Publications by authors named "Jacqueline A Harrison"

11 Publications

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Intrathecal injection of adenosine 2A receptor agonists reversed neuropathic allodynia through protein kinase (PK)A/PKC signaling.

Brain Behav Immun 2013 Oct 28;33:112-22. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA. Electronic address:

A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain. We aimed to determine if this long-term reversal was induced by A2AR agonism versus more generalized across adenosine receptor subtypes, and begin to explore the intracellular signaling cascades involved. In addition, we sought to identify whether the enduring effect could be extended to other models of neuropathic pain. We tested an A1R and A2BR agonist in CCI and found the same long duration effect with A2BR but not A1R agonism. An A2AR agonist (ATL313) produced a significant long-duration reversal of mechanical allodynia induced by long established CCI (administered 6 weeks after surgery), spinal nerve ligation and sciatic inflammatory neuropathy. To determine if ATL313 had a direct effect on glia, ATL313 was coadministered with lipopolysaccharide to neonatal microglia and astrocytes in vitro. ATL313 significantly attenuated TNFα production in both microglia and astrocytes but had no effect on LPS induced IL-10. Protein kinase C significantly reversed the ATL313 effects on TNFα in vitro in microglia and astrocytes, while a protein kinase A inhibitor only effected microglia. Both intrathecal PKA and PKC inhibitors significantly reversed the effect of the A2AR agonist on neuropathic allodynia. Therefore, A2AR agonists administered IT remain an exciting novel target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4447865PMC
October 2013

Prior exposure to glucocorticoids potentiates lipopolysaccharide induced mechanical allodynia and spinal neuroinflammation.

Brain Behav Immun 2011 Oct 23;25(7):1408-15. Epub 2011 Apr 23.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.

While stress and stress-induced glucocorticoids are classically considered immunosuppressive, they can also enhance proinflammatory responses to subsequent challenges. Corticosterone (CORT) primes rat immune cells, exacerbating pro-inflammatory responses to subsequent immune challenges. Stress can also sensitize pain. One possibility is that stress primes spinal immune cells, predominantly glia, which are key mediators in pain enhancement through their release of proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we aimed to identify whether prior CORT sensitizes spinal cord glia such that a potentiated pro-inflammatory response occurs to later intrathecal (IT) lipopolysaccharide (LPS), thereby enhancing pain. Rats received subcutaneous CORT/vehicle 24 h before IT LPS/vehicle. Hind paw pain thresholds were measured before CORT/vehicle, before and up to 48 h after IT LPS/vehicle. In separate rats treated as above, lumbar spinal cord tissue was collected and processed for proinflammatory mediators. CORT alone had no effect on pain responses, nor on any pro-inflammatory cytokines measured. LPS induced allodynia (decreased pain threshold) lasting <4 h and elevated spinal IL-1β and IL-6 protein. Prior CORT potentiated allodynia, lasting >24 h following LPS and potentiated spinal IL-1 and IL-6 protein. Coadministration of IL-1 receptor antagonist with LPS IT completely blocked the allodynia irrespective of whether the system was primed by CORT or not. At 24 h, TLR2, TLR4, MD2, and CD14 mRNAs were significantly elevated within the spinal cord in the CORT+LPS group compared to all other groups. Prior CORT before a direct spinal immune challenge is able to potentiate pain responses and pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2011.04.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166396PMC
October 2011

Caudal granular insular cortex is sufficient and necessary for the long-term maintenance of allodynic behavior in the rat attributable to mononeuropathy.

J Neurosci 2011 Apr;31(17):6317-28

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0345, USA.

Mechanical allodynia, the perception of innocuous tactile stimulation as painful, is a severe symptom of chronic pain often produced by damage to peripheral nerves. Allodynia affects millions of people and remains highly resistant to classic analgesics and therapies. Neural mechanisms for the development and maintenance of allodynia have been investigated in the spinal cord, brainstem, thalamus, and forebrain, but manipulations of these regions rarely produce lasting effects. We found that long-term alleviation of allodynic manifestations is produced by discreetly lesioning a newly discovered somatosensory representation in caudal granular insular cortex (CGIC) in the rat, either before or after a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. However, CGIC lesions alone have no effect on normal mechanical stimulus thresholds. In addition, using electrophysiological techniques, we reveal a corticospinal loop that could be the anatomical source of the influence of CGIC on allodynia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0076-11.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089761PMC
April 2011

Pain intensity and duration can be enhanced by prior challenge: initial evidence suggestive of a role of microglial priming.

J Pain 2010 Oct;11(10):1004-14

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, and the Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0345, USA.

Unlabelled: Activation of spinal microglia and consequent release of proinflammatory mediators facilitate pain. Under certain conditions, responses of activated microglia can become enhanced. Enhanced microglial production of proinflammatory products may result from priming (sensitization), similar to macrophage priming. We hypothesized that if spinal microglia were primed by an initial inflammatory challenge, subsequent challenges may create enhanced pain. Here, we used a "two-hit" paradigm using 2 successive challenges, which affect overlapping populations of spinal microglia, presented 2 weeks apart. Mechanical allodynia and/or activation of spinal glia were assessed. Initially, laparotomy preceded systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Prior laparotomy caused prolonged microglial (not astrocyte) activation plus enhanced LPS-induced allodynia. In this "two-hit" paradigm, minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, significantly reduced later exaggerated pain induced by prior surgery when minocycline was administered intrathecally for 5 days starting either at the time of surgery or 5 days before LPS administration. To test generality of the priming effect, subcutaneous formalin preceded intrathecal HIV-1 gp120, which activates spinal microglia and causes robust allodynia. Prior formalin enhanced intrathecal gp120-induced allodynia, suggesting that microglial priming is not limited to laparotomy and again supporting a spinal site of action. Therefore, spinal microglial priming may increase vulnerability to pain enhancement.

Perspective: Spinal microglia may become "primed" (sensitized) following their activation by disparate forms of peripheral trauma/inflammation. As a result, such primed microglia may overrespond to subsequent challenges, thereby enhancing pain intensity and duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2010.01.271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916950PMC
October 2010

Intrathecal injection of an alpha seven nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates gp120-induced mechanical allodynia and spinal pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in rats.

Brain Behav Immun 2010 Aug 28;24(6):959-67. Epub 2010 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs) are not only key receptors in the autonomic nervous system, but also are present on immune cells. The alpha seven subunit of nAchR (alpha7nAchR) suppresses pro-inflammation in peripheral monocytes by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In spinal cord, alpha7nAchRs are found on microglia, which are known to induce and maintain pain. We predicted that alpha7nAchR agonists might attenuate intrathecal HIV-1 gp120-induced, pro-inflammatory cytokine- and microglia-dependent mechanical allodynia. Choline, a precursor for acetylcholine and selective agonist for alpha7nAchR, was administered intrathecally either with, or 30 min after, intrathecal gp120. Choline significantly blocked and reversed gp120-induced mechanical allodynia for at least 4 h after drug administration. In addition, intrathecal choline, delivered either with or 30 min after gp120, reduced gp120-induced IL-1beta protein and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs within the lumbar spinal cord. A second alpha7nAchR agonist, GTS-21, also significantly reversed gp120-induced mechanical allodynia and lumbar spinal cord levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs and IL-1beta protein. A role of microglia is suggested by the observation that intrathecal choline suppressed the gp120-induced expression of, cd11b, a macrophage/microglial activation marker. Taken together, the data support that alpha7nAchR may be a novel target for treating pain where microglia maintain the pro-inflammatory state within the spinal cord.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2010.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2902784PMC
August 2010

Release of plasmid DNA-encoding IL-10 from PLGA microparticles facilitates long-term reversal of neuropathic pain following a single intrathecal administration.

Pharm Res 2010 May 12;27(5):841-54. Epub 2010 Mar 12.

Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 424 UCB, Boulder, Colorado, 80309, USA.

Purpose: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory molecule that has achieved interest as a therapeutic for neuropathic pain. In this work, the potential of plasmid DNA-encoding IL-10 (pDNA-IL-10) slowly released from biodegradable microparticles to provide long-term pain relief in an animal model of neuropathic pain was investigated.

Methods: PLGA microparticles encapsulating pDNA-IL-10 were developed and assessed both in vitro and in vivo.

Results: In vitro, pDNA containing microparticles activated macrophages, enhanced the production of nitric oxide, and increased the production of IL-10 protein relative to levels achieved with unencapsulated pDNA-IL-10. In vivo, intrathecally administered microparticles embedded in meningeal tissue, induced phagocytic cell recruitment to the cerebrospinal fluid, and relieved neuropathic pain for greater than 74 days following a single intrathecal administration, a feat not achieved with unencapsulated pDNA. Therapeutic effects of microparticle-delivered pDNA-IL-10 were blocked in the presence of IL-10-neutralizing antibody, and elevated levels of plasmid-derived IL-10 were detected in tissues for a prolonged time period post-injection (>28 days), demonstrating that therapeutic effects are dependent on IL-10 protein production.

Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that microparticle encapsulation significantly enhances the potency of intrathecally administered pDNA, which may be extended to treat other disorders that require intrathecal gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-010-0077-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583569PMC
May 2010

Enduring reversal of neuropathic pain by a single intrathecal injection of adenosine 2A receptor agonists: a novel therapy for neuropathic pain.

J Neurosci 2009 Nov;29(44):14015-25

Department of Psychology and Center for Neurosciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0345, USA.

Previous studies of peripheral immune cells have documented that activation of adenosine 2A receptors (A(2A)Rs) decrease proinflammatory cytokine release and increase release of the potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10). Given the growing literature supporting that glial proinflammatory cytokines importantly contribute to neuropathic pain and that IL-10 can suppress such pain, we evaluated the effects of intrathecally administered A(2A)R agonists on neuropathic pain using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. A single intrathecal injection of the A(2A)R agonists 4-(3-(6-amino-9-(5-cyclopropylcarbamoyl-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-9H-purin-2-yl)prop-2-ynyl)piperidine-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ATL313) or 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine HCl (CGS21680), 10-14 d after CCI versus sham surgery, produced a long-duration reversal of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia for at least 4 weeks. Neither drug altered the nociceptive responses of sham-operated controls. An A(2A)R antagonist [ZM241385 (4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)(1,2,4)triazolo(2,3-a)(1,3,5)triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol)] coadministered intrathecally with ATL313 abolished the action of ATL313 in rats with neuropathy-induced allodynia but had no effect on allodynia in the absence of the A(2A)R agonist. ATL313 attenuated CCI-induced upregulation of spinal cord activation markers for microglia and astrocytes in the L4-L6 spinal cord segments both 1 and 4 weeks after a single intrathecal ATL313 administration. Neutralizing IL-10 antibodies administered intrathecally transiently abolished the effect of ATL313 on neuropathic pain. In addition, IL-10 mRNA was significantly elevated in the CSF cells collected from the lumbar region. Activation of A(2A)Rs after intrathecal administration may be a novel, therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuropathic pain by increasing IL-10 in the immunocompetent cells of the CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3447-09.2009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2799253PMC
November 2009

PEGylation of interleukin-10 for the mitigation of enhanced pain states.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2010 Jun;93(3):1169-79

Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.

The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) shows promise for the treatment of neuropathic pain, but for IL-10 to be clinically useful as a short-term therapeutic its duration needs to be improved. In this study, IL-10 was covalently modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) with the goal of stabilizing and increasing protein levels in the CSF to improve the efficacy of IL-10 for treating neuropathic pain. Two different PEGylation methods were explored in vitro to identify suitable PEGylated IL-10 products for subsequent in vivo testing. PEGylation of IL-10 by acylation yielded a highly PEGylated product with a 35-fold in vitro biological activity reduction. PEGylation of IL-10 by reductive amination yielded products with a minimal number of PEG molecules attached and in vitro biological activity reductions of approximately 3-fold. In vivo collections of cerebrospinal fluid after intrathecal administration demonstrated that 20 kDa PEG attachment to IL-10 increased the concentration of IL-10 in the cerebrospinal fluid over time. Relative to unmodified IL-10, the 20 kDa PEG-IL-10 product exhibited an increased therapeutic duration and magnitude in an animal model of neuropathic pain. This suggests that PEGylation is a viable strategy for the short-term treatment or, in conjunction with other approaches, the long-term treatment of enhanced pain states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.32611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3604983PMC
June 2010

A peptide antagonist of the TLR4-MD2 interaction.

Chembiochem 2009 Mar;10(4):645-9

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0215, USA.

Toll-like receptors are an integral part of innate immunity in the central nervous system (CNS); they orchestrate a robust defense in response to both exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Recently, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has emerged as a therapeutic target for the treatment of CNS-related diseases such as sepsis and chronic pain. We herein report a chemical biology approach by using a rationally designed peptide inhibitor to disrupt the TLR4-MD2 association, thereby blocking TLR4 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.200800769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2982775PMC
March 2009

PEGylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for preserved biological activity and enhanced spinal cord distribution.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2009 Dec;91(3):719-29

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 424 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was covalently attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to enhance delivery to the spinal cord via the cerebrospinal fluid (intrathecal administration). By varying reaction conditions, mixtures of BDNF covalently attached to one (primary), two (secondary), three (tertiary), or more (higher order) PEG molecules were produced. The biological activity of each resulting conjugate mixture was assessed with the goal of identifying a relationship between the number of PEG molecules attached to BDNF and biological activity. A high degree of in vitro biological activity was maintained in mixtures enriched in primary and secondary conjugate products, while a substantial reduction in biological activity was observed in mixtures with tertiary and higher order conjugates. When a biologically active mixture of PEG-BDNF was administered intrathecally, it displayed a significantly improved half-life in the cerebrospinal fluid and an enhanced penetration into spinal cord tissue relative to native BDNF. Results from these studies suggest a PEGylation strategy that preserves the biological activity of the protein while also improving the half-life of the protein in vivo. Furthermore, PEGylation may be a promising approach for enhancing intrathecal delivery of therapeutic proteins with potential for treating disease and injury in the spinal cord.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.32254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3990442PMC
December 2009

Non-stereoselective reversal of neuropathic pain by naloxone and naltrexone: involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4).

Eur J Neurosci 2008 Jul;28(1):20-9

Department of Psychology and The Center for Neuroscience, Campus Box 345, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0345, USA.

Although activated spinal cord glia contribute importantly to neuropathic pain, how nerve injury activates glia remains controversial. It has recently been proposed, on the basis of genetic approaches, that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may be a key receptor for initiating microglial activation following L5 spinal nerve injury. The present studies extend this idea pharmacologically by showing that TLR4 is key for maintaining neuropathic pain following sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI). Established neuropathic pain was reversed by intrathecally delivered TLR4 receptor antagonists derived from lipopolysaccharide. Additionally, (+)-naltrexone, (+)-naloxone, and (-)-naloxone, which we show here to be TLR4 antagonists in vitro on both stably transfected HEK293-TLR4 and microglial cell lines, suppressed neuropathic pain with complete reversal upon chronic infusion. Immunohistochemical analyses of spinal cords following chronic infusion revealed suppression of CCI-induced microglial activation by (+)-naloxone and (-)-naloxone, paralleling reversal of neuropathic pain. Together, these CCI data support the conclusion that neuron-to-glia signaling through TLR4 is important not only for initiating neuropathic pain, as suggested previously, but also for maintaining established neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these studies suggest that the novel TLR4 antagonists (+)-naloxone and (-)-naloxone can each fully reverse established neuropathic pain upon multi-day administration. This finding with (+)-naloxone is of potential clinical relevance. This is because (+)-naloxone is an antagonist that is inactive at the (-)-opioid selective receptors on neurons that produce analgesia. Thus, these data suggest that (+)-opioid antagonists such as (+)-naloxone may be useful clinically to suppress glial activation, yet (-)-opioid agonists suppress pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2008.06321.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2588470PMC
July 2008