Publications by authors named "J Salinas Ramos"

3,086 Publications

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Past and future of HIV infection. A document based on expert opinion.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Servicio de Microbiología Clínica y Enfermedades Infecciosas del Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Universidad Complutense. CIBERES. Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias. Madrid, Spain.

HIV infection is now almost 40 years old. In this time, along with the catastrophe and tragedy that it has entailed, it has also represented the capacity of modern society to take on a challenge of this magnitude and to transform an almost uniformly lethal disease into a chronic illness, compatible with a practically normal personal and relationship life. This anniversary seemed an ideal moment to pause and reflect on the future of HIV infection, the challenges that remain to be addressed and the prospects for the immediate future. This reflection has to go beyond merely technical approaches, by specialized professionals, to also address social and ethical aspects. For this reason, the Health Sciences Foundation convened a group of experts in different aspects of this disease to discuss a series of questions that seemed pertinent to all those present. Each question was presented by one of the participants and discussed by the group. The document we offer is the result of this reflection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.37201/req/083.2021DOI Listing
January 2022

Tucatinib versus placebo added to trastuzumab and capecitabine for patients with pretreated HER2+ metastatic breast cancer with and without brain metastases (HER2CLIMB): final overall survival analysis.

Ann Oncol 2021 Dec 23. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, USA.

Background: In the primary analysis of the HER2CLIMB trial, tucatinib added to trastuzumab and capecitabine significantly improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer. We report efficacy and safety outcomes, including the final OS and safety outcomes from follow-up in HER2CLIMB.

Patients And Methods: HER2CLIMB is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with locally advanced or metastatic HER2+ breast cancer, including patients with brain metastases. Patients were randomized 2 : 1 to receive tucatinib or placebo, in combination with trastuzumab and capecitabine. After the primary analysis (median follow-up of 14 months), the protocol was amended to allow for unblinding sites to treatment assignment and cross-over from the placebo combination to the tucatinib combination. Protocol prespecified descriptive analyses of OS, PFS (by investigator assessment), and safety were carried out at ∼2 years from the last patient randomized.

Results: Six hundred and twelve patients enrolled in the HER2CLIMB trial. At a median OS follow-up of 29.6 months, median duration of OS was 24.7 months for the tucatinib combination group versus 19.2 months for the placebo combination group [hazard ratio (HR) for death: 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.90, P = 0.004] and OS at 2 years was 51% and 40%, respectively. HRs for OS across prespecified subgroups were consistent with the HR for the overall study population. Median duration of PFS was 7.6 months for the tucatinib combination group versus 4.9 months for the placebo combination group (HR for progression or death: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.47-0.70, P < 0.00001) and PFS at 1 year was 29% and 14%, respectively. The tucatinib combination was well tolerated with a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events.

Conclusions: With additional follow-up, the tucatinib combination provided a clinically meaningful survival benefit for patients with HER2+ metastatic breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annonc.2021.12.005DOI Listing
December 2021

Exercise Training Intensity and the Fitness-Fatness Index in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Trial.

Sports Med Open 2021 Dec 24;7(1):100. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Centre for Research on Exercise, Physical Activity and Health, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: Cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness (notably central obesity) are mediating factors of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and consequent cardiovascular disease (CVD)/mortality risk. The fitness-fatness index (FFI) combines these factors and has been reported to be a better indicator of CVD and all-cause mortality risk, beyond the capacity of either fitness or fatness alone.

Objective: This study sought to investigate the effects of different exercise intensities on FFI in adults with MetS.

Methods: This was a sub-study of the 'Exercise in the prevention of Metabolic Syndrome' (EX-MET) multicentre trial. Ninety-nine adults diagnosed with MetS according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomized to one of the following 16-week exercise interventions: i) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at 60-70% HRpeak for 30 min/session (n = 34, 150 min/week); ii) 4 × 4 min bouts of high-intensity interval training at 85-95% HRpeak, interspersed with 3-min active recovery at 50-70% HRpeak (n = 34, 38 min/session, 114 min/week); and iii) 1 × 4 min bout of HIIT at 85-95% HRpeak (n = 31, 17 min/session, 51 min/week). Cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake, V̇Opeak) was determined via indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise testing and fatness was the ratio of waist circumference-to-height (WtHR). FFI was calculated as V̇Opeak in metabolic equivalents (METs) divided by WtHR. A clinically meaningful response to the exercise intervention was taken as a 1 FFI unit increase.

Results: Seventy-seven participants completed pre and post testing to determine FFI. While there was no significant between group difference (p = 0.30), there was a small group x time interaction effect on FFI [F(2, 73) = 1.226; η = 0.01], with numerically greater improvements following HIIT (4HIIT, + 16%; 1HIIT, + 11%) relative to MICT (+ 7%). There was a greater proportion of participants who had a clinically meaningful change in FFI following high-volume HIIT (60%, 15/25) and low-volume HIIT (65%, 17/26) compared to MICT (38%, 10/26), but with no significant between-group difference (p = 0.12). A similar trend was found when a sub-analysis comparing the FFI between those with type 2 diabetes (MICT, 33%, 3/9; high-volume HIIT, 64%, 7/11; and low-volume HIIT, 58%, 7/12) and without type 2 diabetes (MICT, 41%, 7/17; high-volume HIIT, 57%, 8/14; low-volume HIIT, 71%, 10/14).

Conclusion: Although there were no statistically significant differences detected between groups, this study suggests that the response to changes in FFI in adults with MetS may be affected by exercise intensity, when numerical differences between exercise groups are considered. Further research is warranted. Trial registration number and date of registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01676870; 31/08/2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40798-021-00395-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8709799PMC
December 2021

Several Yeast Species Induce Iron Deficiency Responses in Cucumber Plants ( L.).

Microorganisms 2021 Dec 16;9(12). Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Edaphology and Microbiology, Edificio C-6, Campus de Rabanales CeiA3, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain.

Iron (Fe) deficiency is a first-order agronomic problem that causes a significant decrease in crop yield and quality. Paradoxically, Fe is very abundant in most soils, mainly in its oxidized form, but is poorly soluble and with low availability for plants. In order to alleviate this situation, plants develop different morphological and physiological Fe-deficiency responses, mainly in their roots, to facilitate Fe mobilization and acquisition. Even so, Fe fertilizers, mainly Fe chelates, are widely used in modern agriculture, causing environmental problems and increasing the costs of production, due to the high prices of these products. One of the most sustainable and promising alternatives to the use of agrochemicals is the better management of the rhizosphere and the beneficial microbial communities presented there. The main objective of this research has been to evaluate the ability of several yeast species, such as , and , to induce Fe-deficiency responses in cucumber plants. To date, there are no studies on the roles played by yeasts on the Fe nutrition of plants. Experiments were carried out with cucumber plants grown in a hydroponic growth system. The effects of the three yeast species on some of the most important Fe-deficiency responses developed by dicot (Strategy I) plants, such as enhanced ferric reductase activity and Fe transport, acidification of the rhizosphere, and proliferation of subapical root hairs, were evaluated. The results obtained show the inductive character of the three yeast species, mainly of and , on the Fe-deficiency responses evaluated in this study. This opens a promising line of study on the use of these microorganisms as Fe biofertilizers in a more sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9122603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8704622PMC
December 2021

In Vitro Model for Simulating Drug Delivery during Balloon-Occluded Transarterial Chemoembolization.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Dec 16;10(12). Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Radiology, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, Tokai University School of Medicine, 1838 Ishikawa-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0032, Japan.

Background: Balloon-occluded transarterial chemoembolization (B-TACE) has emerged as a safe and effective procedure for patients with liver cancer, which is one of the deadliest types of cancer worldwide. B-TACE consist of the transcatheter intraarterial infusion of chemotherapeutic agents, followed by embolizing particles, and it is performed with a microballoon catheter that temporarily occludes a hepatic artery. B-TACE relies on the blood flow redistribution promoted by the balloon-occlusion. However, flow redistribution phenomenon is not yet well understood.

Methods: This study aims to present a simple in vitro model (IVM) where B-TACE can be simulated.

Results: By visually analyzing the results of various clinically-realistic experiments, the IVM allows for the understanding of balloon-occlusion-related hemodynamic changes and the importance of the occlusion site.

Conclusion: The IVM can be used as an educational tool to help clinicians better understand B-TACE treatments. This IVM could also serve as a base for a more sophisticated IVM to be used as a research tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10121341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8698760PMC
December 2021
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