Publications by authors named "Jack A Taylor"

151 Publications

Risk of Late-Onset Breast Cancer in Genetically Predisposed Women.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 22:JCO2100531. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Purpose: The prevalence of germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in established breast cancer predisposition genes in women in the general population over age 65 years is not well-defined. However, testing guidelines suggest that women diagnosed with breast cancer over age 65 years might have < 2.5% likelihood of a PV in a high-penetrance gene. This study aimed to establish the frequency of PVs and remaining risks of breast cancer for each gene in women over age 65 years.

Methods: A total of 26,707 women over age 65 years from population-based studies (51.5% with breast cancer and 48.5% unaffected) were tested for PVs in germline predisposition gene. Frequencies of PVs and associations between PVs in each gene and breast cancer were assessed, and remaining lifetime breast cancer risks were estimated for non-Hispanic White women with PVs.

Results: The frequency of PVs in predisposition genes was 3.18% for women with breast cancer and 1.48% for unaffected women over age 65 years. PVs in , , and were found in 3.42% of women diagnosed with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, 1.0% with ER-positive, and 3.01% with triple-negative breast cancer. Frequencies of PVs were lower among women with no first-degree relatives with breast cancer. PVs in , , , and were associated with increased risks (odds ratio = 2.9-4.0) of breast cancer. Remaining lifetime risks of breast cancer were ≥ 15% for those with PVs in , , and .

Conclusion: This study suggests that all women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer or ER-negative breast cancer should receive genetic testing and that women over age 65 years with and PVs and perhaps with and PVs should be considered for magnetic resonance imaging screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00531DOI Listing
July 2021

Cross-ancestry GWAS meta-analysis identifies six breast cancer loci in African and European ancestry women.

Nat Commun 2021 07 7;12(1):4198. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Our study describes breast cancer risk loci using a cross-ancestry GWAS approach. We first identify variants that are associated with breast cancer at P < 0.05 from African ancestry GWAS meta-analysis (9241 cases and 10193 controls), then meta-analyze with European ancestry GWAS data (122977 cases and 105974 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The approach identifies four loci for overall breast cancer risk [1p13.3, 5q31.1, 15q24 (two independent signals), and 15q26.3] and two loci for estrogen receptor-negative disease (1q41 and 7q11.23) at genome-wide significance. Four of the index single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lie within introns of genes (KCNK2, C5orf56, SCAMP2, and SIN3A) and the other index SNPs are located close to GSTM4, AMPD2, CASTOR2, and RP11-168G16.2. Here we present risk loci with consistent direction of associations in African and European descendants. The study suggests that replication across multiple ancestry populations can help improve the understanding of breast cancer genetics and identify causal variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24327-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Genome-wide association studies identify 137 genetic loci for DNA methylation biomarkers of aging.

Genome Biol 2021 Jun 29;22(1):194. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Biological aging estimators derived from DNA methylation data are heritable and correlate with morbidity and mortality. Consequently, identification of genetic and environmental contributors to the variation in these measures in populations has become a major goal in the field.

Results: Leveraging DNA methylation and SNP data from more than 40,000 individuals, we identify 137 genome-wide significant loci, of which 113 are novel, from genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses of four epigenetic clocks and epigenetic surrogate markers for granulocyte proportions and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 levels, respectively. We find evidence for shared genetic loci associated with the Horvath clock and expression of transcripts encoding genes linked to lipid metabolism and immune function. Notably, these loci are independent of those reported to regulate DNA methylation levels at constituent clock CpGs. A polygenic score for GrimAge acceleration showed strong associations with adiposity-related traits, educational attainment, parental longevity, and C-reactive protein levels.

Conclusion: This study illuminates the genetic architecture underlying epigenetic aging and its shared genetic contributions with lifestyle factors and longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02398-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243879PMC
June 2021

Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 18;108(7):1190-1203. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.05.013DOI Listing
July 2021

Performance of African-ancestry-specific polygenic hazard score varies according to local ancestry in 8q24.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: We previously developed an African-ancestry-specific polygenic hazard score (PHS46+African) that substantially improved prostate cancer risk stratification in men with African ancestry. The model consists of 46 SNPs identified in Europeans and 3 SNPs from 8q24 shown to improve model performance in Africans. Herein, we used principal component (PC) analysis to uncover subpopulations of men with African ancestry for whom the utility of PHS46+African may differ.

Materials And Methods: Genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Genetic variation in a window spanning 3 African-specific 8q24 SNPs was estimated using 93 PCs. A Cox proportional hazards framework was used to identify the pair of PCs most strongly associated with the performance of PHS46+African. A calibration factor (CF) was formulated using Cox coefficients to quantify the extent to which the performance of PHS46+African varies with PC.

Results: CF of PHS46+African was strongly associated with the first and twentieth PCs. Predicted CF ranged from 0.41 to 2.94, suggesting that PHS46+African may be up to 7 times more beneficial to some African men than others. The explained relative risk for PHS46+African varied from 3.6% to 9.9% for individuals with low and high CF values, respectively. By cross-referencing our data set with 1000 Genomes, we identified significant associations between continental and calibration groupings.

Conclusion: We identified PCs within 8q24 that were strongly associated with the performance of PHS46+African. Further research to improve the clinical utility of polygenic risk scores (or models) is needed to improve health outcomes for men of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00403-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Risk of Breast Cancer Among Carriers of Pathogenic Variants in Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes Varies by Polygenic Risk Score.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 8:JCO2001992. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Population Health Sciences Department, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

Purpose: This study assessed the joint association of pathogenic variants (PVs) in breast cancer (BC) predisposition genes and polygenic risk scores (PRS) with BC in the general population.

Methods: A total of 26,798 non-Hispanic white BC cases and 26,127 controls from predominately population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility consortium were evaluated for PVs in , , , , , , , , and . PRS based on 105 common variants were created using effect estimates from BC genome-wide association studies; the performance of an overall BC PRS and estrogen receptor-specific PRS were evaluated. The odds of BC based on the PVs and PRS were estimated using penalized logistic regression. The results were combined with age-specific incidence rates to estimate 5-year and lifetime absolute risks of BC across percentiles of PRS by PV status and first-degree family history of BC.

Results: The estimated lifetime risks of BC among general-population noncarriers, based on 10th and 90th percentiles of PRS, were 9.1%-23.9% and 6.7%-18.2% for women with or without first-degree relatives with BC, respectively. Taking PRS into account, more than 95% of , , and carriers had > 20% lifetime risks of BC, whereas, respectively, 52.5% and 69.7% of and carriers without first-degree relatives with BC, and 78.8% and 89.9% of those with a first-degree relative with BC had > 20% risk.

Conclusion: PRS facilitates personalization of BC risk among carriers of PVs in predisposition genes. Incorporating PRS into BC risk estimation may help identify > 30% of and nearly half of carriers below the 20% lifetime risk threshold, suggesting the addition of PRS may prevent overscreening and enable more personalized risk management approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01992DOI Listing
June 2021

Alcohol consumption and methylation-based measures of biological age.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC.

Epigenetic age acceleration is considered a measure of biological aging based on genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation. Although age acceleration has been associated with incidence of diseases and death, less is known about how it is related to lifestyle behaviors. Among 2,316 women, we evaluate associations between self-reported alcohol consumption and various metrics of epigenetic age acceleration. Recent average alcohol consumption was defined as the mean number of drinks consumed per week within the past year; lifetime average consumption was estimated as the mean number of drinks per year drinking. Whole blood genome-wide DNA methylation was measured with HumanMethylation450 BeadChips and used to assess four epigenetic clocks (Hannum, Horvath, PhenoAge, GrimAge) and their corresponding metrics of epigenetic age acceleration (Hannum AgeAccel, Horvath AgeAccel, PhenoAgeAccel, GrimAgeAccel). Although alcohol consumption showed little association with most age acceleration metrics, both lifetime and recent average consumption measures were positively associated with GrimAgeAccel (lifetime, per additional 135 drinks/year: β=0.30 years, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.48, p=0.002; recent, per additional 5 drinks/week: β=0.19 years, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.37, p=0.04). In a mutually adjusted model, only average lifetime alcohol consumption remained associated with GrimAgeAccel (lifetime, per additional 135 drinks/year: β=0.27 years, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.50, p=0.02; recent, per 5 additional drinks/week: β=0.05 years, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.26, p=0.64). Although alcohol use does not appear to be strongly associated with biological age measured by most epigenetic clocks, lifetime average consumption is associated with higher biological age assessed by the GrimAge epigenetic clock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab149DOI Listing
May 2021

Wavelet Screening identifies regions highly enriched for differentially methylated loci for orofacial clefts.

NAR Genom Bioinform 2021 Jun 3;3(2):lqab035. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Genetics and Bioinformatics, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0473, Oslo, Norway.

DNA methylation is the most widely studied epigenetic mark in humans and plays an essential role in normal biological processes as well as in disease development. More focus has recently been placed on understanding functional aspects of methylation, prompting the development of methods to investigate the relationship between heterogeneity in methylation patterns and disease risk. However, most of these methods are limited in that they use simplified models that may rely on arbitrarily chosen parameters, they can only detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs) one at a time, or they are computationally intensive. To address these shortcomings, we present a wavelet-based method called 'Wavelet Screening' (WS) that can perform an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of thousands of individuals on a single CPU in only a matter of hours. By detecting multiple DMRs located near each other, WS identifies more complex patterns that can differentiate between different methylation profiles. We performed an extensive set of simulations to demonstrate the robustness and high power of WS, before applying it to a previously published EWAS dataset of orofacial clefts (OFCs). WS identified 82 associated regions containing several known genes and loci for OFCs, while other findings are novel and warrant replication in other OFCs cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nargab/lqab035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092375PMC
June 2021

Evaluating Polygenic Risk Scores for Breast Cancer in Women of African Ancestry.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry.

Methods: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9,241 cases and 10,193 controls. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry, and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category.

Results: For overall BC, the odds ratios per standard deviation of PRS313 was 1.27 (95%CI = 1.23 to 1.31), with an AUC of 0.571 (95%CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared to women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38 to 1.72). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction.

Conclusion: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared to that reported in European, Asian and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab050DOI Listing
March 2021

Associations of Body Composition and Physical Activity Level With Multiple Measures of Epigenetic Age Acceleration.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 06;190(6):984-993

Epigenetic clocks use DNA methylation to estimate biological age. Whether body composition and physical activity are associated with these clocks is not well understood. Using blood samples collected at enrollment (2003-2009) from 2,758 women in the US nationwide Sister Study, we calculated 6 epigenetic age acceleration metrics using 4 epigenetic clocks (Hannum, Horvath, PhenoAge, GrimAge). Recreational physical activity was self-reported, and adiposity measures were assessed by trained medical examiners (body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WtH), waist circumference). In cross-sectional analyses, all adiposity measures were associated with epigenetic age acceleration. The strongest association was for BMI and PhenoAge, a measure of biological age that correlates with chronic disease (BMI of ≥35.0 vs. 18.5-24.9, β = 3.15 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.41, 3.90; P for trend < 0.001). In a mutual-adjustment model, both were associated with PhenoAge age acceleration (BMI of ≥35.0 vs. 18.5-24.9, β = 2.69 years, 95% CI: 1.90, 3.48; P for trend < 0.001; quartile 4 vs.1 WtH, β = 1.00 years, 95% CI: 0.34, 1.65; P for trend < 0.008). After adjustment, physical activity was associated only with GrimAge (quartile 4 vs. 1, β = -0.42 years, 95% CI: -0.70, -0.14; P for trend = 0.001). Physical activity attenuated the waist circumference associations with PhenoAge and GrimAge. Excess adiposity was associated with epigenetic age acceleration; physical activity might attenuate associations with waist circumference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168202PMC
June 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

CYP3A7*1C allele: linking premenopausal oestrone and progesterone levels with risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.

Br J Cancer 2021 02 26;124(4):842-854. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk.

Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry.

Results: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10).

Conclusions: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01185-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884683PMC
February 2021

A Population-Based Study of Genes Previously Implicated in Breast Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):440-451. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

From Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (C. Hu, S.N.H., R.G., K.Y.L., J.N., J.L., S. Yadav, N.J.B., T.L., J.E.O., C.S., C.M.V., E.C.P., F.J.C.); Harvard University T.H. Chan School of Public Health (H.H., C.G., D.J.H., P.K.), Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University (K.A.B., J.R.P., L.R.), and Brigham and Women's Hospital (H.E.) - all in Boston; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany (R.S., J.K.); Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo (C.B.A., S. Yao), and Weill Cornell Medicine, New York (R.T.) - both in New York; the University of California, Irvine (H.A.-C., A.Z.), Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte (L.B., H.M., S.N., J.N.W.), Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (C. Haiman), and Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (E.M.J., A.W.K.) - all in California; the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, Milwaukee (P.A.), and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison (E.S.B., I.M.O., A.T.-D.); the Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick (E.V.B.); the Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta (B.D.C., S.M.G., M.G., J.M.H., E.J.J., A.V.P.); the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (D.J.H.); the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (C.K., P.A.N.) and the Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington (S.L.) - both in Seattle; the Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu (L.L.M.); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, NC (K.M.O., D.P.S., J.A.T., C.W.); Vanderbilt University, Nashville (T.P., S.R.); the University of Utah, Salt Lake City (D.E.G.); and the Department of Medicine and the Basser Center for BRCA, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (S.M.D., K.L.N.).

Background: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants.

Methods: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed.

Results: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in and were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in , , and were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in , , and were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in , were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.

Conclusions: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2005936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127622PMC
February 2021

Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction.

Nat Genet 2021 01 4;53(1):65-75. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00748-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148035PMC
January 2021

Association of Neighborhood Deprivation With Epigenetic Aging Using 4 Clock Metrics.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 11 2;3(11):e2024329. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Importance: Neighborhood deprivation is associated with age-related disease, mortality, and reduced life expectancy. However, biological pathways underlying these associations are not well understood.

Objective: To evaluate the association between neighborhood deprivation and epigenetic measures of age acceleration and genome-wide methylation.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Sister Study, a prospective cohort study comprising 50 884 women living in the US and Puerto Rico aged 35 to 74 years at enrollment who had a sister with breast cancer but had not had breast cancer themselves. Cohort enrollment occurred between July 2003 and March 2009. Participants completed a computer-assisted telephone interview on demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and residential factors and provided anthropometric measures and peripheral blood samples at a home examination. DNA methylation data obtained for 2630 non-Hispanic White women selected for a case-cohort study in 2014 were used in this cross-sectional analysis. DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChips in whole blood samples collected at baseline. Data analysis for this study was performed from October 17, 2019, to August 27, 2020.

Exposures: Each participants' primary address was linked to an established index of neighborhood deprivation.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Epigenetic age was estimated using 4 epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum, PhenoAge, and GrimAge). Age acceleration was determined using residuals from regressing chronologic age on each of the 4 epigenetic age metrics. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between neighborhood deprivation and epigenetic age acceleration as well as DNA methylation at individual cytosine-guanine sites across the genome.

Results: Mean (SD) age of the 2630 participants was 56.9 (8.7) years. Those with the greatest (>75th percentile) vs least (≤25th percentile) neighborhood deprivation had higher epigenetic age acceleration estimated by Hannum (β = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.01-0.45), PhenoAge (β = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.06-.50), and GrimAge (β = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.12-0.62). Increasing US quartiles of neighborhood deprivation exhibited a trend with Hannum, PhenoAge, and GrimAge. For example, GrimAge showed a significant dose-response (P test for trend <.001) as follows: level 2 vs level 1 (β = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42), level 3 vs level 1 (β = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.50), and level 4 vs level 1 (β = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.12-0.62). Neighborhood deprivation was found to be associated with 3 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites, with 1 of these annotated to a known gene MAOB (P = 9.71 × 10-08).

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that residing in a neighborhood with a higher deprivation index appears to be reflected by methylation-based markers of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643028PMC
November 2020

Hazardous air pollutants and telomere length in the Sister Study.

Environ Epidemiol 2019 Aug 28;3(4). Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.

Background: Telomeres are vital for genomic integrity and telomere length has been linked to many adverse health outcomes. Some hazardous air pollutants, or air toxics, increase oxidative stress and inflammation, two possible determinants of shortened telomere length. No studies have examined air toxic-telomere length associations in a non-occupational setting.

Methods: This study included 731 Sister Study participants (enrolled 2003-2007) who were randomly selected to assess telomere length in baseline blood samples. Multiplex qPCR was used to determine telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratios. Census tract concentration estimates of 29 air toxics from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment were linked to baseline residential addresses. Air toxics were classified into tertile-based categories of the exposure. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in single pollutant models. Multipollutant groups were identified with regression trees.

Results: The average T/S ratio was 1.24. Benzidine (T3vsT1 = -0.08; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.01) and 1,4-dioxane (T3vsT1 = -0.06; 95% CI: -0.13, 0.00) in particular, as well as carbon tetrachloride, chloroprene, ethylene dibromide, and propylene dichloride, were associated with shorter relative telomere length. Benzidine (=0.02) and 1,4-dioxane (=0.06) demonstrated some evidence of a monotonic trend. The regression tree identified age, BMI, physical activity, ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, ethylidene dichloride, propylene dichloride, and styrene in multipollutant groups related to telomere length.

Conclusions: In this first study of air toxics and telomere length in a non-occupational setting, several air toxics, particularly 1,4-dioxane and benzidine, were associated with shorter relative telomere length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ee9.0000000000000053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517667PMC
August 2019

African-specific improvement of a polygenic hazard score for age at diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 01 24;148(1):99-105. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

UMR Inserm 1134 Biologie Intégrée du Globule Rouge, INSERM/Université Paris Diderot-Université Sorbonne Paris Cité/INTS/Université des Antilles, Paris, France.

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135907PMC
January 2021

ipDMR: identification of differentially methylated regions with interval P-values.

Bioinformatics 2021 05;37(5):711-713

Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Environmental and Public Health Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.

Summary: ipDMR is an R software tool for identification of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) using auto-correlated P-values for individual CpGs from epigenome-wide association analysis using array or bisulfite sequencing data. It summarizes P-values for adjacent CpGs, identifies association peaks and then extends peaks to find boundaries of DMRs. ipDMR uses BED format files as input and is easy to use. Simulations guided by real data found that ipDMR outperformed current available methods and provided slightly higher true positive rates and much lower false discovery rates.

Availability And Implementation: ipDMR is available at https://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/ENmix.html.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248314PMC
May 2021

Epigenome-wide analysis uncovers a blood-based DNA methylation biomarker of lifetime cannabis use.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2021 04 17;186(3):173-182. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

Cannabis use is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse and beneficial effects. To better understand the full spectrum of health consequences, biomarkers that accurately classify cannabis use are needed. DNA methylation (DNAm) is an excellent candidate, yet no blood-based epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) in humans exist. We conducted an EWAS of lifetime cannabis use (ever vs. never) using blood-based DNAm data from a case-cohort study within Sister Study, a prospective cohort of women at risk of developing breast cancer (Discovery N = 1,730 [855 ever users]; Replication N = 853 [392 ever users]). We identified and replicated an association with lifetime cannabis use at cg15973234 (CEMIP): combined p = 3.3 × 10 . We found no overlap between published blood-based cis-meQTLs of cg15973234 and reported lifetime cannabis use-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs; p < .05), suggesting that the observed DNAm difference was driven by cannabis exposure. We also developed a multi-CpG classifier of lifetime cannabis use using penalized regression of top EWAS CpGs. The resulting 50-CpG classifier produced an area under the curve (AUC) = 0.74 (95% CI [0.72, 0.76], p = 2.00 × 10 ) in the discovery sample and AUC = 0.54 ([0.51, 0.57], p = 2.87 × 10 ) in the replication sample. Our EWAS findings provide evidence that blood-based DNAm is associated with lifetime cannabis use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32813DOI Listing
April 2021

Reliability of DNA methylation measures using Illumina methylation BeadChip.

Epigenetics 2021 May 15;16(5):495-502. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Illumina BeadChips are widely utilized in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). Several studies have reported that many probes on these arrays have poor reliability. Here, we compare different pre-processing methods to improve intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). We describe the characteristics of ICC across the genome, within and between studies, and across different array platforms. Using technical duplicates from 128 subjects, we find that with raw data only 22.5% of the CpGs on 450 K array have 'acceptable' ICCs (>0.5). Data preprocessing steps, such as background correction and dye bias correction, can reduce technical noise and improve the percentage to 38.5%. Similar to previous studies, we found that ICC is associated with CpG methylation level such that 83% of CpGs with intermediate methylation (0.1< beta-value <0.9) have acceptable ICCs, whereas only 21% of CpGs with low or high methylation (beta-value <0.1 or >0.9) have acceptable ICCs. ICC is also correlated with CpG methylation variance; after mutual adjustment for beta-value and variance, only variance remains correlated. Many CpGs with poor ICCs (<0.5) are located in biologically important regulatory regions, including gene promoters and CpG islands. Poor ICC at these sites appears to be a consequence of low biologic variation among individuals rather than increased technical measurement variation. ICCs quality classifications are highly concordant across different array platforms and across different studies. We find that ICC can be reliably estimated with 30 pairs of duplicate samples. CpGs with acceptable ICC have higher study power and are more commonly reported in published epigenome-wide studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2020.1805692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078668PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide association study identifies 32 novel breast cancer susceptibility loci from overall and subtype-specific analyses.

Nat Genet 2020 06 18;52(6):572-581. Epub 2020 May 18.

Molecular Medicine Unit, Fundación Pública Galega de Medicina Xenómica, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0609-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7808397PMC
June 2020

A Germline Variant at 8q24 Contributes to Familial Clustering of Prostate Cancer in Men of African Ancestry.

Eur Urol 2020 09 12;78(3):316-320. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Surgery, Center for Prostate Disease Research, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.04.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805560PMC
September 2020

Combined Associations of a Polygenic Risk Score and Classical Risk Factors With Breast Cancer Risk.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Mar;113(3):329-337

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72 284 cases and 80 354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression and a newly developed case-only method for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history) and, on average, 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936056PMC
March 2021

A data mining approach to investigate food groups related to incidence of bladder cancer in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants International Study.

Br J Nutr 2020 09 23;124(6):611-619. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case-control and one nested case-cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520001439DOI Listing
September 2020

The Role of Blood Cell Composition in Epidemiologic Studies of Telomeres.

Epidemiology 2020 07;31(4):e34-e36

Epidemiology Branch; and, Epigenetic and Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470016PMC
July 2020

Transcriptome-wide association study of breast cancer risk by estrogen-receptor status.

Genet Epidemiol 2020 07 1;44(5):442-468. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987299PMC
July 2020

Prediagnostic Immune Cell Profiles and Breast Cancer.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 01 3;3(1):e1919536. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Importance: Higher overall leukocyte counts in women may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer, but the association of specific leukocyte subtypes with breast cancer risk remains unknown.

Objective: To determine associations between circulating leukocyte subtypes and risk of breast cancer.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Between 2003 and 2009, the Sister Study enrolled 50 884 women who had a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer but were themselves breast cancer free. A case-cohort subsample was selected in July 2014 from the full Sister Study cohort. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, and women were followed up through October 2016. Data analysis was performed in April 2019.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was the development of breast cancer in women. Whole-blood DNA methylation was measured, and methylation values were deconvoluted using the Houseman method to estimate proportions of 6 leukocyte subtypes (B cells, natural killer cells, CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes). Leukocyte subtype proportions were dichotomized at their population median value, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate associations with breast cancer.

Results: Among 2774 non-Hispanic white women included in the analysis (mean [SD] age at enrollment, 56.6 [8.8] years), 1295 women were randomly selected from the full cohort (of whom 91 developed breast cancer) along with an additional 1479 women who developed breast cancer during follow-up (mean [SD] time to diagnosis, 3.9 [2.2] years). Circulating proportions of B cells were positively associated with later breast cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.36; P = .04). Among women who were premenopausal at blood collection, the association between B cells and breast cancer was significant (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.05-1.82; P = .02), and an inverse association for circulating proportions of monocytes was found (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-0.99; P = .05). Among all women, associations between leukocyte subtypes and breast cancer were time dependent: higher monocyte proportions were associated with decreased near-term risk (within 1 year of blood collection, HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.89; P = .01), whereas higher B cell proportions were associated with increased risk 4 or more years after blood collection (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.15-1.67; P = .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: Circulating leukocyte profiles may be altered before clinical diagnoses of breast cancer and may be time-dependent markers for breast cancer risk, particularly among premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6991268PMC
January 2020

Fine-mapping of 150 breast cancer risk regions identifies 191 likely target genes.

Nat Genet 2020 01 7;52(1):56-73. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0537-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974400PMC
January 2020