Publications by authors named "J S Sidhu"

314 Publications

Virological Characterization of Roof-Harvested Rainwater of Densely Urbanized Low-Income Region.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) is considered relatively clean water, even though the possible presence of pathogens in the water may pose human health risks. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of enteric viruses in the first flush (10 mm) of RHRW from a densely populated and low-income urbanized region of Rio de Janeiro. One hundred samples (5 L) were collected from 10 rainfall events between April 2015 and March 2017. RNA and DNA viruses were concentrated using the skimmed milk flocculation method and analyzed using the TaqMan® quantitative RT-qPCR and qPCR. Human adenoviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses A, and avian parvoviruses were detected in 54%, 31%, 12%, and 12% of the positive samples. JC polyomavirus, also targeted, was not detected. Virus concentrations ranged from 1.09 × 10 to 2.58 × 10 genome copies/Liter (GC/L). Partial nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of HAdV type 41, norovirus genotype GII.4, and avian parvovirus 1. The results suggest that the first flush diversion devices may not adequately remove enteric virus from the rainwater. Additional treatment of RHRW is required to mitigate potential health risks from potable use of captured water.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-021-09484-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Trends in small organic fluorescent scaffolds for detection of oxidoreductase.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 15;191:113441. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab, 140001, India. Electronic address:

Oxidoreductases are diverse class of enzymes engaged in modulating the redox homeostasis and cellular signaling cascades. Abnormal expression of oxidoreductases including thioredoxin reductase, azoreductase, cytochrome oxidoreductase, tyrosinase and monoamine oxidase leads to the initiation of numerous disorders. Thus, enzymes are the promising biomarkers of the diseased cells and their accurate detection has utmost significance for clinical diagnosis. The detection method must be extremely selective, sensitive easy to use, long self-life, mass manufacturable and disposable. Fluorescence assay approach has been developed potential substitute to conventional techniques used in enzyme's quantification. The fluorescent probes possess excellent stability, high spatiotemporal ratio and reproducibility represent applications in real sample analysis. Therefore, the enzymatic transformations have been monitored by small activatable organic fluorescent probes. These probes are generally integrated with enzyme's substrate/inhibitors to improve their binding affinity toward the enzyme's catalytic site. As the recognition unit bio catalyzed, the signaling unit produces the readout signals and provides novel insights to understand the biochemical reactions for diagnosis and development of point of care devices. Several structural modifications are required in fluorogenic scaffolds to tune the selectivity for a particular enzyme. Hence, the fluorescent probes with their structural features and enzymatic reaction mechanism of oxidoreductase are the key points discussed in this review. The basic strategies to detect each enzyme are discussed. The selectivity, sensitivity and real-time applications are critically compared. The kinetic parameters and futuristic opportunities are present, which would be enormous benefits for chemists and biologists to understand the facts to design and develop unique fluorophore molecules for clinical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113441DOI Listing
June 2021

Genome-wide association analysis permits characterization of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) resistance in hard winter wheat.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 15;11(1):12570. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 57007, USA.

Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) is an economically important wheat disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum. SNB resistance in wheat is controlled by several quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, identifying novel resistance/susceptibility QTLs is crucial for continuous improvement of the SNB resistance. Here, the hard winter wheat association mapping panel (HWWAMP) comprising accessions from breeding programs in the Great Plains region of the US, was evaluated for SNB resistance and necrotrophic effectors (NEs) sensitivity at the seedling stage. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with SNB resistance and effectors sensitivity. We found seven significant associations for SNB resistance/susceptibility distributed over chromosomes 1B, 2AL, 2DS, 4AL, 5BL, 6BS, and 7AL. Two new QTLs for SNB resistance/susceptibility at the seedling stage were identified on chromosomes 6BS and 7AL, whereas five QTLs previously reported in diverse germplasms were validated. Allele stacking analysis at seven QTLs explained the additive and complex nature of SNB resistance. We identified accessions ('Pioneer-2180' and 'Shocker') with favorable alleles at five of the seven identified loci, exhibiting a high level of resistance against SNB. Further, GWAS for sensitivity to NEs uncovered significant associations for SnToxA and SnTox3, co-locating with previously identified host sensitivity genes (Tsn1 and Snn3). Candidate region analysis for SNB resistance revealed 35 genes of putative interest with plant defense response-related functions. The QTLs identified and validated in this study could be easily employed in breeding programs using the associated markers to enhance the SNB resistance in hard winter wheat.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91515-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206080PMC
June 2021

Development of functional foods using psyllium husk and wheat bran fractions: Phytic acid contents.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 18;28(6):3602-3606. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Dept.of Food Science & Nutrition, College of Life Sciences, Kuwait University, P.O. Box. 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait.

Wheat grain is a rich source of phosphorus which is present mostly as phytic acid and is distributed mainly in the bran and germ fractions. Phytic acid has now been recognized as an important phytochemical having antioxidant properties. This study deals with the determination of total as well as phytic phosphorus contents of psyllium (PS), course (CB) and fine wheat bran (FB) enriched pan bread and Arabic flat bread. The concentration of phytic acid in CB, FB, wheat germ, wholegrain wheat flour (WGF), white wheat flour (WWF), and psyllium were found to be 8.86 mg/g, 8.52 mg/g, 6.05 mg/g, 1.74 mg/g, 0.46 mg/g and 0.02 mg/g, respectively. Most of the phosphorus existed as phytic phosphorus (74.7-90.8%) in FB, CB, germ, and WGF as compared to only 42.6% in WWF. The level of phytic phosphorus in pan bread containing 10% CB, 20% FB (both containing with 5% PS) was found to be 0.63 mg/g and 1.53 mg/g respectively, as compared to only 0.34 mg/g in WWF pan bread, and 0.90 mg/g in WGF pan bread. The phytic phosphorus content in Arabic bread made with WGF and 3% psyllium was 1.32 mg/g as compared to only 0.48 mg/g in WWF Arabic flat bread. The results obtained indicate that the level of phytic phosphorus significantly increased in bread formulations containing CB, FB, and WGF, but no change with psyllium addition was observed. Adding these wheat mill fractions, and psyllium will enable bakeries not only to produce fiber-enriched pan bread and Arabic bread but would also benefit consumers to increase their dietary fiber intakes, and health-promoting phytochemicals coming from wheat bran and germ fractions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175994PMC
June 2021

Prevalence of self-reported anxiety and self-medication among upper and middle socioeconomic strata amidst COVID-19 pandemic.

J Educ Health Promot 2021 27;10:73. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: Amidst corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, disruption to the usual ways of life can lead to anxiety and feeling of being unsafe, which may be associated with self-medication. The study was planned to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and self-medication during COVID-19 pandemic.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected through an anonymous online survey with questionnaire consisting of four sections: demographic data of the participants, validated COVID-19 Anxiety Inventory Items, Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and self-medication practices during COVID-19 pandemic. The data were organized and analyzed using Windows Microsoft excel and SPSS software (Version 21). Descriptive statistics were calculated for all patient characteristics and survey responses. Analytical analysis included relationship between various parameters using Chi-square test.

Results: A total of 1100 responses were received. Approximately half of the participants were worried about getting severely ill. Majority reported reduced social contact (71.3%, = 784) and also communicated that the pandemic has influenced their use of safety measures (86.5%, = 951). The prevalence of mild-to-moderate, moderate-to severe, and extremely severe anxiety cases were 23.1%, 4.7%, and 0.54%, respectively. One-fourth of the responders reported self-medication, out of which 60% were found to be anxious. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were most commonly used.

Conclusions: Rising to the present challenge will require integration across different sectors with the immediate aim of getting people safely through the pandemic. As the world focuses on containing and delaying the spread of the COVID-19, with burdened health-care systems, we should not miss out on people with anxiety disorders and self-medication problem, which may worsen with the pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_864_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057176PMC
February 2021
-->