Publications by authors named "J W van"

77 Publications

Efficacy and safety of two neutralising monoclonal antibody therapies, sotrovimab and BRII-196 plus BRII-198, for adults hospitalised with COVID-19 (TICO): a randomised controlled trial.

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Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Background: We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of two neutralising monoclonal antibody therapies (sotrovimab [Vir Biotechnology and GlaxoSmithKline] and BRII-196 plus BRII-198 [Brii Biosciences]) for adults admitted to hospital for COVID-19 (hereafter referred to as hospitalised) with COVID-19.

Methods: In this multinational, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, clinical trial (Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19 [TICO]), adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalised with COVID-19 at 43 hospitals in the USA, Denmark, Switzerland, and Poland were recruited. Patients were eligible if they had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 symptoms for up to 12 days. Using a web-based application, participants were randomly assigned (2:1:2:1), stratified by trial site pharmacy, to sotrovimab 500 mg, matching placebo for sotrovimab, BRII-196 1000 mg plus BRII-198 1000 mg, or matching placebo for BRII-196 plus BRII-198, in addition to standard of care. Each study product was administered as a single dose given intravenously over 60 min. The concurrent placebo groups were pooled for analyses. The primary outcome was time to sustained clinical recovery, defined as discharge from the hospital to home and remaining at home for 14 consecutive days, up to day 90 after randomisation. Interim futility analyses were based on two seven-category ordinal outcome scales on day 5 that measured pulmonary status and extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19. The safety outcome was a composite of death, serious adverse events, incident organ failure, and serious coinfection up to day 90 after randomisation. Efficacy and safety outcomes were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all patients randomly assigned to treatment who started the study infusion. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04501978.

Findings: Between Dec 16, 2020, and March 1, 2021, 546 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to sotrovimab (n=184), BRII-196 plus BRII-198 (n=183), or placebo (n=179), of whom 536 received part or all of their assigned study drug (sotrovimab n=182, BRII-196 plus BRII-198 n=176, or placebo n=178; median age of 60 years [IQR 50-72], 228 [43%] patients were female and 308 [57%] were male). At this point, enrolment was halted on the basis of the interim futility analysis. At day 5, neither the sotrovimab group nor the BRII-196 plus BRII-198 group had significantly higher odds of more favourable outcomes than the placebo group on either the pulmonary scale (adjusted odds ratio sotrovimab 1·07 [95% CI 0·74-1·56]; BRII-196 plus BRII-198 0·98 [95% CI 0·67-1·43]) or the pulmonary-plus complications scale (sotrovimab 1·08 [0·74-1·58]; BRII-196 plus BRII-198 1·00 [0·68-1·46]). By day 90, sustained clinical recovery was seen in 151 (85%) patients in the placebo group compared with 160 (88%) in the sotrovimab group (adjusted rate ratio 1·12 [95% CI 0·91-1·37]) and 155 (88%) in the BRII-196 plus BRII-198 group (1·08 [0·88-1·32]). The composite safety outcome up to day 90 was met by 48 (27%) patients in the placebo group, 42 (23%) in the sotrovimab group, and 45 (26%) in the BRII-196 plus BRII-198 group. 13 (7%) patients in the placebo group, 14 (8%) in the sotrovimab group, and 15 (9%) in the BRII-196 plus BRII-198 group died up to day 90.

Interpretation: Neither sotrovimab nor BRII-196 plus BRII-198 showed efficacy for improving clinical outcomes among adults hospitalised with COVID-19.

Funding: US National Institutes of Health and Operation Warp Speed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00751-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8700279PMC
December 2021

Tirzepatide versus insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk (SURPASS-4): a randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2021 11 18;398(10313):1811-1824. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: We aimed to assess efficacy and safety, with a special focus on cardiovascular safety, of the novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide versus insulin glargine in adults with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk inadequately controlled on oral glucose-lowering medications.

Methods: This open-label, parallel-group, phase 3 study was done in 187 sites in 14 countries on five continents. Eligible participants, aged 18 years or older, had type 2 diabetes treated with any combination of metformin, sulfonylurea, or sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, a baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA) of 7·5-10·5% (58-91 mmol/mol), body-mass index of 25 kg/m or greater, and established cardiovascular disease or a high risk of cardiovascular events. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:3) via an interactive web-response system to subcutaneous injection of either once-per-week tirzepatide (5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg) or glargine (100 U/mL), titrated to reach fasting blood glucose of less than 100 mg/dL. The primary endpoint was non-inferiority (0·3% non-inferiority boundary) of tirzepatide 10 mg or 15 mg, or both, versus glargine in HbA change from baseline to 52 weeks. All participants were treated for at least 52 weeks, with treatment continued for a maximum of 104 weeks or until study completion to collect and adjudicate major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Safety measures were assessed over the full study period. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03730662.

Findings: Patients were recruited between Nov 20, 2018, and Dec 30, 2019. 3045 participants were screened, with 2002 participants randomly assigned to tirzepatide or glargine. 1995 received at least one dose of tirzepatide 5 mg (n=329, 17%), 10 mg (n=328, 16%), or 15 mg (n=338, 17%), or glargine (n=1000, 50%), and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. At 52 weeks, mean HbA changes with tirzepatide were -2·43% (SD 0·05) with 10 mg and -2·58% (0·05) with 15 mg, versus -1·44% (0·03) with glargine. The estimated treatment difference versus glargine was -0·99% (multiplicity adjusted 97·5% CI -1·13 to -0·86) for tirzepatide 10 mg and -1·14% (-1·28 to -1·00) for 15 mg, and the non-inferiority margin of 0·3% was met for both doses. Nausea (12-23%), diarrhoea (13-22%), decreased appetite (9-11%), and vomiting (5-9%) were more frequent with tirzepatide than glargine (nausea 2%, diarrhoea 4%, decreased appetite <1%, and vomiting 2%, respectively); most cases were mild to moderate and occurred during the dose-escalation phase. The percentage of participants with hypoglycaemia (glucose <54 mg/dL or severe) was lower with tirzepatide (6-9%) versus glargine (19%), particularly in participants not on sulfonylureas (tirzepatide 1-3% vs glargine 16%). Adjudicated MACE-4 events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalisation for unstable angina) occurred in 109 participants and were not increased on tirzepatide compared with glargine (hazard ratio 0·74, 95% CI 0·51-1·08). 60 deaths (n=25 [3%] tirzepatide; n=35 [4%] glargine) occurred during the study.

Interpretation: In people with type 2 diabetes and elevated cardiovascular risk, tirzepatide, compared with glargine, demonstrated greater and clinically meaningful HbA reduction with a lower incidence of hypoglycaemia at week 52. Tirzepatide treatment was not associated with excess cardiovascular risk.

Funding: Eli Lilly and Company.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02188-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Disseminated AIDS-Related Kaposi Sarcoma Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome With Infiltrative Liver Disease.

ACG Case Rep J 2021 Sep 5;8(9):e00660. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, IL.

Clinically significant hepatic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma is rarely described in the literature. Kaposi sarcoma immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome may play a role in the rapid progression of clinically insignificant to significant liver disease. We present an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient with disseminated Kaposi sarcoma that developed 3-6 weeks after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/crj.0000000000000660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500654PMC
September 2021

Gastrointestinal Tolerability of Once-Weekly Dulaglutide 3.0 mg and 4.5 mg: A Post Hoc Analysis of the Incidence and Prevalence of Nausea, Vomiting, and Diarrhea in AWARD-11.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Oct 12;12(10):2783-2794. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, 46285, USA.

Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) events are the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) reported for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapies. This post hoc analysis of the AWARD-11 phase 3 trial assessed the GI tolerability of dulaglutide at once-weekly doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mg.

Methods: The AWARD-11 trial randomized patients to once-weekly dulaglutide 1.5 mg (n = 612), 3.0 mg (n = 616), or 4.5 mg (n = 614) for 52 weeks. Patients started on dulaglutide 0.75 mg for 4 weeks before escalating stepwise every 4 weeks until the final randomized dose was reached. This study analyzes the onsets, incidences, prevalences, and severities of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea events reported through 52 weeks.

Results: The highest incidences of nausea (≤ 8%), vomiting (≤ 2%), and diarrhea (≤ 4%) were primarily observed soon after the initiation of dulaglutide treatment at 0.75 mg. Incidence then declined throughout the remainder of the study, even with dose escalation to 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 mg. Most of these GI TEAEs were mild to moderate in severity, with severe nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea events occurring in ≤ 0.6% of patients. Treatment discontinuation due to nausea was low across treatment groups (≤ 1.5%).

Conclusions: The tolerability profiles of dulaglutide 3.0 mg and 4.5 mg were consistent with that of the 1.5-mg dose. Patients experiencing GI events were most likely to do so within 2 weeks of treatment initiation, and few patients experienced a new GI event after escalating to the 3.0-mg or 4.5-mg dose. Severe events were infrequent, and when they did occur, no relationship with dose at time of event was observed. Supplementary file1 (MP4 33880 kb).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-021-01140-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479017PMC
October 2021

Potential Bias and Misconceptions in Liver Transplantation for Alcohol- and Obesity-Related Liver Disease.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 10;116(10):2089-2097

Department of Hepatology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Introduction: Bias and misconceptions surrounding alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) and obesity-related liver disease (OLD) may lead to transplant listing inequities. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients, medical students, residents, fellows, and attending physicians for bias and misconceptions regarding liver transplantation (LT) for patients with ALD and OLD.

Methods: Participants took a survey asking them whether patients with ALD who continue/discontinue drinking alcohol or patients with OLD who do/do not commit to a weight loss program deserve equal LT rights. A Likert scale was used for their responses. Participants also estimated 5-year survival and advanced fibrosis recurrence after LT. The primary outcome of the study was bias measured by expected agreement or disagreement to questions using a Likert scale, significant underestimation of a 5-year survival rate after LT, and significant overestimation of 5-year advanced fibrosis recurrence after LT.

Results: A total of 381 participants were included in the analysis: 153 residents/fellows, 31 attending physicians, 98 medical students, and 99 patients. A higher percentage from all 4 participating groups either were neutral or disagreed with equal LT rights for patients with ALD who discontinue drinking compared with patients with OLD who commit to weight loss program. The attending physician group was the only group with a majority estimating >60% 5-year survival after LT in patients with ALD and OLD (P < 0.05). All 4 groups had a majority estimate >20% 5-year advanced fibrosis recurrence in patients with ALD and OLD (P > 0.05).

Discussion: There seems to be current bias and misconceptions regarding LT for patients with ALD and OLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000001349DOI Listing
October 2021
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