Publications by authors named "J Simon Bell"

5,348 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Managing Perioperative Pain After Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction: Perspectives from a Sports Medicine Surgeon.

Open Access J Sports Med 2021 4;12:129-138. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

USC Epstein Family Center for Sports Medicine at Keck Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLR) are a relatively common procedure in orthopedic sports medicine with an estimated 130,000 arthroscopic operations performed annually. Most procedures are carried out on an outpatient basis, and though success rates of ACLR are as high as 95%, pain remains the most common postoperative complication delaying patient discharge, and thereby increasing the costs associated with patient care. Despite the success and relative frequency of ACLR surgery, optimal and widely accepted strategies and regimens for controlling perioperative pain are not well established. In recent years, the paradigm of pain control has shifted from exclusively utilizing opiates and opioid medications in the acute postoperative period to employing other agents and techniques including nerve blocks, intra-articular and periarticular injections of local anesthetic agents, NSAIDs, and less commonly, ketamine, tranexamic acid (TXA), sedatives, gabapentin, and corticosteroids. More often, these agents are now used in combination and in synergy with one another as part of a multimodal approach to pain management in ACLR, with the goal of reducing postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and the incidence of delayed hospital discharge. The purpose of this review is to consolidate current literature on various agents involved in the management of postoperative pain following ACLR, including the role of classically used opiate and opioid medications, as well as to describe other drugs currently utilized in practice either individually or in conjunction with other agents as part of a multimodal regimen in pain management in ACLR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S266227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8426642PMC
September 2021

Estrogen and COVID-19 symptoms: Associations in women from the COVID Symptom Study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0257051. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

It has been widely observed that adult men of all ages are at higher risk of developing serious complications from COVID-19 when compared with women. This study aimed to investigate the association of COVID-19 positivity and severity with estrogen exposure in women, in a population based matched cohort study of female users of the COVID Symptom Study application in the UK. Analyses included 152,637 women for menopausal status, 295,689 women for exogenous estrogen intake in the form of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), and 151,193 menopausal women for hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Data were collected using the COVID Symptom Study in May-June 2020. Analyses investigated associations between predicted or tested COVID-19 status and menopausal status, COCP use, and HRT use, adjusting for age, smoking and BMI, with follow-up age sensitivity analysis, and validation in a subset of participants from the TwinsUK cohort. Menopausal women had higher rates of predicted COVID-19 (P = 0.003). COCP-users had lower rates of predicted COVID-19 (P = 8.03E-05), with reduction in hospital attendance (P = 0.023). Menopausal women using HRT or hormonal therapies did not exhibit consistent associations, including increased rates of predicted COVID-19 (P = 2.22E-05) for HRT users alone. The findings support a protective effect of estrogen exposure on COVID-19, based on positive association between predicted COVID-19 with menopausal status, and negative association with COCP use. HRT use was positively associated with COVID-19, but the results should be considered with caution due to lack of data on HRT type, route of administration, duration of treatment, and potential unaccounted for confounders and comorbidities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257051PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432854PMC
September 2021

Body muscle gain and markers of cardiovascular disease susceptibility in young adulthood: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 9;18(9):e1003751. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: The potential benefits of gaining body muscle for cardiovascular disease (CVD) susceptibility, and how these compare with the potential harms of gaining body fat, are unknown. We compared associations of early life changes in body lean mass and handgrip strength versus body fat mass with atherogenic traits measured in young adulthood.

Methods And Findings: Data were from 3,227 offspring of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (39% male; recruited in 1991-1992). Limb lean and total fat mass indices (kg/m2) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans performed at age 10, 13, 18, and 25 y (across clinics occurring from 2001-2003 to 2015-2017). Handgrip strength was measured at 12 and 25 y, expressed as maximum grip (kg or lb/in2) and relative grip (maximum grip/weight in kilograms). Linear regression models were used to examine associations of change in standardised measures of these exposures across different stages of body development with 228 cardiometabolic traits measured at age 25 y including blood pressure, fasting insulin, and metabolomics-derived apolipoprotein B lipids. SD-unit gain in limb lean mass index from 10 to 25 y was positively associated with atherogenic traits including very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides. This pattern was limited to lean gain in legs, whereas lean gain in arms was inversely associated with traits including VLDL triglycerides, insulin, and glycoprotein acetyls, and was also positively associated with creatinine (a muscle product and positive control). Furthermore, this pattern for arm lean mass index was specific to SD-unit gains occurring between 13 and 18 y, e.g., -0.13 SD (95% CI -0.22, -0.04) for VLDL triglycerides. Changes in maximum and relative grip from 12 to 25 y were both positively associated with creatinine, but only change in relative grip was also inversely associated with atherogenic traits, e.g., -0.12 SD (95% CI -0.18, -0.06) for VLDL triglycerides per SD-unit gain. Change in fat mass index from 10 to 25 y was more strongly associated with atherogenic traits including VLDL triglycerides, at 0.45 SD (95% CI 0.39, 0.52); these estimates were directionally consistent across sub-periods, with larger effect sizes with more recent gains. Associations of lean, grip, and fat measures with traits were more pronounced among males. Study limitations include potential residual confounding of observational estimates, including by ectopic fat within muscle, and the absence of grip measures in adolescence for estimates of grip change over sub-periods.

Conclusions: In this study, we found that muscle strengthening, as indicated by grip strength gain, was weakly associated with lower atherogenic trait levels in young adulthood, at a smaller magnitude than unfavourable associations of fat mass gain. Associations of muscle mass gain with such traits appear to be smaller and limited to gains occurring in adolescence. These results suggest that body muscle is less robustly associated with markers of CVD susceptibility than body fat and may therefore be a lower-priority intervention target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428664PMC
September 2021

Digital Mega-Studies as a New Research Paradigm: Governing the Health Research of the Future.

J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics 2021 Sep 9:15562646211041492. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

34361Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Australia.

'Digital Mega-Studies' are entirely or extensively digitised, longitudinal, population-scale initiatives, collecting, storing, and making available individual-level research data of different types and from multiple sources, shaped by technological developments and unforeseeable risks over time. The Australian 'Gen V' project exemplifies this new research paradigm. In 2019, we undertook a multidisciplinary, multi-stakeholder process to map Digital Mega-Studies' key characteristics, legal and governance challenges and likely solutions. We conducted large and small group processes within a one-day symposium and directed online synthesis and group prioritisation over subsequent weeks. We present our methods (including elicitation, affinity mapping and prioritisation processes) and findings, proposing six priority governance principles across three areas-data, participation, trust-to support future high-quality, large-scale digital research in health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15562646211041492DOI Listing
September 2021
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