Publications by authors named "Jacek Baj"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and the Well-Being of Polish Students: The Risk Factors of the Emotional Distress during COVID-19 Lockdown.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 1;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Chair and I Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Early Intervention, Medical University of Lublin, 20-439 Lublin, Poland.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a significant impact on both physical and mental health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to (1) evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress levels among students from Polish universities during the first weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) assess the risk factors of the higher intensity of emotional distress. We conducted an online survey using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) to assess well-being. The study included 2172 respondents (73% female, 27% male) with a mean age of 22.1 ± 2.2. Moderate to extremely severe scores of depression, anxiety, and stress were reported by 43.4%, 27.3%, and 41.0% of the respondents, respectively. Higher scores of DASS-21 were related to female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 3.01), studying sciences (OR = 2.04), co-residence with the roommates (OR = 1.25), suffering from a mental disorder (OR = 5.88), loneliness (OR = 293.30), the usage of psychiatric support before pandemic (OR = 8.06), poor economic situation (OR = 13.49), and the lower scores were found for being currently employed (OR = 0.4). This study highlights an urgent need for (1) crisis-oriented psychological and psychiatric support for students during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) preparing appropriate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of students for a possible similar situation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957694PMC
March 2021

COVID-19 in the autopsy room-requirements, safety, recommendations and pathological findings.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 03 4;17(1):101-113. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090, Lublin, Poland.

Modern technologies enable the exchange of information about the expansion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the continually increasing number of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases almost in real time. The gravity of a current epidemiological situation is represented by the mortality rates, which are scrupulously updated daily. Performing autopsies on patients with either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 is of high importance since these might not only improve clinical management but also reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection expansion. The following paper aimed to present the most crucial aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection from the point of view of forensic experts and pathologists, recommendations and safety precautions regarding autopsies, autopsy room requirements, possible techniques, examinations used for effective viral detection, recommendations regarding burials, and gross and microscopic pathological findings of the deceased who died due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autopsies remain the gold standard for determining the cause of death. Therefore, it would be beneficial to perform autopsies on patients with both suspected and confirmed COVID-19, especially those with coexisting comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-020-00341-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780078PMC
March 2021

Inhibition or Reversal of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Gastric Cancer: Pharmacological Approaches.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 29;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) constitutes one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis consisting in the re-differentiation of the epithelial cells into mesenchymal ones changing the cellular phenotype into a malignant one. EMT has been shown to play a role in the malignant transformation and while occurring in the tumor microenvironment, it significantly affects the aggressiveness of gastric cancer, among others. Importantly, after EMT occurs, gastric cancer patients are more susceptible to the induction of resistance to various therapeutic agents, worsening the clinical outcome of patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to search for the newest pharmacological agents targeting EMT to prevent further progression of gastric carcinogenesis and potential metastases. Therapies targeted at EMT might be combined with other currently available treatment modalities, which seems to be an effective strategy to treat gastric cancer patients. In this review, we have summarized recent advances in gastric cancer treatment in terms of targeting EMT specifically, such as the administration of polyphenols, resveratrol, tangeretin, luteolin, genistein, proton pump inhibitors, terpenes, other plant extracts, or inorganic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795012PMC
December 2020

Virulence Factors-Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity in the Gastric Microenvironment.

Cells 2020 Dec 25;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-400 Lublin, Poland.

Gastric cancer constitutes one of the most prevalent malignancies in both sexes; it is currently the fourth major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The pathogenesis of gastric cancer is associated with the interaction between genetic and environmental factors, among which infection by () is of major importance. The invasion, survival, colonization, and stimulation of further inflammation within the gastric mucosa are possible due to several evasive mechanisms induced by the virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium. The knowledge concerning the mechanisms of pathogenicity is crucial to ameliorate eradication strategies preventing the possible induction of carcinogenesis. This review highlights the current state of knowledge and the most recent findings regarding virulence factors and their relationship with gastric premalignant lesions and further carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10010027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824444PMC
December 2020

Beyond the Mind-Serum Trace Element Levels in Schizophrenic Patients: A Systematic Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 15;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Chair and 1st Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention, Medical University of Lublin, Gluska Street 1, 20-439 Lublin, Poland.

The alterations in serum trace element levels are common phenomena observed in patients with different psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, or major depressive disorder. The fluctuations in the trace element concentrations might act as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many psychiatric and neurological disorders. This paper aimed to assess the alterations in serum trace element concentrations in patients with a diagnosed schizophrenia. The authors made a systematic review, extracting papers from the PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Among 5009 articles identified through database searching, 59 of them were assessed for eligibility. Ultimately, 33 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. This review includes the analysis of serum levels of the following trace elements: iron, nickel, molybdenum, phosphorus, lead, chromium, antimony, uranium, magnesium, aluminum, zinc, copper, selenium, calcium, and manganese. Currently, there is no consistency regarding serum trace element levels in schizophrenic patients. Thus, it cannot be considered as a reliable prognostic or diagnostic marker of schizophrenia. However, it can be assumed that altered concentrations of those elements are crucial regarding the onset and exaggeration of either psychotic or negative symptoms or cognitive dysfunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765526PMC
December 2020

Viral Infections in Burn Patients: A State-Of-The-Art Review.

Viruses 2020 11 17;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Infections that are triggered by the accompanying immunosuppression in patients with burn wounds are very common regardless of age. Among burn patients, the most frequently diagnosed infections include the bacterial ones primarily caused by or , as well as fungal infections with the etiology of . or spp. Besides, burn wounds are highly susceptible to viral infections mainly due to the impaired immune responses and defective functions of the immune cells within the wound microenvironment. The most prevalent viruses that invade burn wounds include herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human papilloma virus (HPV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV). Likewise, less prevalent infections such as those caused by the orf virus or Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) might also occur in immunosuppressed burn patients. Viral infections result in increased morbidity and mortality rates in severely burned patients. Additionally, a positive correlation between the hospitalization duration and the severity of the viral infection has been demonstrated. Viral infections trigger the occurrence of various complications, ranging from mild symptoms to even fatal incidents. Accurate detection of viral infection is of great clinical importance because of the possibility for a quicker introduction of proper treatment therapy and shortening of hospitalization time. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the literature and summarize the findings regarding the most common viral infections in immunosuppressed burn patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12111315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698518PMC
November 2020

Decreased Volume of Lateral and Medial Geniculate Nuclei in Patients with LHON Disease-7 Tesla MRI Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 10;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Laboratory of Virtual Man, Chair of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-400 Lublin, Poland.

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited genetic disorder leading to severe and bilateral loss of central vision, with a young male predilection. In recent years, multiple studies examined structural abnormalities in visual white matter tracts such as the optic tract and optic radiation. However, it is still unclear if the disease alters only some parts of the white matter architecture or whether the changes also affect grey matter parts of the visual pathway. This study aimed at improving our understanding of morphometric changes in the lateral (LGN) and medial (MGN) geniculate nuclei and their associations with the clinical picture in LHON by the application of a submillimeter surface-based analysis approach to the ultra-high-field 7T magnetic resonance imaging data. To meet these goals, fifteen LHON patients and fifteen age-matched healthy subjects were examined. A quantitative analysis of the LGN and MGN volume was performed for all individuals. Additionally, morphometric results of LGN and MGN were correlated with variables covering selected aspects of the clinical picture of LHON. In comparison with healthy controls (HC), LHON participants showed a significantly decreased volume of the right LGN and the right MGN. Nevertheless, the volume of the right LGN was strongly correlated with the averaged thickness value of the right retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). The abnormalities in the volume of the LHON patients' thalamic nuclei indicate that the disease can cause changes not only in the white matter areas constituting visual tracts but also in the grey matter structures. Furthermore, the correlation between the changes in the LGN volume and the RNFL, as well as the right optic nerve surface area located proximally to the eyeball, suggest some associations between the atrophy of these structures. However, to fully confirm this observation, longitudinal studies should be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565643PMC
September 2020

Liver Steatosis, Gut-Liver Axis, Microbiome and Environmental Factors. A Never-Ending Bidirectional Cross-Talk.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 14;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Clinica Medica "A. Murri", Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, 70124 Bari, Italy.

The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide and parallels comorbidities such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Recent studies describe the presence of NAFLD in non-obese individuals, with mechanisms partially independent from excessive caloric intake. Increasing evidences, in particular, point towards a close interaction between dietary and environmental factors (including food contaminants), gut, blood flow, and liver metabolism, with pathways involving intestinal permeability, the composition of gut microbiota, bacterial products, immunity, local, and systemic inflammation. These factors play a critical role in the maintenance of intestinal, liver, and metabolic homeostasis. An anomalous or imbalanced gut microbial composition may favor an increased intestinal permeability, predisposing to portal translocation of microorganisms, microbial products, and cell wall components. These components form microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), with potentials to interact in the intestine lamina propria enriched in immune cells, and in the liver at the level of the immune cells, i.e., Kupffer cells and stellate cells. The resulting inflammatory environment ultimately leads to liver fibrosis with potentials to progression towards necrotic and fibrotic changes, cirrhosis. and hepatocellular carcinoma. By contrast, measures able to modulate the composition of gut microbiota and to preserve gut vascular barrier might prevent or reverse NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465294PMC
August 2020

High-Throughput Sequencing of Gastric Cancer Patients: Unravelling Genetic Predispositions Towards an Early-Onset Subtype.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 21;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death. Currently, it is broadly accepted that the molecular complexity and heterogeneity of gastric cancer, both inter- and intra-tumor, display important barriers for finding specific biomarkers for the early detection and diagnosis of this malignancy. Early-onset gastric cancer is not as prevalent as conventional gastric carcinoma, but it is a preferable model for studying the genetic background, as young patients are less exposed to environmental factors, which influence cancer development.

Aim: The main objective of this study was to reveal age-dependent genotypic characteristics of gastric cancer subtypes, as well as conduct mutation profiling for the most frequent alterations in gastric cancer development, using targeted next-generation sequencing technology.

Patients And Methods: The study group included 53 patients, consisting of 18 patients with conventional gastric cancer and 35 with an early-onset subtype. The DNA of all index cases was used for next-generation sequencing, employing a panel of 94 genes and 284 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (TruSight Cancer Panel, Illumina), which is characteristic for common and rare types of cancer.

Results: From among the 53 samples processed for sequencing, we were able to identify seven candidate genes (, and ) and nine variants among them: one splice_acceptor, four synonymous, and four missense variants. These were selected for the age-dependent differentiation of gastric cancer subtypes. We found four variants with C-Score ≥ 10, as 10% of the most deleterious substitutions: rs1800862 (), rs10138997 (), rs2230009 (), and rs2959656 (). We identified 36 different variants, among 24 different genes, which were the most frequent genetic alterations among study subjects. We found 16 different variants among the genes that were present in 100% of the total cohort: (rs2746462), (rs1670283), (rs2958057), (rs4925828; rs11342077, rs398010167; rs2721190), (rs326212), (rs540012), (rs4930199), (rs659243), (rs1169305), (rs206075; rs169547), (rs9514066; rs9514067), and (rs7183618).

Conclusions: The technology of next-generation sequencing is a useful tool for studying the development and progression of gastric carcinoma in a high-throughput way. Our study revealed that early-onset gastric cancer has a different mutation frequency profile in certain genes compared to conventional subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409326PMC
July 2020

Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, Phosphorus, Selenium, Zinc, and Chromium Levels in Alcohol Use Disorder: A Review.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 18;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Chair and Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Macronutrients and trace elements are important components of living tissues that have different metabolic properties and functions. Trace elements participate in the regulation of immunity through humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle spasms, membrane potential regulation as well as mitochondrial activity and enzymatic reactions. Excessive alcohol consumption disrupts the concentrations of crucial trace elements, also increasing the risk of enhanced oxidative stress and alcohol-related liver diseases. In this review, we present the status of selected macroelements and trace elements in the serum and plasma of people chronically consuming alcohol. Such knowledge helps to understand the mechanisms of chronic alcohol-use disorder and to progress and prevent withdrawal effects, also improving treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7357092PMC
June 2020

COVID-19: Specific and Non-Specific Clinical Manifestations and Symptoms: The Current State of Knowledge.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 5;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Chair and Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an epidemiological threat and a worldwide concern. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 210 countries worldwide and more than 6,500,000 confirmed cases and 384,643 deaths have been reported, while the number of both confirmed and fatal cases is continually increasing. COVID-19 is a viral disease that can affect every age group-from infants to the elderly-resulting in a wide spectrum of various clinical manifestations. COVID-19 might present different degrees of severity-from mild or even asymptomatic carriers, even to fatal cases. The most common complications include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fever, dry cough, muscle weakness, and chest pain are the most prevalent and typical symptoms of COVID-19. However, patients might also present atypical symptoms that can occur alone, which might indicate the possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize all of the findings regarding clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients, which include respiratory, neurological, olfactory and gustatory, gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, dermatological, cardiac, and rheumatologic manifestations, as well as specific symptoms in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356953PMC
June 2020

Gastric Cancer: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Classification, Genomic Characteristics and Treatment Strategies.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 4;21(11). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and it is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death. GC is a multifactorial disease, where both environmental and genetic factors can have an impact on its occurrence and development. The incidence rate of GC rises progressively with age; the median age at diagnosis is 70 years. However, approximately 10% of gastric carcinomas are detected at the age of 45 or younger. Early-onset gastric cancer is a good model to study genetic alterations related to the carcinogenesis process, as young patients are less exposed to environmental carcinogens. Carcinogenesis is a multistage disease process specified by the progressive development of mutations and epigenetic alterations in the expression of various genes, which are responsible for the occurrence of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312039PMC
June 2020

Mechanisms of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Tumor Microenvironment in -Induced Gastric Cancer.

Cells 2020 04 23;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Clinica Medica A. Murri, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro Medical School, 70126 Bari, Italy.

() is one of the most common human pathogens, affecting half of the world's population. Approximately 20% of the infected patients develop gastric ulcers or neoplastic changes in the gastric stroma. An infection also leads to the progression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition within gastric tissue, increasing the probability of gastric cancer development. This paper aims to review the role of and its virulence factors in epithelial-mesenchymal transition associated with malignant transformation within the gastric stroma. The reviewed factors included: (cytotoxin-associated gene A) along with induction of cancer stem-cell properties and interaction with YAP (Yes-associated protein pathway), tumor necrosis factor -inducing protein, Lpp20 lipoprotein, Afadin protein, penicillin-binding protein 1A, microRNA-29a-3p, programmed cell death protein 4, lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane 4β, cancer-associated fibroblasts, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), and cancer stem cells (CSCs). The review summarizes the most recent findings, providing insight into potential molecular targets and new treatment strategies for gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9041055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225971PMC
April 2020

Preoperative and Intraoperative Methods of Parathyroid Gland Localization and the Diagnosis of Parathyroid Adenomas.

Molecules 2020 Apr 9;25(7). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantations, University of Bari "Aldo Moro" Medical School, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Accurate pre-operative determination of parathyroid glands localization is critical in the selection of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy as a surgical treatment approach in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Its importance cannot be overemphasized as it helps to minimize the harmful side effects associated with damage to the parathyroid glands such as in hypocalcemia, severe hemorrhage or recurrent laryngeal nerve dysfunction. Preoperative and intraoperative methods decrease the incidence of mistakenly injuring the parathyroid glands and allow for the timely diagnosis of various abnormalities, including parathyroid adenomas. This article reviews 139 studies conducted between 1970 and 2020 (49 years). Studies that were reviewed focused on several techniques including application of carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanoparticles with technetium sestamibi (99m Tc-MIBI), Raman spectroscopy, near-infrared autofluorescence, dynamic optical contrast imaging, laser speckle contrast imaging, shear wave elastography, and indocyanine green to test their potential in providing proper parathyroid glands' localization. Apart from reviewing the aforementioned techniques, this study focused on the applications that helped in the detection of parathyroid adenomas. Results suggest that applying all the reviewed techniques significantly improves the possibility of providing proper localization of parathyroid glands, and the application of indocyanine green has proven to be the 'ideal' approach for the diagnosis of parathyroid adenomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25071724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181220PMC
April 2020

Immunological Aspects of the Tumor Microenvironment and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Gastric Carcinogenesis.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 6;21(7). Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Clinica Medica "A. Murri", Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Infection with a Gram-negative, microaerophilic pathogen often results in gastric cancer in a subset of affected individuals. This explains why is the only bacterium classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Several studies have pinpointed mechanisms by which alters signaling pathways in the host cell to cause diseases. In this article, the authors have reviewed 234 studies conducted over a span of 18 years (2002-2020). The studies investigated the various mechanisms associated with gastric cancer induction. For the past 1.5 years, researchers have discovered new mechanisms contributing to gastric cancer linked to etiology. Alongside alteration of the host signaling pathways using oncogenic CagA pathways, induce DNA damage in the host and alter the methylation of DNA as a means of perturbing downstream signaling. Also, with several pathways in the host cell are activated, resulting in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), together with the induction of cell proliferation and survival. Studies have shown that enhances gastric carcinogenesis via a multifactorial approach. What is intriguing is that most of the targeted mechanisms and pathways appear common with various forms of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177728PMC
April 2020

Alterations in the Nervous System and Gut Microbiota after -Hemolytic Streptococcus Group A Infection-Characteristics and Diagnostic Criteria of PANDAS Recognition.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 21;21(4). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Chair and 1st Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention, Medical University of Lublin, Gluska Street 1, 20-439 Lublin, Poland.

The objective of this paper is to review and summarize conclusions from the available literature regarding Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). The authors have independently reviewed articles from 1977 onwards, primarily focusing on the etiopathology, symptoms, differentiation between similar psychiatric conditions, immunological reactions, alterations in the nervous system and gut microbiota, genetics, and the available treatment for PANDAS. Recent research indicates that PANDAS patients show noticeable alterations within the structures of the central nervous system, including caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and striatum, as well as bilateral and lentiform nuclei. Likewise, the presence of autoantibodies that interact with basal ganglia was observed in PANDAS patients. Several studies also suggest a relationship between the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorders like PANDAS and alterations to the gut microbiota. Further, genetic predispositions-including variations in the gene and T-seem to be relevant regarding PANDAS syndrome. Even though the literature is still scarce, the authors have attempted to provide a thorough insight into the PANDAS syndrome, bearing in mind the diagnostic difficulties of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073132PMC
February 2020

Metformin as Potential Therapy for High-Grade Glioma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jan 15;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 4, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

Metformin (MET), 1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride, is a biguanide drug used as the first-line medication in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The recent years have brought many observations showing metformin in its new role. The drug, commonly used in the therapy of diabetes, may also find application in the therapy of a vast variety of tumors. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in colon, breast, prostate, pancreatic cancer, leukemia, melanoma, lung and endometrial carcinoma, as well as in gliomas. This is especially important in light of the poor options offered to patients in the case of high-grade gliomas, which include glioblastoma (GBM). A thorough understanding of the mechanism of action of metformin can make it possible to discover new drugs that could be used in neoplasm therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016983PMC
January 2020

Increased Aluminum Content in Certain Brain Structures is Correlated with Higher Silicon Concentration in Alcoholic Use Disorder.

Molecules 2019 May 3;24(9). Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-701 Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: Alcohol overuse may be related to increased aluminum (Al) exposure, the brain accumulation of which contributes to dementia. However, some reports indicate that silicon (Si) may have a protective role over Al-induced toxicity. Still, no study has ever explored the brain content of Al and Si in alcoholic use disorder (AUD).

Materials And Methods: To fill this gap, the present study employed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to investigate levels of Al and Si in 10 brain regions and in the liver of AUD patients ( = 31) and control ( = 32) post-mortem.

Results: Al content was detected only in AUD patients at mean ± SD total brain content of 1.59 ± 1.19 mg/kg, with the highest levels in the thalamus (4.05 ± 12.7 mg/kg, FTH), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (3.48 ± 9.67 mg/kg, ILF), insula (2.41 ± 4.10 mg/kg) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (1.08 ± 2.30 mg/kg). Si content displayed no difference between AUD and control, except for FTH. Positive inter-region correlations between the content of both elements were identified in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and ILF.

Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that AUD patients may potentially be prone to Al-induced neurodegeneration in their brain-although this hypothesis requires further exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6539762PMC
May 2019

Serum iron, Magnesium, Copper, and Manganese Levels in Alcoholism: A Systematic Review.

Molecules 2019 Apr 7;24(7). Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Chair and Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

The aim of this paper was to review recent literature (from 2000 onwards) and summarize the newest findings on fluctuations in the concentration of some essential macro- and microelements in those patients with a history of chronic alcohol abuse. The focus was mainly on four elements which the authors found of particular interest: Iron, magnesium, copper, and manganese. After independently reviewing over 50 articles, the results were consistent with regard to iron and magnesium. On the other hand, data were limited, and in some cases contradictory, as far as copper and manganese were concerned. Iron overload and magnesium deficiency are two common results of an excessive and prolonged consumption of alcohol. An increase in the levels of iron can be seen both in the serum and within the cells, hepatocytes in particular. This is due to a number of factors: Increased ferritin levels, lower hepcidin levels, as well as some fluctuations in the concentration of the TfR receptor for transferrin, among others. Hypomagnesemia is universally observed among those suffering from alcoholism. Again, the causes for this are numerous and include malnutrition, drug abuse, respiratory alkalosis, and gastrointestinal problems, apart from the direct influence of excessive alcohol intake. Unfortunately, studies regarding the levels of both copper and manganese in the case of (alcoholic) liver disease are scarce and often contradictory. Still, the authors have attempted to summarize and give a thorough insight into the literature available, bearing in mind the difficulties involved in the studies. Frequent comorbidities and mutual relationships between the elements in question are just some of the complications in the study of this topic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6480471PMC
April 2019

associated factors in the development of gastric cancer with special reference to the early-onset subtype.

Oncotarget 2018 Jul 24;9(57):31146-31162. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Poland.

Nowadays, gastric cancer is one of the most common neoplasms and the fourth cause of cancer-related death on the world. Regarding the age at the diagnosis it is divided into early-onset gastric carcinoma (45 years or younger) and conventional gastric cancer (older than 45). Gastric carcinomas are rarely observed in young population and rely mostly on genetic factors, therefore provide the unique model to study genetic and environmental alternations. The latest research on early-onset gastric cancer are trying to explain molecular and genetic basis, because young patients are less exposed to environmental factors predisposing to cancer. In the general population, , has been particularly associated with intestinal subtype of gastric cancers. The significant association of infection in young patients with gastric cancers suggests that the has an etiologic role in both diffuse and intestinal subtypes of early-onset gastric cancers. In this paper we would like to ascertain the possible role of infection in the development of gastric carcinoma in young patients. The review summarizes recent literature on early-onset gastric cancers with special reference to infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6089554PMC
July 2018

Sir Gordon Morgan Holmes (1876-1965): one of the founders of modern neurology.

Neurol Sci 2018 Jan 7;39(1):169-171. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Normal Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, ul. Jaczewskiego 4 (Collegium Anatomicum), 20-090, Lublin, Poland.

Sir Gordon Morgan Holmes (1876-1965) was one of the most important founders of modern neurology and a great teacher and scientist. He was the first scientist to challenge the theory of the unitary function of the cerebellum and described cerebellar disorders. Holmes together with Thomas Grainger Stewart (1877-1957) described 40 cases of the rebound phenomenon in cerebellar disease (Stewart-Holmes maneuver or Stewart-Holmes test). He also described the symptoms of inherited neurodegenerative spinocerebellar ataxia involving the olivary nucleus (Gordon-Holmes syndrome). Independently from the Australian neurologist William John Adie (1886-1935), he described the partial iridoplegia (Holmes-Adie pupil or Holmes-Adie syndrome). His teaching skills became clearly visible in Goulstonian and Croonian lectures dedicated to spinal cord injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-017-3180-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772127PMC
January 2018

Prediction of acute pancreatitis in the earliest stages - role of biochemical parameters and histopathological changes.

Pol Przegl Chir 2017 Apr;89(2):31-38

Department of Didactics and Medical Simulation, Medical University of Lublin, Poland; Head: dr hab. n. med. Kamil Torres.

For many years, there has been a search for a set of biochemical parameters that could facilitate the assessment of severity, prognosis, and administration of early and appropriate treatment in acute pancreatitis. Administration of treatment within the first 48 hours since admission is associated with many problems of distinguishing patients with a mild form of acute pancreatitis (AP) from those with a severe form of acute pancreatitis.

Study Aim: To assess the relationship between the extent of change in the concentration of 10 selected biochemical indicators: amylase, lipase, total bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glucose, magnesium, and iron and histopathological lesions in the pancreas within 2 and 6 hours since induction of AP. The selected time periods correspond to the first and the second day of the disease in people, respectively.

Material And Methods: The experiments were conducted in 110 male Wistar rats weighing from 250 to 300 g. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: Z - a group in which the ranges of the studied factors and histological structure were established; K - a group of animals operated on which were injected with 0.9% NaCl into the biliary-pancreatic duct; E - a group of animals operated on in which acute pancreatitis was induced by an injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliary-pancreatic duct. Animals from the K and E groups were randomly assigned to one of five subgroups from which the material for biochemical and histological examinations was collected at 2 h and 6 h since the induction of AP. Whole pancreases were dissected for histological examinations, and the samples were dyed with hematoxylin and saturated alcoholic eosin solution. The degree of pancreatic lesions was assessed according to the Spormann score. Quantitative variables were characterized by arithmetic means, standard deviations, medians, minimum and maximum values, and 95% CIs.

Results: In histological preparations from rats from the E group, after 2 hours, edematous lesions, neutrophilic infiltrations in the pancreatic parenchyma, together with single petechiae started to appear and were observed. After 6 hours, the lesions became more intense, and minor foci of coagulation necrosis and minor foci of purulent inflammation in the fatty tissue appeared. Within 2 hours, statistically significant differences in the amount of four markers: creatinine, ALT, amylase, and magnesium were observed. After six hours, statistically significant differences in the amount of two markers: AST and glucose were seen. The correlations between histological assessments according to the Spormann scale and biochemical indicators were investigated, and it was observed that within 2 hours the intensity of pancreatitis increased together with an increase in AST. In group K, within 6 hours, the intensity of inflammatory infiltration increased together with an increase in creatinine concentration (correlation coefficient 0.95; p=0.0138). In group E, in the period of 2 hours, lesion intensity in the form of inflammatory infiltration increased together with an increase in the AST level (correlation coefficient 0.90; p=0.0063) and an increase in the iron level (correlation coefficient 0.78; p=0.0399). In the same group and in the same period, an increase in the AST level (correlation coefficient 0.79; p=0.0343) was associated with an increase in lesion intensity in the form of ecchymoses. Inflammatory infiltration increased (correlation coefficient -0.87; p=0.0117) within 6 hours, whereas the creatinine level decreased. Interesting results were obtained with the use of regression analysis - forward stepwise regression. In the period of 2 hours, if the creatinine level increased by 1, the intensity of lesions in acute pancreatitis decreased by 9.02, according to the Spormann score, while the other variables remained at a stable level. However, if ALT level increased by 1, the intensity of lesions in acute pancreatitis increased by 0.02, according to the Spormann score; and if the amylase level increased by 1, the intensity of lesions in acute pancreatitis increased by 0.01, according to the Spormann score, while the other variables remained at a stable level.

Conclusions: Histopathological lesions occurred prior to changes in laboratory test results, whereas significant correlations with Spormann scores were seen in the case of changes in AST and creatinine levels. The study results confirm the fact that diagnostics in acute pancreatitis is very difficult and requires monitoring of many laboratory parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0009.9153DOI Listing
April 2017

Age-dependent effect of limb immobilization and remobilization on rat bone.

Folia Biol (Krakow) 2002 ;50(3-4):121-7

Department of Biophysics, Medical University of Lublin, Racławickie Ave. 1, 20-059 Lublin, Poland.

The effect of unilateral hindlimb immobilization and subsequent free remobilization on bone tissue in rats was examined. Right hindlimb of intensively growing (G), young adult (Y) and adult (A) male rats was immobilized by taping for two weeks. Bone tissue was investigated post mortem in experimental and age-matched control rats, either directly after immobilization (Imm) or after two or four weeks of remobilization (Re2, Re4). Apparent density (d(app)) and mineralization (Min) were estimated in femora and pelvis. The mechanical state of bone tissue in femora was evaluated using an ultrasonic method. Additionally, activity of serum alkaline phosphatase, and serum calcium and phosphorus were measured in each group. Min and d(app) in Imm bones were changed in G rats, while in Y and A only d(app) in Imm femora was affected. Velocity of ultrasound was significantly lower in immobilized femora in each age group, indicating decreased elasticity of bone tissue. The differences between immobilized and control limbs were still significant in Re2 and Re4 groups in G rats. In Y rats the differences between experimental and control bones increased during remobilization. It is concluded that deterioration of bone initiated during two weeks of unloading, last within at least four weeks of free remobilization, despite restoration of normal activity.
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January 2004