Publications by authors named "J Wauters"

386 Publications

Early oseltamivir reduces risk for influenza-associated aspergillosis in a double-hit murine model.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):2493-2508

Department of Imaging and Pathology, Biomedical MRI unit/MoSAIC, Ku Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening fungal infection occurring mainly in immunocompromised patients. We recently identified IPA as an emerging co-infection with high mortality in critically ill, but otherwise immunocompetent influenza patients. The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir is the current standard-of-care treatment in hospitalized influenza patients; however, its efficacy in influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (IAPA) is not known. Therefore, we have established an imaging-supported double-hit mouse model to investigate the therapeutic effect of oseltamivir on the development of IAPA. Immunocompetent mice received intranasal instillation influenza A or PBS followed by orotracheal inoculation with 4 days later. Oseltamivir treatment or placebo was started at day 0, day 2, or day 4. Daily monitoring included micro-computed tomography and bioluminescence imaging of pneumonia and fungal burden. Non-invasive biomarkers were complemented with imaging, molecular, immunological, and pathological analysis. Influenza virus-infected immunocompetent mice developed proven airway IPA upon co-infection with , whereas non-influenza-infected mice fully cleared , confirming influenza as a risk factor for developing IPA. Longitudinal micro-CT showed pulmonary lesions after influenza infection worsening after co-infection, congruent with bioluminescence imaging and histology confirming pneumonia. Early oseltamivir treatment prevented severe influenza pneumonia and mitigated the development of IPA and associated mortality. A time-dependent treatment effect was consistently observed with imaging, molecular, and pathological analyses. Hence, our findings underscore the importance of initiating oseltamivir as soon as possible, to suppress influenza infection and mitigate the risk of potentially lethal IAPA disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2021.1974327DOI Listing
December 2021

Multinational Observational Cohort Study of COVID-19-Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Sep 14;27(11). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2711.211174DOI Listing
September 2021

test profiles and mortality in critically-ill COVID-19 patients.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Sep 8:JCM0122921. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Center of Expertise in Mycology Radboudumc/CWZ, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

The literature regarding COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has shown conflicting observations, including survival of CAPA patients not receiving antifungal therapy and discrepancy between CAPA diagnosis and autopsy findings. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of CAPA we performed a case-control study, in which we compared test profiles in CAPA patients and controls in relation to ICU-mortality. A multinational case-control study, in which test results, use of antifungal therapy and mortality were collected from critically-ill COVID-19 patients. Patients were classified using the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus case definitions. 219 critically-ill COVID-19 cases were analyzed, including one proven, 38 probable, 19 possible CAPA cases, 21 colonized patients, seven patients only positive for serum (1, 3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG), and 133 cases with no evidence of CAPA. Mortality was 53.8% in CAPA patients compared to 24.1% in patients without CAPA (p=0.001). Positive serum galactomannan (GM) and BDG were associated with increased mortality compared to serum biomarker negative CAPA patients (87.5% versus 41.7%, p=0.046; 90.0% versus 42.1%, p=0.029, respectively). For each point increase in GM or ten-point BDG serum concentration, the odds of death increased (GM, OR 10.208, 95%CI 1.621-64.291, p=0.013; BDG, OR 1.247, 95%CI 1.029-1.511, p=0.024). CAPA is a complex disease, probably involving a continuum of respiratory colonization, tissue-invasion and angioinvasion. Serum biomarkers are useful for staging CAPA disease progression and, if positive, indicate angioinvasion and a high probability of mortality. There is need for a biomarker that distinguishes between respiratory tract colonization and tissue invasive CAPA disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01229-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Risk factors and outcome of pulmonary aspergillosis in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients-a multinational observational study by the European Confederation of Medical Mycology.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Medical University of Graz, Department of Infectious Diseases, Excellence Centre for Medical Mycology (ECMM), Graz, Austria; Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; Clinical and Translational Fungal-Working Group, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) -associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has emerged as a complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The objectives of this multinational study were to determine the prevalence of CAPA in patients with COVID-19 in intensive care units (ICU) and to investigate risk factors for CAPA as well as outcome.

Methods: The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) conducted a multinational study including 20 centres from nine countries to assess epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of CAPA. CAPA was defined according to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus definitions.

Results: A total of 592 patients were included in this study, including 11 (1.9%) patients with histologically proven CAPA, 80 (13.5%) with probable CAPA, 18 (3%) with possible CAPA and 483 (81.6%) without CAPA. CAPA was diagnosed a median of 8 days (range 0-31 days) after ICU admission predominantly in older patients (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.04 per year; 95% CI 1.02-1.06) with any form of invasive respiratory support (HR 3.4; 95% CI 1.84-6.25) and receiving tocilizumab (HR 2.45; 95% CI 1.41-4.25). Median prevalence of CAPA per centre was 10.7% (range 1.7%-26.8%). CAPA was associated with significantly lower 90-day ICU survival rate (29% in patients with CAPA versus 57% in patients without CAPA; Mantel-Byar p < 0.001) and remained an independent negative prognostic variable after adjusting for other predictors of survival (HR 2.14; 95% CI 1.59-2.87, p ≤ 0.001).

Conclusion: Prevalence of CAPA varied between centres. CAPA was significantly more prevalent among older patients, patients receiving invasive ventilation and patients receiving tocilizumab, and was an independent strong predictor of ICU mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2021.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387556PMC
August 2021

Autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs are present in 4% of uninfected individuals over 70 years old and account for 20% of COVID-19 deaths.

Sci Immunol 2021 08;6(62)

Joint Research Unit, Hospices Civils de Lyon-bio Mérieux, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon Sud Hospital, Pierre-Bénite, France; International Center of Research in Infectiology, Lyon University, INSERM U1111, CNRS UMR 5308, ENS, UCBL, Lyon, France.

Circulating autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing high concentrations (10 ng/mL, in plasma diluted 1 to 10) of IFN-α and/or -ω are found in about 10% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia, but not in subjects with asymptomatic infections. We detect auto-Abs neutralizing 100-fold lower, more physiological, concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω (100 pg/mL, in 1/10 dilutions of plasma) in 13.6% of 3,595 patients with critical COVID-19, including 21% of 374 patients > 80 years, and 6.5% of 522 patients with severe COVID-19. These antibodies are also detected in 18% of the 1,124 deceased patients (aged 20 days-99 years; mean: 70 years). Moreover, another 1.3% of patients with critical COVID-19 and 0.9% of the deceased patients have auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-β. We also show, in a sample of 34,159 uninfected subjects from the general population, that auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω are present in 0.18% of individuals between 18 and 69 years, 1.1% between 70 and 79 years, and 3.4% >80 years. Moreover, the proportion of subjects carrying auto-Abs neutralizing lower concentrations is greater in a subsample of 10,778 uninfected individuals: 1% of individuals <70 years, 2.3% between 70 and 80 years, and 6.3% >80 years. By contrast, auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-β do not become more frequent with age. Auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs predate SARS-CoV-2 infection and sharply increase in prevalence after the age of 70 years. They account for about 20% of both critical COVID-19 cases in the over-80s, and total fatal COVID-19 cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abl4340DOI Listing
August 2021
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