Publications by authors named "J Shaun Lott"

380 Publications

An outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 with high mortality in mink (Neovison vison) on multiple Utah farms.

PLoS Pathog 2021 11 12;17(11):e1009952. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, United States of America.

The breadth of animal hosts that are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and may serve as reservoirs for continued viral transmission are not known entirely. In August 2020, an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 occurred on five mink farms in Utah and was associated with high mink mortality (35-55% of adult mink) and rapid viral transmission between animals. The premise and clinical disease information, pathology, molecular characterization, and tissue distribution of virus within infected mink during the early phase of the outbreak are provided. Infection spread rapidly between independently housed animals and farms, and caused severe respiratory disease and death. Disease indicators were most notably sudden death, anorexia, and increased respiratory effort. Gross pathology examination revealed severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Microscopically there was pulmonary edema with moderate vasculitis, perivasculitis, and fibrinous interstitial pneumonia. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of tissues collected at necropsy demonstrated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in multiple organs including nasal turbinates, lung, tracheobronchial lymph node, epithelial surfaces, and others. Localization of viral RNA by in situ hybridization revealed a more localized infection, particularly of the upper respiratory tract. Whole genome sequencing from multiple mink was consistent with published SARS-CoV-2 genomes with few polymorphisms. The Utah mink SARS-CoV-2 strains fell into Clade GH, which is unique among mink and other animal strains sequenced to date. While sharing the N501T mutation which is common in mink, the Utah strains did not share other spike RBD mutations Y453F and F486L found in nearly all mink from the United States. Mink in the outbreak reported herein had high levels of SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract associated with symptomatic respiratory disease and death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8589170PMC
November 2021

Chromatic aberration in planar focusing mirrors based on a monolithic high contrast grating.

Opt Express 2021 Sep;29(19):30296-30306

We present an experimental and theoretical analysis of chromatic aberration in a monolithic metasurface focusing mirror. The planar focusing mirror is based on a monolithic high contrast grating made from GaAs, designed for a wavelength of 980 nm. Light is focused on the high refractive index side of the mirror. Our measurements, performed between 890 and 1050 nm, indicate a shift of the focal point position that is inversely proportional to the wavelength. The experimental results are in very good agreement with our simulations, in terms of both the position of the focal point and the spectral dependence. Based on our numerical simulations, we show that simply modifying the grating height does not lead to significant alteration of the focal length or to any noticeable reduction in chromatic aberration. Using numerical simulations, we analyze how the height of the stripes, the refractive index of the grating material, and its dispersion combine to influence the chromatic aberration of the mirror.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.433813DOI Listing
September 2021

Structural characterization of human peptidyl-arginine deiminase type III by X-ray crystallography.

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2021 Oct 21;77(Pt 10):334-340. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, 3a Symonds Street, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.

The Ca-dependent enzyme peptidyl-arginine deiminase type III (PAD3) catalyses the deimination of arginine residues to form citrulline residues in proteins such as keratin, filaggrin and trichohyalin. This is an important post-translation modification that is required for normal hair and skin formation in follicles and keratocytes. The structure of apo human PAD3 was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.8 Å. The structure of PAD3 revealed a similar overall architecture to other PAD isoforms: the N-terminal and middle domains of PAD3 show sequence and structural variety, whereas the sequence and structure of the C-terminal catalytic domain is highly conserved. Structural analysis indicates that PAD3 is a dimer in solution, as is also the case for the PAD2 and PAD4 isoforms but not the PAD1 isoform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2053230X21009195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488854PMC
October 2021

Post-Biopsy Pneumothorax Incidence in Patients Treated with Biosentry™ Plug Device.

Kans J Med 2021 21;14:153-155. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS.

Introduction: This study aimed to determine if the Biosentry™ Plug Device (BPD), a prophylactic sealant used to prevent pneumothorax after lung biopsies, reduced post-lung biopsy pneumothorax rates, and other complications compared to no device utilization.

Methods: This single institution, retrospective cohort study included patients who received a lung biopsy in the Department of Interventional Radiology from May 1, 2015 to August 31, 2017. Data such as sex, race, ethnicity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease status, degree of lung bullae if present, smoking status, and use of BPD were recorded. Decisions to use BPD were based on operator preference. A chi squared analysis was used with a p value greater than 0.05 considered significant.

Results: The study included 521 patients who underwent a lung biopsy during the study timeframe. Of these, 74 (14.2%) received the BPD, while 447 (85.8%) did not. One-hundred ninety (36.4%) had a pneumothorax within one month of the lung biopsy. Of the total 190 that experienced pneumothorax, 36.7% of non-BPD biopsies resulted in pneumothorax, while 35.1% of BPD biopsies resulted in pneumothorax (p value = 0.7970; degrees of freedom = 1).

Conclusions: These findings indicated that BPD may not reduce pneumothorax incidence nor limit the severity of complications in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17161/kjm.vol1415093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222077PMC
June 2021

Experimental Demonstration of Light Focusing Enabled by Monolithic High-Contrast Grating Mirrors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 19;13(21):25533-25539. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Physics, Lodz University of Technology, Wólczańska 219, 90-924 Łódź, Poland.

We present the first experimental demonstration of a planar focusing monolithic subwavelength grating mirror. The grating is formed on the surface of GaAs and focuses 980 nm light in one dimension on the high-refractive-index side of the mirror. According to our measurements, the focal length is 475 μm (300 μm of which is GaAs) and the numerical aperture is 0.52. The intensity of the light at the focal point is 23 times larger than that of the incident light. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest value reported for a grating mirror. Moreover, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) at the focal point is only 3.9 μm, which is the smallest reported value for a grating mirror. All of the measured parameters are close to or very close to the theoretically predicted values. Our realization of a sophisticated design of a focusing monolithic subwavelength grating opens a new avenue to technologically simple fabrication of the gratings for use in diverse optoelectronic materials and applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8289169PMC
June 2021
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