCa), which is mostly indolent but frequently unnecessarily treated.

Materials And Methods: We previously developed partial wave spectroscopic microscopy (PWS) that enables quantification of the nanoscale intracellular architecture (20-200 nm length scale) with remarkable accuracy. We adapted this technique to assess prostate needle core biopsies in a case control study from men with Gleason 6 disease who either progressed (n = 20) or remained indolent (n = 18) over a ~3 year follow up. We measured the parameter disorder strength (Ld) characterizing the spatial heterogeneity of the nanoscale cellular structure and nuclear morphology from the microscopically normal mucosa ~150 histologically normal epithelial cells.

Results: There was a profound increase in nano-architectural disorder between progressors and non-progressors. Indeed, the Ld from future progressors was dramatically increased when compared to future non-progressors (1±0.065 versus 1.30±0.0614, respectively p = 0.002). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.79, yielding a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 72% for discriminating between progressors and non-progressors. This was not confounded by demographic factors (age, smoking status, race, obesity), thus supporting the robustness of the approach.

Conclusions: We demonstrate, for the first time, that nano-architectural alterations occur in prostate cancer field carcinogenesis and can be exploited to predict prognosis of early stage PCa. This approach has promise in addressing the clinically vexing dilemma of management of Gleason 6 PCa and may provide a paradigm for dealing with the larger issue of cancer overdiagnosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0115999PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338151PMC
December 2015