Publications by authors named "J O Hall"

7,780 Publications

Characterizing plasma NfL in a community-dwelling multi-ethnic cohort: Results from the HABLE study.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Introduction: No large-scale characterizations of neurofilament light chain (NfL) have been conducted in diverse populations.

Methods: Baseline data were analyzed among n = 890 Mexican Americans and n = 813 non-Hispanic Whites from the multi-ethnic Health & Aging Brain among Latino Elders (HABLE) study. Plasma NfL was measured on the Simoa platform.

Results: In unadjusted models, NfL was significantly associated with age (P < .001), hypertension (P  < .001), dyslipidemia (P = .02), and diabetes (P  < .001). Covarying for age and sex, NfL was associated with neurodegeneration (P  < .001) and global amyloid burden levels (P = .02) in a subset with available data. NfL levels were significantly associated with diagnostic groups (Normal Cognition [NC], mild cognitive impairment [MCI], Dementia; P  < .001); however, there was no cut-score that yielded acceptable diagnostic accuracy. NfL levels produced a sensitivity of 0.60 and specificity of 0.78 with negative predictive value of 89% for detecting amyloid positivity.

Discussion: Plasma NfL levels are significantly impacted by age and medical co-morbidities that are common among older adults, which complicate its utility as a diagnostic biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12404DOI Listing
July 2021

Examining the Vanishing Twin Hypothesis of Neural Tube Defects: Application of an Epigenetic Predictor for Monozygotic Twinning.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2021 Jul 26:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Strong associations between neural tube defects (NTDs) and monozygotic (MZ) twinning have long been noted, and it has been suggested that NTD cases who do not present as MZ twins may be the survivors of MZ twinning events. We have recently shown that MZ twins carry a strong, distinctive DNA methylation signature and have developed an algorithm based on genomewide DNA methylation array data that distinguishes MZ twins from dizygotic twins and other relatives at well above chance level. We have applied this algorithm to published methylation data from five fetal tissues (placental chorionic villi, kidney, spinal cord, brain and muscle) collected from spina bifida cases (n = 22), anencephalic cases (n = 15) and controls (n = 19). We see no difference in signature between cases and controls, providing no support for a common etiological role of MZ twinning in NTDs. The strong associations therefore continue to await elucidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/thg.2021.25DOI Listing
July 2021

A qualitative study of sedentary behaviours in stroke survivors: non-participant observations and interviews with stroke service staff in stroke units and community services.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Jul 24:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Academic Unit for Ageing and Stroke Research, Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bradford, England.

Purpose: Sedentary behaviour (SB) is associated with negative health outcomes and is prevalent post-stroke. This study explored SB after stroke from the perspective of stroke service staff.

Methods: Qualitative mixed-methods study. Non-participant observations in two stroke services (England/Scotland) and semi-structured interviews with staff underpinned by the COM-B model of behaviour change. Observations were analysed thematically; interviews were analysed using the Framework approach.

Results: One hundred and thirty-two observation hours (October - December 2017), and 31 staff interviewed (January -June 2018). Four themes were identified: (1) Opportunities for staff to support stroke survivors to reduce SB; (2) Physical and psychological capability of staff to support stroke survivors to reduce SB; (3) Motivating factors influencing staff behaviour to support stroke survivors to reduce SB; (4) Staff suggestions for a future intervention to support stroke survivors to reduce SB.

Conclusions: Staff are aware of the consequences of prolonged sitting but did not relate to SB. Explicit knowledge of SB was limited. Staff need training to support stroke survivors to reduce SB. Sedentary behaviour in the community was not reported to change markedly, highlighting the need to engage stroke survivors in movement from when capable in hospital, following through to home.Implications for rehabilitationStroke survivor sedentary behaviour is influenced, directly and indirectly, by the actions and instructions of stroke service staff in the inpatient and community setting.The built and social environment, both in the inpatient and community settings, may limit opportunities for safe movement and can result in stroke survivors spending more time sedentary.Stroke service staff appreciate the benefit of encouraging stroke survivors to stand and move more, if it is safe for them to do so.Staff would be amenable to encourage stroke survivors to reduce sedentary behaviour, provided they have the knowledge and resources to equip them to support this.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2021.1955307DOI Listing
July 2021

Sex differences in the impact of parental obesity on offspring cardiac SIRT3 expression, mitochondrial efficiency and diastolic function early in life.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 07 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mississippi Center for Obesity Research, Cardiorenal and Metabolic Diseases Research Center, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, United States.

Previous studies suggest that parental obesity may adversely impact long-term metabolic health of the offspring. We tested the hypothesis that parental (paternal + maternal) obesity impairs cardiac function in the offspring early in life. Within 1-3 days after weaning, offspring from obese rats fed a high fat diet (HFD-Offs) and age-matched offspring from lean rats (ND-Offs) were submitted to echocardiography and cardiac catheterization for assessment of pressure-volume relationships. Then, hearts were digested and isolated cardiomyocytes were used to determine contractile function, calcium transients, proteins related to calcium signaling, and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Female and male HFD-Offs were heavier (72±2 and 61±4 vs 57±2 and 49 ±1 g), hyperglycemic (112±8 and 115±12 vs 92±10 and 96±8 mg/dL), with higher plasma insulin and leptin concentrations compared to female and male ND-Offs. Compared to male controls, male HFD-Offs exhibited similar systolic function but impaired diastolic function as indicated by increased IVRT (22±1 vs. 17±1), E/E' ratio (29±2 vs. 23±1) and Tau (5.7±0.2 vs. 4.8±0.2). The impaired diastolic function was associated with reduced resting free Ca levels and phospholamban protein expression, increased activated matrix metalloproteinase 2 and reduced SIRT3 protein expression, mitochondrial ATP reserve and ATP-linked respiration. These results indicate that male and female Offs from obese parents have multiple metabolic abnormalities early in life (1-3 days after weaning) and that male, but not female, Offs have impaired diastolic dysfunction as well as reductions in cardiac SIRT3, resting free Ca levels and mitochondrial biogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00176.2021DOI Listing
July 2021

Sowing the seeds: Sociocultural resistance in the psychological sciences.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Lifelong Education, Administration, and Policy, The University of Georgia.

This article problematizes the use of resilience as a psychological and developmental indication of well-being. We base our argument on the possibility that resilience theories internalize responsibility for survival within the individual, and that survival is dependent on the ability to assimilate to injustice. Resistance, on the other hand, represents acts of intentional, active, and often collective survival which can expose and oppose social injustice. Bringing together transdisciplinary scholarship on resistance, we propose a conceptual framework of sociocultural resistance. This framework seeks to forward studies of health that acknowledge the complexity of relationships, culture, and power constitutive of the human condition. We provide examples of sociocultural resistance in the psychological and developmental sciences and suggest the use of diverse theory and methods in the study of resistance. Resistance research is a timely, necessary, and critical turning point in the social sciences with the potential to change unjust systems and promote a nuanced view of health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000462DOI Listing
July 2021
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