Publications by authors named "Jacob Wesley"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I: Current Treatments, Limitations, and Prospects for Improvement.

Biomolecules 2021 Jan 29;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Immusoft Corp, Minneapolis, MN 55413, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal disease, caused by a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA). IDUA catalyzes the degradation of the glycosaminoglycans dermatan and heparan sulfate (DS and HS, respectively). Lack of the enzyme leads to pathologic accumulation of undegraded HS and DS with subsequent disease manifestations in multiple organs. The disease can be divided into severe (Hurler syndrome) and attenuated (Hurler-Scheie, Scheie) forms. Currently approved treatments consist of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients with attenuated disease are often treated with ERT alone, while the recommended therapy for patients with Hurler syndrome consists of HSCT. While these treatments significantly improve disease manifestations and prolong life, a considerable burden of disease remains. Notably, treatment can partially prevent, but not significantly improve, clinical manifestations, necessitating early diagnosis of disease and commencement of treatment. This review discusses these standard therapies and their impact on common disease manifestations in patients with MPS I. Where relevant, results of animal models of MPS I will be included. Finally, we highlight alternative and emerging treatments for the most common disease manifestations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911293PMC
January 2021

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I: A Review of the Natural History and Molecular Pathology.

Cells 2020 08 5;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Immusoft Corp, Minneapolis, MN 55413, USA.

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease, caused by deficiency of the enzyme α-L-iduronidase, resulting in accumulation of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan and heparan sulfate in organs and tissues. If untreated, patients with the severe phenotype die within the first decade of life. Early diagnosis is crucial to prevent the development of fatal disease manifestations, prominently cardiac and respiratory disease, as well as cognitive impairment. However, the initial symptoms are nonspecific and impede early diagnosis. This review discusses common phenotypic manifestations in the order in which they develop. Similarities and differences in the three animal models for MPS I are highlighted. Earliest symptoms, which present during the first 6 months of life, include hernias, coarse facial features, recurrent rhinitis and/or upper airway obstructions in the absence of infection, and thoracolumbar kyphosis. During the next 6 months, loss of hearing, corneal clouding, and further musculoskeletal dysplasias develop. Finally, late manifestations including lower airway obstructions and cognitive decline emerge. Cardiac symptoms are common in MPS I and can develop in infancy. The underlying pathogenesis is in the intra- and extracellular accumulation of partially degraded GAGs and infiltration of cells with enlarged lysosomes causing tissue expansion and bone deformities. These interfere with the proper arrangement of collagen fibrils, disrupt nerve fibers, and cause devastating secondary pathophysiological cascades including inflammation, oxidative stress, and other disruptions to intracellular and extracellular homeostasis. A greater understanding of the natural history of MPS I will allow early diagnosis and timely management of the disease facilitating better treatment outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9081838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463646PMC
August 2020

Safety and tolerability of inebilizumab (MEDI-551), an anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody, in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis: Results from a phase 1 randomised, placebo-controlled, escalating intravenous and subcutaneous dose study.

Mult Scler 2019 02 16;25(2):235-245. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

MedImmune, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Background: B cells may be involved in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Inebilizumab (formerly MEDI-551) binds to and depletes CD19 B cells.

Objectives: To assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity of inebilizumab in adults with relapsing MS.

Methods: This phase 1 trial randomised 28 patients 3:1 (21, inebilizumab; 7, placebo) to inebilizumab (2 intravenous (IV) doses, days 1 and 15: 30, 100 or 600 mg; or single subcutaneous (SC) dose on day 1: 60 or 300 mg) or matching placebo, with follow-up until at least week 24 or return of CD19 B-cell count to ⩾80 cells/µL.

Results: Complete B-cell depletion was observed across all doses. Infusion/injection (grade 1/2) reactions occurred in 6/15 patients receiving inebilizumab IV, 2/5 placebo IV and 1/6 inebilizumab SC. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients receiving inebilizumab: pyrexia, mixed-drug intoxication (unrelated to inebilizumab; resulted in death) and urinary tract infection. Mean number of cumulative new gadolinium-enhancing lesions over 24 weeks was 0.1 with inebilizumab versus 1.3 with placebo; mean numbers of new/newly enlarging T2 lesions were 0.4 and 2.4, respectively.

Conclusion: Inebilizumab had an acceptable safety profile in relapsing MS patients and showed a trend in reductions in new/newly enlarging and gadolinium-enhancing lesions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458517740641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360486PMC
February 2019

PTEN inhibitors cause a negative inotropic and chronotropic effect in mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2011 Jan 14;650(1):298-302. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) decreases cardiac contractility under basal conditions and induces cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the pharmacological effect of PTEN inhibitors on cardiac contractility has not been studied before. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that PTEN inhibition decreases cardiac contractility in mice. We first exposed isolated mouse hearts to the PTEN inhibitor bpV(phen) (40μM), the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin (1μM), and the PTEN-resistant PIP3 analog 3-phosphorothioate-PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 (3-PT-PTP, 0.5μM) for 10min. Left ventricular pressure was measured by a Mikro-tip pressure catheter. We then inhibited PTEN in mice by intra-peritoneal injection of VO-OHpic (10μg/kg) 30min before ischemia and then exposed them to 30min of ischemia and 120min of reperfusion. At the end of the experiments, hearts were isolated for measurement of myocardial infarct size by 1.5% triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Left ventricular systolic pressure and heart rate were significantly decreased by bpV(phen). Consistent with the result, the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure increase or decrease was significantly decreased by bpV(phen). 3-PT-PIP3 mimicked the effect of bpV(phen), and the opposite effect on cardiac contractility was seen with wortmannin. Moreover, inhibition of PTEN in vivo by VO-OHpic decreased left ventricular systolic pressure and heart rate before ischemia, but resulted in an increase in cardiac functional recovery and a decrease in myocardial infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion. In conclusion, PTEN inhibition causes a negative inotropic and chronotropic effect while inducing cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.09.069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2997895PMC
January 2011

Mitochondrial autophagy is an HIF-1-dependent adaptive metabolic response to hypoxia.

J Biol Chem 2008 Apr 15;283(16):10892-903. Epub 2008 Feb 15.

Vascular Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Autophagy is a process by which cytoplasmic organelles can be catabolized either to remove defective structures or as a means of providing macromolecules for energy generation under conditions of nutrient starvation. In this study we demonstrate that mitochondrial autophagy is induced by hypoxia, that this process requires the hypoxia-dependent factor-1-dependent expression of BNIP3 and the constitutive expression of Beclin-1 and Atg5, and that in cells subjected to prolonged hypoxia, mitochondrial autophagy is an adaptive metabolic response which is necessary to prevent increased levels of reactive oxygen species and cell death.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M800102200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2447655PMC
April 2008

Effects of aging and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activity on angiogenic cell mobilization and recovery of perfusion after limb ischemia.

Circ Res 2007 Dec 11;101(12):1310-8. Epub 2007 Oct 11.

Vascular Biology Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Ischemia is a stimulus for production of angiogenic cytokines that activate local vascular cells and mobilize angiogenic cells to the circulation. These responses are impaired in elderly patients with peripheral arterial disease. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 mediates adaptive responses to ischemia, including production of angiogenic cytokines. In this study, we demonstrate that aging and HIF-1 loss-of-function impair the expression of multiple angiogenic cytokines, mobilization of angiogenic cells, maintenance of tissue viability, and recovery of limb perfusion following femoral artery ligation. We show that HIF-1 directly activates transcription of the gene encoding stem cell factor and that mice lacking the cognate receptor C-KIT have impaired recovery from ischemia. Administration of AdCA5, an adenovirus encoding a constitutively active form of HIF-1alpha, improved the recovery of perfusion in older mice to levels similar to those in young mice. Injection of AdCA5 into nonischemic limb was sufficient to increase the number of circulating angiogenic cells. These results indicate that HIF-1 activity is necessary and sufficient for the mobilization of angiogenic cells and that HIF-1alpha gene therapy can counteract the pathological effects of aging in a mouse model of limb ischemia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.107.153346DOI Listing
December 2007

Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase-1 binds to hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and RACK1 and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1alpha.

J Biol Chem 2007 Nov 17;282(46):33358-33366. Epub 2007 Sep 17.

Vascular Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, the Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, Oncology, and Radiation Oncology, and the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205. Electronic address:

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis that controls the expression of genes encoding proteins that play key roles in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, and glucose/energy metabolism. The stability of the HIF-1alpha subunit is regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In aerobic cells, O(2)-dependent prolyl hydroxylation of HIF-1alpha is required for binding of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein VHL, which then recruits the Elongin C ubiquitin-ligase complex. SSAT2 (spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase-2) binds to HIF-1alpha and promotes its ubiquitination/degradation by stabilizing the interaction of VHL and Elongin C. Treatment of cells with heat shock protein HSP90 inhibitors induces the degradation of HIF-1alpha even under hypoxic conditions. HSP90 competes with RACK1 for binding to HIF-1alpha, and HSP90 inhibition leads to increased binding of RACK1, which recruits the Elongin C ubiquitin-ligase complex to HIF-1alpha in an O(2)-independent manner. In this work, we demonstrate that SSAT1, which shares 46% amino acid identity with SSAT2, also binds to HIF-1alpha and promotes its ubiquitination/degradation. However, in contrast to SSAT2, SSAT1 acts by stabilizing the interaction of HIF-1alpha with RACK1. Thus, the paralogs SSAT1 and SSAT2 play complementary roles in promoting O(2)-independent and O(2)-dependent degradation of HIF-1alpha.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M705627200DOI Listing
November 2007

Spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase 2 is an essential component of the ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha.

J Biol Chem 2007 Aug 8;282(32):23572-80. Epub 2007 Jun 8.

Vascular Biology Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, Department of Pediatrics, and McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. The HIF-1alpha subunit is subjected to O(2)-dependent prolyl hydroxylation leading to ubiquitination by the von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL)-Elongin C ubiquitin-ligase complex and degradation by the 26 S proteasome. In this study, we demonstrate that spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) 2 plays an essential role in this process. SSAT2 binds to HIF-1alpha, VHL, and Elongin C and promotes ubiquitination of hydroxylated HIF-1alpha by stabilizing the interaction of VHL and Elongin C. Multivalent interactions by SSAT2 provide a mechanism to ensure efficient complex formation, which is necessary for the extremely rapid ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1alpha that is observed in oxygenated cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M703504200DOI Listing
August 2007