Publications by authors named "J Yu"

30,751 Publications

History of IUD utilization and the risk of preterm birth: a cohort study.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Dongguan Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, No.99 Zhenxing Road, Dongcheng District, Dongguan City, 523112, Guangdong Province, China.

Objective: To explore whether a history of IUD use could increase the risk of subsequent preterm birth.

Methods: We performed a cohort study of 24,496 multipara aged 19-48 years in Dongguan City. Each subject was followed up for 1 year, and 12,508 women obtained pregnancy outcomes. They were divided into 2 groups: 2130 subjects with IUD use history (exposure group), and 10,378 subjects without IUD use history (control group). The exposure group will remove the IUD before pregnancy. The primary outcomes were preterm birth (less than 37 weeks of gestation) and early preterm birth (less than 34 weeks of gestation). We used log-binomial regression to estimate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) of preterm birth and early preterm birth for women with a history of IUD. According to the different adjusted baseline data, three regression models were established, and the propensity matching score method was also used to verify the stability of the results.

Results: The delivery rate of women with IUD history was 51.24%, and that of women without IUD was 51.03% ( = 0.063, P = 0.802). Six hundred and eighty-five women had preterm birth (5.48%, 95% CI 5.08-5.88) and 133 women had early preterm birth (1.06%, 95% CI 0.83-1.24). Compared with the control group, the incidence of preterm birth and early preterm birth in the exposure group were significantly lower. The results are stable in all four models. Subgroup analysis also supported the result. This study also found that the longer the women used IUD before pregnancy, the younger the age of first using IUD, and the shorter the time from condom removal to pregnancy, the lower the incidence of premature birth.

Conclusion: The women with a history of IUD use are less likely to have premature birth after the IUD is removed. More prospective studies are needed to confirm it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06158-9DOI Listing
July 2021

The PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor Ompalisib Suppresses Nonhomologous End Joining and Sensitizes Cancer Cells to Radio- and Chemotherapy.

Mol Cancer Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Radiation Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University

As the predominant pathway for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) attenuates the efficacy of cancer treatment which relies on the introduction of DSBs, such as radiotherapy and genotoxic drugs. Identifying novel NHEJ inhibitors is of great importance for improving the therapeutic efficiency of radio- or chemotherapy. Here we miniaturized our recently developed NHEJ detecting system into a 96-well plate-based format and interrogated an FDA approved drug library containing 1732 compounds. A collection of novel hits were considered to be potential DSB repair inhibitors at the non-cytotoxic concentration. We identified omipalisib as an efficient sensitizer for DNA damage-induced cell death in vitro. Furthermore, in vitro analysis uncovered the repressive effect of omipalisib on the phosphorylation of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit induced by ionizing radiation and doxorubicin, which led to the suppression of NHEJ pathway. Implications: In summary, our findings suggested the possibility for repurposing these candidates as radio- or chemosensitizers, which might extend their clinical application in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-21-0301DOI Listing
July 2021

The immunosuppressive effects of low molecular weight chitosan on thymopentin-activated mice bearing H22 solid tumors.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 27;99:108008. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, the low molecular weight of chitosan (CS) was prepared and its activity on thymopentin-activated mice bearing H22 solid tumors was further researched. The purity and molecular weight of CS were determined by UV and HPGPC spectra, and its immunosuppressive effects on H22 tumor-bearing mice were evaluated through determination on immune organs, cells and cytokines. Results showed that CS contained little impurities with the average molecular weight of 1.20 × 10 Da. The in vivo antitumor experiments demonstrated that CS facilitated to destroy immune organs (thymuses and spleens), suppress immune cells (lymphocytes, macrophages and NK cells) activities and reduce immune-related cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-4) expressions of H22 tumor-bearing mice even with simultaneous TP5 stimulation. Our data suggested that CS could not be applied to improve immune response in cancer-bearing patients, but might be employed for treatments on autoimmune diseases or organ transplant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108008DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparisons of the micronization, steam explosion, and gamma irradiation treatment on chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 17;366:130618. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130618DOI Listing
July 2021

Pulse therapy with vincristine and dexamethasone for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCCG-ALL-2015): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai, China.

Background: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses are generally used throughout maintenance treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, previous studies remain inconclusive about the benefit of this maintenance therapy and the absence of randomised, controlled trials in patients with low-risk or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia provides uncertainty. We therefore aimed to determine if this therapy could be safely omitted beyond 1 year of treatment without leading to an inferior outcome in any risk subgroup of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Methods: This open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial involved 20 major medical centres across China. We enrolled patients who were aged 0-18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia that was subsequently in continuous remission for 1 year after initial treatment. Patients with secondary malignancy or primary immunodeficiency were excluded. Eligible patients were classified as having low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia based on minimal residual disease and immunophenotypic and genetic features of leukaemic cells. Randomisation and analyses were done separately for the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts. Randomisation was generated by the study biostatistician with a block size of six. Stratification factors included participating centre, sex, and age at diagnosis; the low-risk cohort was additionally stratified for ETV6-RUNX1 status, and the intermediate-to-high-risk cohort for cell lineage. Patients in each risk cohort were randomly assigned (1:1) to either receive (ie, the control group) or not receive (ie, the experimental group) seven pulses of intravenous vincristine (1·5 mg/m) plus oral dexamethasone (6 mg/m per day for 7 days) during the second year of treatment. The primary endpoint was difference in 5-year event-free survival between the experimental group and the control group for both the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts, with a non-inferiority margin of 0·05 (5%). The analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-14005706.

Findings: Between Jan 1, 2015, and Feb 20, 2020, 6141 paediatric patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were registered to this study. Approximately 1 year after diagnosis and treatment, 5054 patients in continuous remission were randomly assigned, including 2923 (1442 in the control group and 1481 in the experimental group) with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 2131 (1071 control, 1060 experimental) with intermediate-to-high risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Median follow-up for patients who were alive at the time of analysis was 3·7 years (IQR 2·8-4·7). Among patients with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (90·3% [95% CI 88·4-92·2] vs 90·2% [88·2-92·2]; p=0·90). The one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·024, establishing non-inferiority. Among patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (82·8% [95% CI 80·0-85·7] vs 80·8% [77·7-84·0]; p=0·90), but the one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·055, giving a borderline inferior result for those in the experimental group. In the low-risk cohort, we found no differences in the rates of infections, symptomatic osteonecrosis, or other complications during the second year of maintenance treatment between patients in the control and experimental groups. Patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the control group were more likely to develop grade 3-4 pneumonia (26 [2·4%] of 1071 vs ten [0·9%] of 1060) and vincristine-related peripheral neuropathy (17 [1·6%] vs six [0·6%]) compared with the experimental group. Incidence of grade 5 fatal infection was similar between the control group and the experimental group in both the low-risk cohort (two [0·1%] of 1442 vs five [0·3%] of 1481) and intermediate-to-high risk cohort (six [0·6%] of 1071 vs five [0·5%] of 1060).

Interpretation: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses might be omitted beyond 1 year of treatment for children with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Additional studies are needed for intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Funding: VIVA China Children's Cancer Foundation, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the China fourth round of Three-Year Public Health Action Plan (2015-2017), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, US National Cancer Institute, St Baldrick's Foundation, and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00328-4DOI Listing
July 2021
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