Publications by authors named "J Steven Ogden"

623 Publications

How a diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is communicated impacts well-being.

BJGP Open 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

School of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is associated with well-being. Many women report dissatisfaction with the diagnostic process.

Aim: This study assessed the impact of aspects of the diagnostic consultation on subsequent well-being.

Design & Setting: A retrospective community survey.

Method: Females with PCOS (n=146) completed measures of aspects of the diagnostic consultation (consultation satisfaction, language used in terms of framing and focus) and current well-being (body esteem, quality of life).

Results: Most diagnoses took place in Primary Care. The majority showed a medium degree of satisfaction with the consultation. Most diagnoses were framed using a neutral term 'raised' but many used the more judgemental term 'abnormal'. The majority focused on taking oral contraception and weight management. Poorer body esteem (body dissatisfaction and dieting behaviour) and poorer quality of life (self-identity, concerns about fertility, physical health, hirsutism and overall quality of life) were predicted by lower communication comfort during the diagnostic consultation and greater use of the word 'raised'. Greater use of the word 'irregular' predicted greater concerns about fertility, greater focus on fertility predicted greater concerns about physical health and greater focus on appearance predicted greater concerns about hirsutism.

Conclusion: How a diagnosis of PCOS is delivered can impact subsequent well-being. The diagnostic consultation may take a few minutes, yet how these minutes are managed, what words are used, and how this makes the patient feel may change how the patient makes sense of their condition and influence the impact of the condition on their well-being for the longer term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/BJGPO.2022.0014DOI Listing
April 2022

Global variations in preoperative practices concerning patients seeking primary bariatric and metabolic surgery (PACT Study): A survey of 634 bariatric healthcare professionals.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2022 Apr 11. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Helen McArdle Nursing and Care Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences and Wellbeing, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, UK.

Background: Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery (BMS) is a popular weight loss intervention worldwide, yet few scientific studies have examined variations in preoperative practices globally. This study aimed to capture global variations in preoperative practices concerning patients planned for BMS.

Methods: A 41-item questionnaire-based survey was designed and the survey link was freely distributed on social and scientific media platforms, email groups and circulated through personal connections of authors. The survey included eight parts: basic information; criteria for BMS; preoperative nutritional screening; preoperative weight loss; preoperative diets for liver size reduction; preoperative glycemic control; other laboratory investigations and preparations; decision making, education, and consents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data and graphs were used for representation where applicable.

Results: Six hundred thirty-four bariatric healthcare professionals from 76 countries/regions completed the survey. Of these, n = 310 (48.9%) were from public hospitals, n = 466 (73.5%) were surgeons, and the rest were multidisciplinary professionals. More than half of respondents reported using local society/association guidelines in their practice (n = 310, 61.6%). The great majority of respondents routinely recommend nutritional screening preoperatively (n = 385, 77.5%), mandatory preoperative diets for liver size reduction (n = 220, 53.1%), routine screening for T2DM (n = 371, 90.7%), and mandate a glycemic control target before BMS in patients with T2DM (n = 203, 55.6%). However, less than half (n = 183, 43.9%) recommend mandatory preoperative weight loss to all patients. Most respondents (n = 296, 77.1%) recommend psychological intervention before surgery for patients diagnosed with psychological conditions. Variations were also identified in laboratory investigations and optimisation; and in the aspects of decision making, education and consent.

Conclusions: This survey identified significant global variations in preoperative practices concerning patients seeking primary BMS. Our findings could facilitate future research for the determination of best practice in these areas of variations, and consensus-building to guide clinical practice while we wait for that evidence to emerge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-022-01119-xDOI Listing
April 2022

Nostalgia, Gratitude, or Optimism: The Impact of a Two-Week Intervention on Well-Being During COVID-19.

J Happiness Stud 2022 Mar 19:1-22. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

School of Psychology, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Research indicates that brief 2-min positive psychology interventions (PPIs) increase well-being during COVID-19 lockdowns. The present study extended this to assess the effectiveness over two-weeks. Participants ( = 150) were randomly allocated to one of three PPIs; nostalgia, gratitude, best possible self (BPS), or control. The interventions were slightly adapted for the lockdown and were completed three times, every seven days over two-weeks. Well-being measures were completed immediately after the first intervention (T1), after the next two interventions (T2-T3) and at one-week follow-up (T4) (but no baseline measure of well-being was taken). At T1, participants in the nostalgia, gratitude, and BPS intervention had higher self-esteem than those in the control intervention. At T1 and T2, participants in the gratitude and BPS intervention reported higher social connectedness than participants in the nostalgia and control intervention. Then at follow-up (T4), participants in the nostalgia, gratitude, and BPS intervention had lower fear of COVID-19 than those in the control intervention. Overall, the results show the benefits of nostalgia, gratitude and optimism, compared to the control, during lockdown.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10902-022-00513-6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00513-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8934022PMC
March 2022

Assessing Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors around Antibiotic Usage and Antibiotic Resistance among UK Veterinary Students: A Multi-Site, Cross-Sectional Survey.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 Feb 16;11(2). Epub 2022 Feb 16.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Stag Hill Campus, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a profound threat to human and animal health. Antimicrobial prescribing behaviours are influenced by psychological factors such as knowledge, beliefs, and emotions. As future antimicrobial prescribers, it is important to understand beliefs about AMR and stewardship among veterinary (vet) students. This cross-sectional online survey assessed vet students' self-reported behavior, knowledge, and beliefs in specific relation to antibiotic resistance (ABR) and antibiotic usage. Participants were early years (first- and second-year; = 460) and later-years (third- and fourth-year; = 113) undergraduate vet students from three UK universities. Self-reported antibiotic-related behaviors were responsible among most students. Knowledge about ABR and stewardship was moderate among early years students and good among later years students. Vet students typically believed that vets had less responsibility for both causing and preventing ABR than other groups (animal owners, human medics, and the public). This study offers evidence that vet students (along with other groups) tend to lay greater responsibility for ABR/AMR outside of their own profession, which may impact their future prescribing behaviors. It is vital that AMR and antimicrobial stewardship are embedded across veterinary curricula, and that the One Health nature of the challenge posed by AMR is emphasized to encourage shared responsibility across all stakeholder groups, thereby helping to reduce 'other-blaming' for AMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11020256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8868437PMC
February 2022

Dogs ≥ five years of age at the time of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt diagnosis have better long-term outcomes with surgical attenuation than with medical management alone.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2022 Feb 24:1-7. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Objective: To determine the outcome in dogs diagnosed with congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EHPSS) at ≥ 5 years of age treated with medical management only (M) or with surgical attenuation (S). The hypothesis was that dogs undergoing surgical attenuation would have a longer survival time than dogs undergoing medical management only.

Animals: 351 dogs definitively diagnosed with EHPSS at ≥ 5 years of age.

Procedures: Medical records from 2009 to 2019 at 16 veterinary teaching hospitals were evaluated. Data collected included signalment, clinical signs at diagnosis, clinicopathologic data, surgical and medical treatments, shunt morphology, clinical signs and medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis, and survival time.

Results: 351 dogs (M, 119 [33.9%]; S, 232 [66.1%]) were included in the study. Survival time was longer with surgery than medical management (hazard ratio, 4.2; M, 3.4 years; S, 10.9 years). Continued clinical signs at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common with medical management (M, 40% [33/88]; S, 14% [21/155]). Continued medical treatments at 6 to 12 months after diagnosis were more common in the medical management group (M, 78% [69/88]; S, 34% [53/155]). Perioperative mortality rate was 7.3%.

Clinical Relevance: Dogs diagnosed at ≥ 5 years of age with EHPSS have significantly better survival times and fewer clinical signs with surgical attenuation, compared with medical management. Older dogs have similar surgical mortality rates to dogs of all ages after surgical EHPSS attenuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.21.09.0417DOI Listing
February 2022
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