Publications by authors named "Jacob Lambert"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Anesthetic choice for arteriovenous access creation: A National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry analysis.

J Vasc Access 2021 Sep 21:11297298211045495. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Background: We sought to evaluate differences in primary anesthetic type used in arteriovenous access creation with the hypothesis that administration of regional anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care (MAC) with local anesthesia as the primary anesthetic has increased over time.

Methods: National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry data were retrospectively evaluated. Covariates were selected a priori within multivariate models to determine predictors of anesthetic type in adults who underwent elective arteriovenous access creation between 2010 and 2018.

Results: A total of 144,392 patients met criteria; 90,741 (62.8%) received general anesthesia. The use of regional anesthesia and MAC decreased over time (8.0%-6.8%, 36.8%-27.8%, respectively; both  < 0.0001). Patients who underwent regional anesthesia were more likely to have ASA physical status >III and to reside in rural areas (52.3% and 12.9%, respectively; both  < 0.0001). Patients who underwent MAC were more likely to be older, male, receive care outside the South, and reside in urban areas (median age 65, 56.8%, 68.1%, and 70.8%, respectively; all  < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that being male, having an ASA physical status >III, and each 5-year increase in age resulted in increased odds of receiving alternatives to general anesthesia (regional anesthesia adjusted odds ratios (AORs) 1.06, 1.12, and 1.26, MAC AORs 1.09, 1.2, and 1.1, respectively; all  < 0.0001). Treatment in the Midwest, South, or West was associated with decreased odds of receiving alternatives to general anesthesia compared to the Northeast (regional anesthesia AORs 0.28, 0.38, and 0.03, all  < 0.0001; MAC 0.76, 0.13, and 0.43, respectively; all  < 0.05).

Conclusions: Use of regional anesthesia and MAC with local anesthesia for arteriovenous access creation has decreased over time with general anesthesia remaining the primary anesthetic type. Anesthetic choice, however, varies with patient characteristics and geography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11297298211045495DOI Listing
September 2021

Successful treatment of intravenous drug abuser with refractory vasoplegic syndrome after mitral valve repair for infective endocarditis.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 3;9:2050313X211019788. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anesthesiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Vasoplegic syndrome, a possible complication of cardiopulmonary bypass, is a critical state of unregulated systemic vasodilation with decreased vascular resistance and a pathological insensitivity to conventional inotropes and vasoconstrictors. This case demonstrates the use of methylene blue and hydroxocobalamin as medications in the treatment of refractory vasoplegic syndrome in the context of cardiac surgery due to their differences in mechanism of action. A 24-year-old female with history of intravenous drug abuse and hepatitis C infection underwent mitral valve repair for infective endocarditis. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography showed normal right ventricular function, left ventricular ejection fraction of 65%-75%, and severe mitral regurgitation with vegetation. In order to maintain a mean arterial pressure over 60 mmHg during cardiopulmonary bypass, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and vasopressin infusions were required. Given the patient's minimal response to these medications, a 1.5 mg/kg bolus of intravenous methylene blue was also given intraoperatively; vasoplegic syndrome remained refractory in the post-cardiopulmonary bypass period. A 5 g dose of intravenous hydroxocobalamin was administered in the intensive care unit postoperatively. Postoperative liver function tests were abnormal, and post-cardiopulmonary bypass transesophageal echocardiography revealed mildly decreased right ventricular function. While in the intensive care unit, the patient was placed on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and underwent therapeutic plasma exchange. Vasopressors were weaned over the course of the next 24 h. The patient was able to be transferred out of the intensive care unit on postoperative day 5. Traditional vasoconstrictors activate signal transduction pathways that lead to myosin phosphorylation. Vasodilatory molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) activate the enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), ultimately leading to the dephosphorylation of myosin. Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) can potentially increase NO levels 1000-fold when activated by inflammatory cytokines. Methylene blue is a direct inhibitor of NOS. It also binds and inhibits sGC. Hydroxocobalamin is a direct inhibitor of NO, likely inhibits NOS and may also act through additional mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X211019788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8182181PMC
June 2021

Anti-cancer Evaluation of Depsides Isolated from Indonesian Folious Lichens: , and .

Biomolecules 2020 10 8;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 8.

School of Chemistry & Molecular Bioscience and Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, and Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

Cancer is a serious health burden on global societies. The discovery and development of new anti-cancer therapies remains a challenging objective. Although it has been shown that lichen secondary metabolites may be potent sources for new anti-cancer agents, the Indonesian- grown folious lichens, and have not yet been explored. In this study exhaustive preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to isolate the lichen constituents with spectroscopic and spectrometric protocols identifying nine depsides -, including the new methyl 4-formyl-2,3-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate . The cytotoxicity of the depsides towards cancer cells was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated lowest toxicity of the depsides towards human A549 lung cancer cells. Importantly, the di-depsides (, and ) showed greatest toxicity, indicating that these structures are biologically more active than the mono-depsides against the HepG2 liver cancer, A549 lung cancer and HL-60 leukemia cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10101420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600581PMC
October 2020

Alkaloids from the root of Indonesian L.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Feb 8;35(3):481-489. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

School of Chemistry & Molecular Bioscience and Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, and Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

L. has been used traditionally in Indonesia to treat disease. Phytochemical studies on the alkaloid fractions from the root of L. from Malang-Indonesia resulted in the isolation of an unreported benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (+)-xylopine as well as four known alkaloids (-). The crude methanol extract and alkaloid fractions were tested against K1 and against bacteria (, , , , Methicillin-resistant ) with insignificant activities (MIC > 32 µg/mL). Individual alkaloids were tested against a human suspension cancer cell line (HL-60 leukemia cells) and two human fibroblastic cancer cell lines (A549 lung cancer cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells) in which compound as the most toxic alkaloid with IC values ranging from 20 to 80 µM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1638380DOI Listing
February 2021
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