Publications by authors named "Jack F Shern"

51 Publications

Liquid biopsies in pediatric oncology: opportunities and obstacles.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Liquid biopsies have emerged as a noninvasive alternative to tissue biopsy with potential applications during all stages of pediatric oncology care. The purpose of this review is to provide a survey of pediatric cell-free DNA (cfDNA) studies, illustrate their potential applications in pediatric oncology, and to discuss technological challenges and approaches to overcome these hurdles.

Recent Findings: Recent literature has demonstrated liquid biopsies' ability to inform treatment selection at diagnosis, monitor clonal evolution during treatment, sensitively detect minimum residual disease following local control, and provide sensitive posttherapy surveillance. Advantages include reduced procedural anesthesia, molecular profiling unbiased by tissue heterogeneity, and ability to track clonal evolution. Challenges to wider implementation in pediatric oncology, however, include blood volume restrictions and relatively low mutational burden in childhood cancers. Multiomic approaches address challenges presented by low-mutational burden, and novel bioinformatic analyses allow a single assay to yield increasing amounts of information, reducing blood volume requirements.

Summary: Liquid biopsies hold tremendous promise in pediatric oncology, enabling noninvasive serial surveillance with adaptive care. Already integrated into adult care, recent advances in technologies and bioinformatics have improved applicability to the pediatric cancer landscape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000001088DOI Listing
November 2021

Immuno-transcriptomic profiling of extracranial pediatric solid malignancies.

Cell Rep 2021 Nov;37(8):110047

University of Toronto Musculoskeletal Oncology Unit, Sinai Health System; Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

We perform an immunogenomics analysis utilizing whole-transcriptome sequencing of 657 pediatric extracranial solid cancer samples representing 14 diagnoses, and additionally utilize transcriptomes of 131 pediatric cancer cell lines and 147 normal tissue samples for comparison. We describe patterns of infiltrating immune cells, T cell receptor (TCR) clonal expansion, and translationally relevant immune checkpoints. We find that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and TCR counts vary widely across cancer types and within each diagnosis, and notably are significantly predictive of survival in osteosarcoma patients. We identify potential cancer-specific immunotherapeutic targets for adoptive cell therapies including cell-surface proteins, tumor germline antigens, and lineage-specific transcription factors. Using an orthogonal immunopeptidomics approach, we find several potential immunotherapeutic targets in osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma and validated PRAME as a bona fide multi-pediatric cancer target. Importantly, this work provides a critical framework for immune targeting of extracranial solid tumors using parallel immuno-transcriptomic and -peptidomic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.110047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8642810PMC
November 2021

Genetic Characterization, Current Model Systems and Prognostic Stratification in PAX Fusion-Negative vs. PAX Fusion-Positive Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Sep 25;12(10). Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents and accounts for approximately 2% of soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It is subcategorized into distinct subtypes based on histological features and fusion status (). Despite advances in our understanding of the pathobiological and molecular landscape of RMS, the prognosis of these tumors has not significantly improved in recent years. Developing a better understanding of genetic abnormalities and risk stratification beyond the fusion status are crucial to developing better therapeutic strategies. Herein, we aim to highlight the genetic pathways/abnormalities involved, specifically in fusion-negative RMS, assess the currently available model systems to study RMS pathogenesis, and discuss available prognostic factors as well as their importance for risk stratification to achieve optimal therapeutic management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12101500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535289PMC
September 2021

Cell-free DNA ultra-low-pass whole genome sequencing to distinguish malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) from its benign precursor lesion: A cross-sectional study.

PLoS Med 2021 08 31;18(8):e1003734. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Division of Cancer Biology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Background: The leading cause of mortality for patients with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome is the development of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma. In the setting of NF1, this cancer type frequently arises from within its common and benign precursor, plexiform neurofibroma (PN). Transformation from PN to MPNST is challenging to diagnose due to difficulties in distinguishing cross-sectional imaging results and intralesional heterogeneity resulting in biopsy sampling errors.

Methods And Findings: This multi-institutional study from the National Cancer Institute and Washington University in St. Louis used fragment size analysis and ultra-low-pass whole genome sequencing (ULP-WGS) of plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to distinguish between MPNST and PN in patients with NF1. Following in silico enrichment for short cfDNA fragments and copy number analysis to estimate the fraction of plasma cfDNA originating from tumor (tumor fraction), we developed a noninvasive classifier that differentiates MPNST from PN with 86% pretreatment accuracy (91% specificity, 75% sensitivity) and 89% accuracy on serial analysis (91% specificity, 83% sensitivity). Healthy controls without NF1 (participants = 16, plasma samples = 16), PN (participants = 23, plasma samples = 23), and MPNST (participants = 14, plasma samples = 46) cohorts showed significant differences in tumor fraction in plasma (P = 0.001) as well as cfDNA fragment length (P < 0.001) with MPNST samples harboring shorter fragments and being enriched for tumor-derived cfDNA relative to PN and healthy controls. No other covariates were significant on multivariate logistic regression. Mutational analysis demonstrated focal NF1 copy number loss in PN and MPNST patient plasma but not in healthy controls. Greater genomic instability including alterations associated with malignant transformation (focal copy number gains in chromosome arms 1q, 7p, 8q, 9q, and 17q; focal copy number losses in SUZ12, SMARCA2, CDKN2A/B, and chromosome arms 6p and 9p) was more prominently observed in MPNST plasma. Furthermore, the sum of longest tumor diameters (SLD) visualized by cross-sectional imaging correlated significantly with paired tumor fractions in plasma from MPNST patients (r = 0.39, P = 0.024). On serial analysis, tumor fraction levels in plasma dynamically correlated with treatment response to therapy and minimal residual disease (MRD) detection before relapse. Study limitations include a modest MPNST sample size despite accrual from 2 major referral centers for this rare malignancy, and lack of uniform treatment and imaging protocols representing a real-world cohort.

Conclusions: Tumor fraction levels derived from cfDNA fragment size and copy number alteration analysis of plasma cfDNA using ULP-WGS significantly correlated with MPNST tumor burden, accurately distinguished MPNST from its benign PN precursor, and dynamically correlated with treatment response. In the future, our findings could form the basis for improved early cancer detection and monitoring in high-risk cancer-predisposed populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407545PMC
August 2021

Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 expression promotes tumorigenesis in rhabdomyosarcoma with 12q13-q14 amplification.

J Clin Invest 2021 08;131(15)

Laboratory of Pathology.

The 12q13-q14 chromosomal region is recurrently amplified in 25% of fusion-positive (FP) rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cases and is associated with a poor prognosis. To identify amplified oncogenes in FP RMS, we compared the size, gene composition, and expression of 12q13-q14 amplicons in FP RMS with those of other cancer categories (glioblastoma multiforme, lung adenocarcinoma, and liposarcoma) in which 12q13-q14 amplification frequently occurs. We uncovered a 0.2 Mb region that is commonly amplified across these cancers and includes CDK4 and 6 other genes that are overexpressed in amplicon-positive samples. Additionally, we identified a 0.5 Mb segment that is only recurrently amplified in FP RMS and includes 4 genes that are overexpressed in amplicon-positive RMS. Among these genes, only serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2) was overexpressed at the protein level in an amplicon-positive RMS cell line. SHMT2 knockdown in amplicon-positive RMS cells suppressed growth, transformation, and tumorigenesis, whereas overexpression in amplicon-negative RMS cells promoted these phenotypes. High SHMT2 expression reduced sensitivity of FP RMS cells to SHIN1, a direct SHMT2 inhibitor, but sensitized cells to pemetrexed, an inhibitor of the folate cycle. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that SHMT2 contributes to tumorigenesis in FP RMS and that SHMT2 amplification predicts differential response to drugs targeting this metabolic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8321571PMC
August 2021

Genomic Classification and Clinical Outcome in Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From an International Consortium.

J Clin Oncol 2021 09 24;39(26):2859-2871. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Purpose: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood. Despite aggressive therapy, the 5-year survival rate for patients with metastatic or recurrent disease remains poor, and beyond fusion status, no genomic markers are available for risk stratification. We present an international consortium study designed to determine the incidence of driver mutations and their association with clinical outcome.

Patients And Methods: Tumor samples collected from patients enrolled on Children's Oncology Group trials (1998-2017) and UK patients enrolled on malignant mesenchymal tumor and RMS2005 (1995-2016) trials were subjected to custom-capture sequencing. Mutations, indels, gene deletions, and amplifications were identified, and survival analysis was performed.

Results: DNA from 641 patients was suitable for analyses. A median of one mutation was found per tumor. In fusion-negative cases, mutation of any RAS pathway member was found in > 50% of cases, and 21% had no putative driver mutation identified. (15%), (15%), and (13%) mutations were found at a higher incidence than previously reported and mutations were associated with worse outcomes in both fusion-negative and fusion-positive cases. Interestingly, mutations in isoforms predominated in infants < 1 year (64% of cases). Mutation of was associated with histologic patterns beyond those previously described, older age, head and neck primary site, and a dismal survival. Finally, we provide a searchable companion database (ClinOmics), containing all genomic variants, and clinical annotation including survival data.

Conclusion: This is the largest genomic characterization of clinically annotated rhabdomyosarcoma tumors to date and provides prognostic genetic features that refine risk stratification and will be incorporated into prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425837PMC
September 2021

Stem-like cells drive NF1-associated MPNST functional heterogeneity and tumor progression.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 08 18;28(8):1397-1410.e4. Epub 2021 May 18.

Brain Tumor Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA; Cancer Biology & Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are the major cause of mortality in neurofibromatosis. MPNSTs arise from benign peripheral nerve plexiform neurofibromas that originate in the embryonic neural crest cell lineage. Using reporter transgenes that label early neural crest lineage cells in multiple NF1 MPNST mouse models, we discover and characterize a rare MPNST cell population with stem-cell-like properties, including quiescence, that is essential for tumor initiation and relapse. Following isolation of these cells, we derive a cancer-stem-cell-specific gene expression signature that includes consensus embryonic neural crest genes and identify Nestin as a marker for the MPNST cell of origin. Combined targeting of cancer stem cells along with antimitotic chemotherapy yields effective tumor inhibition and prolongs survival. Enrichment of the cancer stem cell signature in cognate human tumors supports the generality and relevance of cancer stem cells to MPNST therapy development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2021.04.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349880PMC
August 2021

Prioritization of Novel Agents for Patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) New Agents for Rhabdomyosarcoma Task Force.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 1;10(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Pediatrics and Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma diagnosed in children and adolescents. Patients that are diagnosed with advanced or relapsed disease have exceptionally poor outcomes. The Children's Oncology Group (COG) convened a rhabdomyosarcoma new agent task force in 2020 to systematically evaluate novel agents for inclusion in phase 2 or phase 3 clinical trials for patients diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma, following a similar effort for Ewing sarcoma. The task force was comprised of clinicians and basic scientists who collectively identified new agents for evaluation and prioritization in clinical trial testing. Here, we report the work of the task force including the framework upon which the decisions were rendered and review the top classes of agents that were discussed. Representative agents include poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in combination with cytotoxic agents, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) inhibitors in combination with type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1) inhibitors, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and novel cytotoxic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037615PMC
April 2021

Defining the Extracellular Matrix of Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:601957. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Pediatric Cancer Biology, Children's Cancer Therapy Development Institute, Beaverton, OR, United States.

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of childhood with a propensity to metastasize. Current treatment for patients with RMS includes conventional systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection; nevertheless, little to no improvement in long term survival has been achieved in decades-underlining the need for target discovery and new therapeutic approaches to targeting tumor cells or the tumor microenvironment. To evaluate cross-species sarcoma extracellular matrix production, we have used murine models which feature knowledge of the myogenic cell-of-origin. With focus on the RMS/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) continuum, we have constructed tissue microarrays of 48 murine and four human sarcomas to analyze expression of seven different collagens, fibrillins, and collagen-modifying proteins, with cross-correlation to RNA deep sequencing. We have uncovered that RMS produces increased expression of type XVIII collagen alpha 1 (COL18A1), which is clinically associated with decreased long-term survival. We have also identified significantly increased RNA expression of COL4A1, FBN2, PLOD1, and PLOD2 in human RMS relative to normal skeletal muscle. These results complement recent studies investigating whether soft tissue sarcomas utilize collagens, fibrillins, and collagen-modifying enzymes to alter the structural integrity of surrounding host extracellular matrix/collagen quaternary structure resulting in improved ability to improve the ability to invade regionally and metastasize, for which therapeutic targeting is possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.601957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942227PMC
February 2021

Chromosome 8 gain is associated with high-grade transformation in MPNST.

JCI Insight 2021 03 22;6(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

One of the most common malignancies affecting adults with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), an aggressive and often fatal sarcoma that commonly arises from benign plexiform neurofibromas. Despite advances in our understanding of MPNST pathobiology, there are few effective therapeutic options, and no investigational agents have proven successful in clinical trials. To further understand the genomic heterogeneity of MPNST, and to generate a preclinical platform that encompasses this heterogeneity, we developed a collection of NF1-MPNST patient-derived xenografts (PDX). These PDX were compared with the primary tumors from which they were derived using copy number analysis, whole exome sequencing, and RNA sequencing. We identified chromosome 8 gain as a recurrent genomic event in MPNST and validated its occurrence by FISH in the PDX and parental tumors, in a validation cohort, and by single-cell sequencing in the PDX. Finally, we show that chromosome 8 gain is associated with inferior overall survival in soft-tissue sarcomas. These data suggest that chromosome 8 gain is a critical event in MPNST pathogenesis and may account for the aggressive nature and poor outcomes in this sarcoma subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.146351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026192PMC
March 2021

The prognostic significance of anaplasia in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Eur J Cancer 2021 01 7;143:127-133. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Established prognostic indicators in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common childhood soft tissue sarcoma, include several clinicopathologic features. Among pathologic features, anaplasia has been suggested as a potential prognostic indicator, but the clinical significance of anaplasia remains unclear.

Methods: Patients enrolled on one of five recent Children's Oncology Group clinical trials for RMS (D9602, n = 357; D9802, n = 80; D9803, n = 462; ARST0331, n = 335; and ARST0531, n = 414) with prospective central pathology review were included in this study. Clinicopathologic variables including demographic information, risk group, histologic subtype, and anaplasia were recorded along with overall survival (OS) and failure-free survival (FFS) with failure defined by recurrence, progression, or death. The log-rank test was used to compare OS and FFS.

Results: Anaplasia was more common in embryonal RMS (27% of all embryonal RMS) than other subtypes of RMS (11% for alveolar RMS, 7% for botryoid RMS, 11% for spindle cell RMS). On multivariate analyses, anaplasia was not an independent prognostic factor in RMS (OS:hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12, p = 0.43; FFS:HR = 1.07, p = 0.56) across all subtypes or within embryonal RMS only (OS:HR = 1.41, p = 0.078; FFS:HR = 1.25, p = 0.16). Among tumors with TP53 mutations, 69% had anaplasia, while only 24% of tumors with anaplasia had a tumoral TP53 mutation.

Conclusions: Anaplasia is not an independent indicator of adverse outcomes in RMS. Emerging information on the prognostic significance of TP53 mutations raises the possibility that anaplasia may be a surrogate marker of TP53 mutations in some cases. Tumoral TP53 mutation status may be investigated as a prognostic indicator in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.10.018DOI Listing
January 2021

Diagnostic approach to the evaluation of myeloid malignancies following CAR T-cell therapy in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 11;8(2)

Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Immunotherapeutic strategies targeting B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) effectively induce remission; however, disease recurrence remains a challenge. Due to the potential for antigen loss, antigen diminution, lineage switch or development of a secondary or treatment-related malignancy, the phenotype and manifestation of subsequent leukemia may be elusive. We report on two patients with multiply relapsed/refractory B-ALL who, following chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, developed myeloid malignancies. In the first case, a myeloid sarcoma developed in a patient with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome. In the second case, two distinct events occurred. The first event represented a donor-derived myelodysplastic syndrome with monosomy 7 in a patient with a prior hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This patient went on to present with lineage switch of her original B-ALL to ambiguous lineage T/myeloid acute leukemia. With the rapidly evolving field of novel immunotherapeutic strategies, evaluation of relapse and/or subsequent neoplasms is becoming increasingly more complex. By virtue of these uniquely complex cases, we provide a framework for the evaluation of relapse or evolution of a subsequent malignancy following antigen-targeted immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703409PMC
November 2020

Perforin-deficient CAR T cells recapitulate late-onset inflammatory toxicities observed in patients.

J Clin Invest 2020 10;130(10):5425-5443

Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH.

Late-onset inflammatory toxicities resembling hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) occur after chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T cell) infusion and represent a therapeutic challenge. Given the established link between perforin deficiency and primary HLH, we investigated the role of perforin in anti-CD19 CAR T cell efficacy and HLH-like toxicities in a syngeneic murine model. Perforin contributed to both CD8+ and CD4+ CAR T cell cytotoxicity but was not required for in vitro or in vivo leukemia clearance. Upon CAR-mediated in vitro activation, perforin-deficient CAR T cells produced higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokines compared with WT CAR T cells. Following in vivo clearance of leukemia, perforin-deficient CAR T cells reexpanded, resulting in splenomegaly with disruption of normal splenic architecture and the presence of hemophagocytes, which are findings reminiscent of HLH. Notably, a substantial fraction of patients who received anti-CD22 CAR T cells also experienced biphasic inflammation, with the second phase occurring after the resolution of cytokine release syndrome, resembling clinical manifestations of HLH. Elevated inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18 and concurrent late CAR T cell expansion characterized the HLH-like syndromes occurring in the murine model and in humans. Thus, a murine model of perforin-deficient CAR T cells recapitulated late-onset inflammatory toxicities occurring in human CAR T cell recipients, providing therapeutically relevant mechanistic insights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI130059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524496PMC
October 2020

Transcriptome analysis of desmoplastic small round cell tumors identifies actionable therapeutic targets: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Sci Rep 2020 07 23;10(1):12318. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Translational Genomics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

To further understand the molecular pathogenesis of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), a fatal malignancy occurring primarily in adolescent/young adult males, we used next-generation RNA sequencing to investigate the gene expression profiles intrinsic to this disease. RNA from DSRCT specimens obtained from the Children's Oncology Group was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system and subjected to bioinformatic analyses. Validation and functional studies included WT1 ChIP-seq, EWS-WT1 knockdown using JN-DSRCT-1 cells and immunohistochemistry. A panel of immune signature genes was also evaluated to identify possible immune therapeutic targets. Twelve of 14 tumor samples demonstrated presence of the diagnostic EWSR1-WT1 translocation and these 12 samples were used for the remainder of the analysis. RNA sequencing confirmed the lack of full-length WT1 in all fusion positive samples as well as the JN-DSRCT-1 cell line. ChIP-seq for WT1 showed significant overlap with genes found to be highly expressed, including IGF2 and FGFR4, which were both highly expressed and targets of the EWS-WT1 fusion protein. In addition, we identified CD200 and CD276 as potentially targetable immune checkpoints whose expression is independent of the EWS-WT1 fusion gene in cultured DSCRT cells. In conclusion, we identified IGF2, FGFR4, CD200, and CD276 as potential therapeutic targets with clinical relevance for patients with DSRCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69015-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378211PMC
July 2020

The Role of Polycomb Repressive Complex in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

Genes (Basel) 2020 03 9;11(3). Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Pediatric Oncology Branch, Tumor Evolution and Genomics Section, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft tissue sarcomas that can arise most frequently in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Despite an increasing understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie these tumors, there remains limited therapeutic options for this aggressive disease. One potentially critical finding is that a significant proportion of MPNSTs exhibit recurrent mutations in the genes or which are key components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Tumors harboring these genetic lesions lose the marker of transcriptional repression, trimethylation of lysine residue 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) and have dysregulated oncogenic signaling. Given the recurrence of PRC2 alterations, intensive research efforts are now underway with a focus on detailing the epigenetic and transcriptomic consequences of PRC2 loss as well as development of novel therapeutic strategies for targeting these lesions. In this review article, we will summarize the recent findings of PRC2 in MPNST tumorigenesis, including highlighting the functions of PRC2 in normal Schwann cell development and nerve injury repair, as well as provide commentary on the potential therapeutic vulnerabilities of a PRC2 deficient tumor cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11030287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140867PMC
March 2020

Serial evaluation of CD19 surface expression in pediatric B-cell malignancies following CD19-targeted therapy.

Leukemia 2020 11 26;34(11):3064-3069. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0760-xDOI Listing
November 2020

CASZ1 induces skeletal muscle and rhabdomyosarcoma differentiation through a feed-forward loop with MYOD and MYOG.

Nat Commun 2020 02 14;11(1):911. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) is a childhood cancer that expresses myogenic master regulatory factor MYOD but fails to differentiate. Here, we show that the zinc finger transcription factor CASZ1 up-regulates MYOD signature genes and induces skeletal muscle differentiation in normal myoblasts and ERMS. The oncogenic activation of the RAS-MEK pathway suppresses CASZ1 expression in ERMS. ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq and RNA-seq experiments reveal that CASZ1 directly up-regulates skeletal muscle genes and represses non-muscle genes through affecting regional epigenetic modifications, chromatin accessibility and super-enhancer establishment. Next generation sequencing of primary RMS tumors identified a single nucleotide variant in the CASZ1 coding region that potentially contributes to ERMS tumorigenesis. Taken together, loss of CASZ1 activity, due to RAS-MEK signaling or genetic alteration, impairs ERMS differentiation, contributing to RMS tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14684-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7021771PMC
February 2020

Histone hyperacetylation disrupts core gene regulatory architecture in rhabdomyosarcoma.

Nat Genet 2019 12 29;51(12):1714-1722. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Genetics Branch, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Core regulatory transcription factors (CR TFs) orchestrate the placement of super-enhancers (SEs) to activate transcription of cell-identity specifying gene networks, and are critical in promoting cancer. Here, we define the core regulatory circuitry of rhabdomyosarcoma and identify critical CR TF dependencies. These CR TFs build SEs that have the highest levels of histone acetylation, yet paradoxically the same SEs also harbor the greatest amounts of histone deacetylases. We find that hyperacetylation selectively halts CR TF transcription. To investigate the architectural determinants of this phenotype, we used absolute quantification of architecture (AQuA) HiChIP, which revealed erosion of native SE contacts, and aberrant spreading of contacts that involved histone acetylation. Hyperacetylation removes RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) from core regulatory genetic elements, and eliminates RNA Pol II but not BRD4 phase condensates. This study identifies an SE-specific requirement for balancing histone modification states to maintain SE architecture and CR TF transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0534-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6886578PMC
December 2019

Targeting Glycolysis through Inhibition of Lactate Dehydrogenase Impairs Tumor Growth in Preclinical Models of Ewing Sarcoma.

Cancer Res 2019 10 20;79(19):5060-5073. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Altered cellular metabolism, including an increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis, is a hallmark of cancer. Despite the fact that this observation was first made nearly a century ago, effective therapeutic targeting of glycolysis in cancer has remained elusive. One potentially promising approach involves targeting the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is overexpressed and plays a critical role in several cancers. Here, we used a novel class of LDH inhibitors to demonstrate, for the first time, that Ewing sarcoma cells are exquisitely sensitive to inhibition of LDH. EWS-FLI1, the oncogenic driver of Ewing sarcoma, regulated LDH A (LDHA) expression. Genetic depletion of LDHA inhibited proliferation of Ewing sarcoma cells and induced apoptosis, phenocopying pharmacologic inhibition of LDH. LDH inhibitors affected Ewing sarcoma cell viability both and by reducing glycolysis. Intravenous administration of LDH inhibitors resulted in the greatest intratumoral drug accumulation, inducing tumor cell death and reducing tumor growth. The major dose-limiting toxicity observed was hemolysis, indicating that a narrow therapeutic window exists for these compounds. Taken together, these data suggest that targeting glycolysis through inhibition of LDH should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic approach for cancers such as Ewing sarcoma that exhibit oncogene-dependent expression of LDH and increased glycolysis. SIGNIFICANCE: LDHA is a pharmacologically tractable EWS-FLI1 transcriptional target that regulates the glycolytic dependence of Ewing sarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6774872PMC
October 2019

Chemical genomics reveals histone deacetylases are required for core regulatory transcription.

Nat Commun 2019 07 8;10(1):3004. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Genetics Branch, NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Identity determining transcription factors (TFs), or core regulatory (CR) TFs, are governed by cell-type specific super enhancers (SEs). Drugs to selectively inhibit CR circuitry are of high interest for cancer treatment. In alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, PAX3-FOXO1 activates SEs to induce the expression of other CR TFs, providing a model system for studying cancer cell addiction to CR transcription. Using chemical genetics, the systematic screening of chemical matter for a biological outcome, here we report on a screen for epigenetic chemical probes able to distinguish between SE-driven transcription and constitutive transcription. We find that chemical probes along the acetylation-axis, and not the methylation-axis, selectively disrupt CR transcription. Additionally, we find that histone deacetylases (HDACs) are essential for CR TF transcription. We further dissect the contribution of HDAC isoforms using selective inhibitors, including the newly developed selective HDAC3 inhibitor LW3. We show HDAC1/2/3 are the co-essential isoforms that when co-inhibited halt CR transcription, making CR TF sites hyper-accessible and disrupting chromatin looping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11046-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6614369PMC
July 2019

Insights into pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma research: Challenges and goals.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 10 21;66(10):e27869. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Overall survival rates for pediatric patients with high-risk or relapsed rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have not improved significantly since the 1980s. Recent studies have identified a number of targetable vulnerabilities in RMS, but these discoveries have infrequently translated into clinical trials. We propose streamlining the process by which agents are selected for clinical evaluation in RMS. We believe that strong consideration should be given to the development of combination therapies that add biologically targeted agents to conventional cytotoxic drugs. One example of this type of combination is the addition of the WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 to the conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, vincristine and irinotecan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707829PMC
October 2019

Modulation of Target Antigen Density Improves CAR T-cell Functionality and Persistence.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 Sep 20;25(17):5329-5341. Epub 2019 May 20.

Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute/Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Purpose: Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) therapy targeting CD22 induces remission in 70% of patients with relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, the majority of post-CD22 CART remissions are short and associated with reduction in CD22 expression. We evaluate the implications of low antigen density on the activity of CD22 CART and propose mechanisms to overcome antigen escape.

Experimental Design: Using ALL cell lines with variable CD22 expression, we evaluate the cytokine profile, cytotoxicity, and CART functionality in the setting of low CD22 expression. We develop a high-affinity CD22 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) as an approach to improve CAR sensitivity. We also assess Bryostatin1, a therapeutically relevant agent, to upregulate CD22 and improve CAR functionality.

Results: We demonstrate that low CD22 expression negatively impacts and CD22 CART functionality and impairs CART persistence. Moreover, low antigen expression on leukemic cells increases naïve phenotype of persisting CART. Increasing CAR affinity does not improve response to low-antigen leukemia. Bryostatin1 upregulates CD22 on leukemia and lymphoma cell lines for 1 week following single-dose exposure, and improves CART functionality and persistence. While Bryostatin1 attenuates IFNγ production by CART, overall and CART cytotoxicity is not adversely affected. Finally, administration of Bryostain1 with CD22 CAR results in longer duration of response.

Conclusions: We demonstrate that target antigen modulation is a promising strategy to improve CD22 CAR efficacy and remission durability in patients with leukemia and lymphoma..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290499PMC
September 2019

Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A) in Ewing Sarcoma: Role in Tumor Growth and Immune Evasion.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2019 09;111(9):970-982

Background: Ewing sarcoma (EWS) manifests one of the lowest somatic mutation rates of any cancer, leading to a scarcity of druggable mutations and neoantigens. Immunotherapeutics targeting differentially expressed cell surface antigens could provide therapeutic benefit for such tumors. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is a cell membrane-associated proteinase produced by the placenta that promotes fetal growth by inducing insulinlike growth factor (IGF) signaling.

Methods: By comparing RNA expression of cell surface proteins in EWS (n = 120) versus normal tissues (n = 42), we comprehensively characterized the surfaceome of EWS to identify highly differentially expressed molecules. Using CRISPR/Cas-9 and anti-PAPP-A antibodies, we investigated biological roles for PAPP-A in EWS in vitro and in vivo in NSG xenograft models and performed RNA-sequencing on PAPPA knockout clones (n = 5) and controls (n = 3). All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: EWS surfaceome analysis identified 11 highly differentially overexpressed genes, with PAPPA ranking second in differential expression. In EWS cell lines, genetic knockout of PAPPA and treatment with anti-PAPP-A antibodies revealed an essential survival role by regulating local IGF-1 bioavailability. MAb-mediated PAPPA inhibition diminished EWS growth in orthotopic xenografts (leg area mm2 at day 49 IgG2a control (CTRL) [n = 14], mean = 397.0, SD = 86.1 vs anti-PAPP-A [n = 14], mean = 311.7, SD = 155.0; P = .03; median OS anti-PAPP-A = 52.5 days, 95% CI = 46.0 to 63.0 days vs IgG2a = 45.0 days, 95% CI = 42.0 to 52.0 days; P = .02) and improved the efficacy of anti-IGF-1R treatment (leg area mm2 at day 49 anti-PAPP-A + anti-IGF-1R [n = 15], mean = 217.9, SD = 148.5 vs IgG2a-CTRL; P < .001; median OS anti-PAPP-A + anti-IGF1R = 63.0 days, 95% CI = 52.0 to 67.0 days vs IgG2a-CTRL; P < .001). Unexpectedly, PAPPA knockout in EWS cell lines induced interferon (IFN)-response genes, including proteins associated with antigen processing/presentation. Consistently, gene expression profiles in PAPPA-low EWS tumors were enriched for immune response pathways.

Conclusion: This work provides a comprehensive characterization of the surfaceome of EWS, credentials PAPP-A as a highly differentially expressed therapeutic target, and discovers a novel link between IGF-1 signaling and immune evasion in cancer, thus implicating shared mechanisms of immune evasion between EWS and the placenta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6748813PMC
September 2019

Preclinical Development of Bivalent Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Both CD19 and CD22.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2018 Dec 6;11:127-137. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Despite high remission rates following CAR-T cell therapy in B-ALL, relapse due to loss of the targeted antigen is increasingly recognized as a mechanism of immune escape. We hypothesized that simultaneous targeting of CD19 and CD22 may reduce the likelihood of antigen loss, thus improving sustained remission rates. A systematic approach to the generation of CAR constructs incorporating two target-binding domains led to several novel CD19/CD22 bivalent CAR constructs. Importantly, we demonstrate the challenges associated with the construction of a bivalent CAR format that preserves bifunctionality against both CD19 and CD22. Using the most active bivalent CAR constructs, we found similar transduction efficiency compared to that of either CD19 or CD22 single CARs alone. When expressed on human T cells, the optimized CD19/CD22 CAR construct induced comparable interferon γ and interleukin-2 compared to single CARs against dual-antigen-expressing as well as single-antigen-expressing cell lines. Finally, the T cells expressing CD19/CD22 CAR eradicated ALL cell line xenografts and patient-derived xenografts (PDX), including a PDX generated from a patient with CD19 relapse following CD19-directed CAR therapy. The CD19/CD22 bivalent CAR provides an opportunity to test whether simultaneous targeting may reduce risk of antigen loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2018.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300726PMC
December 2018

Relationship of DNA methylation to mutational changes and transcriptional organization in fusion-positive and fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma.

Int J Cancer 2019 06 15;144(11):2707-2717. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.

Our previous study of DNA methylation in the pediatric soft tissue tumor rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) demonstrated that fusion-positive (FP) and fusion-negative (FN) RMS tumors exhibit distinct DNA methylation patterns. To further examine the significance of DNA methylation differences in RMS, we investigated genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in discovery and validation cohorts. Unsupervised analysis of DNA methylation data identified novel distinct subsets associated with the specific fusion subtype in FP RMS and with RAS mutation status in FN RMS. Furthermore, the methylation pattern in normal muscle is most similar to the FN subset with wild-type RAS mutation status. Several biologically relevant genes were identified with methylation and expression differences between the two fusion subtypes of FP RMS or between the RAS wild-type and mutant subsets of FN RMS. Genomic localization studies showed that promoter and intergenic regions were hypomethylated and the 3' untranslated regions were hypermethylated in FP compared to FN tumors. There was also a significant difference in the distribution of PAX3-FOXO1 binding sites between genes with and without differential methylation. Moreover, genes with PAX3-FOXO1 binding sites and promoter hypomethylation exhibited the highest frequency of overexpression in FP tumors. Finally, a comparison of RMS model systems revealed that patient-derived xenografts most closely recapitulate the DNA methylation patterns found in human RMS tumors compared to cell lines and cell line-derived xenografts. In conclusion, these findings highlight the interaction of epigenetic changes with mutational alterations and transcriptional organization in RMS tumors, and contribute to improved molecular categorization of these tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415348PMC
June 2019

MEK inhibition induces MYOG and remodels super-enhancers in RAS-driven rhabdomyosarcoma.

Sci Transl Med 2018 07;10(448)

Oncogenomics Section, Genetics Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The RAS isoforms are frequently mutated in many types of human cancers, including PAX3/PAX7 fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatric RMS arises from skeletal muscle progenitor cells that have failed to differentiate normally. The role of mutant RAS in this differentiation blockade is incompletely understood. We demonstrate that oncogenic RAS, acting through the RAF-MEK [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase]-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) MAPK effector pathway, inhibits myogenic differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma by repressing the expression of the prodifferentiation myogenic transcription factor, MYOG. This repression is mediated by ERK2-dependent promoter-proximal stalling of RNA polymerase II at the locus. Small-molecule screening with a library of mechanistically defined inhibitors showed that RAS-driven RMS is vulnerable to MEK inhibition. MEK inhibition with trametinib leads to the loss of ERK2 at the promoter and releases the transcriptional stalling of expression. MYOG subsequently opens chromatin and establishes super-enhancers at genes required for late myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, trametinib, in combination with an inhibitor of IGF1R, potently decreases rhabdomyosarcoma cell viability and slows tumor growth in xenograft models. Therefore, this combination represents a potential therapeutic for RAS-mutated rhabdomyosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aan4470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054766PMC
July 2018

Integrative Bayesian Analysis Identifies Rhabdomyosarcoma Disease Genes.

Cell Rep 2018 07;24(1):238-251

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Harold C. Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Gill Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Children's Health, Children's Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:

Identifying oncogenic drivers and tumor suppressors remains a challenge in many forms of cancer, including rhabdomyosarcoma. Anticipating gene expression alterations resulting from DNA copy-number variants to be particularly important, we developed a computational and experimental strategy incorporating a Bayesian algorithm and CRISPR/Cas9 "mini-pool" screen that enables both genome-scale assessment of disease genes and functional validation. The algorithm, called iExCN, identified 29 rhabdomyosarcoma drivers and suppressors enriched for cell-cycle and nucleic-acid-binding activities. Functional studies showed that many iExCN genes represent rhabdomyosarcoma line-specific or shared vulnerabilities. Complementary experiments addressed modes of action and demonstrated coordinated repression of multiple iExCN genes during skeletal muscle differentiation. Analysis of two separate cohorts revealed that the number of iExCN genes harboring copy-number alterations correlates with survival. Our findings highlight rhabdomyosarcoma as a cancer in which multiple drivers influence disease biology and demonstrate a generalizable capacity for iExCN to unmask disease genes in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293769PMC
July 2018

The SS18-SSX Fusion Oncoprotein Hijacks BAF Complex Targeting and Function to Drive Synovial Sarcoma.

Cancer Cell 2018 06 31;33(6):1128-1141.e7. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Epigenomics Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Synovial sarcoma (SS) is defined by the hallmark SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein, which renders BAF complexes aberrant in two manners: gain of SSX to the SS18 subunit and concomitant loss of BAF47 subunit assembly. Here we demonstrate that SS18-SSX globally hijacks BAF complexes on chromatin to activate an SS transcriptional signature that we define using primary tumors and cell lines. Specifically, SS18-SSX retargets BAF complexes from enhancers to broad polycomb domains to oppose PRC2-mediated repression and activate bivalent genes. Upon suppression of SS18-SSX, reassembly of BAF47 restores enhancer activation, but is not required for proliferative arrest. These results establish a global hijacking mechanism for SS18-SSX on chromatin, and define the distinct contributions of two concurrent BAF complex perturbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2018.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791822PMC
June 2018

Functional screening of FGFR4-driven tumorigenesis identifies PI3K/mTOR inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in rhabdomyosarcoma.

Oncogene 2018 05 28;37(20):2630-2644. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma and outcomes have stagnated, highlighting a need for novel therapies. Genomic analysis of RMS has revealed that alterations in the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/RAS/PI3K axis are common and that FGFR4 is frequently mutated or overexpressed. Although FGFR4 is a potentially druggable receptor tyrosine kinase, its functions in RMS are undefined. This study tested FGFR4-activating mutations and overexpression for the ability to generate RMS in mice. Murine tumor models were subsequently used to discover potential therapeutic targets and to test a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor in a preclinical setting. Specifically, we provide the first mechanistic evidence of differential potency in the most common human RMS mutations, V550E or N535K, compared to FGFR4 overexpression as murine myoblasts expressing FGFR4 undergo higher rates of cellular transformation, engraftment into mice, and rapidly form sarcomas that highly resemble human RMS. Murine tumor cells overexpressing FGFR4 were tested in an in vitro dose-response drug screen along with human RMS cell lines. Compounds were grouped by target class, and potency was determined using average percentage of area under the dose-response curve (AUC). RMS cells were highly sensitive to PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, in particular, GSK2126458 (omipalisib) was a potent inhibitor of FGFR4 tumor-derived cell and human RMS cell viability. FGFR4-overexpressing myoblasts and tumor cells had low nanomolar GSK2126458 EC values. Mass cytometry using mouse and human RMS cell lines validated GSK2126458 specificity at single-cell resolution, decreasing the abundance of phosphorylated Akt as well as decreasing phosphorylation of the downstream mTOR effectors 4ebp1, Eif4e, and S6. Moreover, PI3K/mTOR inhibition also robustly decreased the growth of RMS tumors in vivo. Thus, by developing a preclinical platform for testing novel therapies, we identified PI3K/mTOR inhibition as a promising new therapy for this devastating pediatric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-017-0122-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054765PMC
May 2018
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