Publications by authors named "J Michael Murphy"

6,524 Publications

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An experimental test of fundraising appeals targeting donor and recipient benefits.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Economics, University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK, USA.

We partnered with Alaska's Pick.Click.Give. programme to implement a statewide natural field experiment with 540,000 Alaskans designed to examine two of the main motivations for charitable giving: concerns for the benefits to self (impure altruism or 'warm glow') or concerns for the benefits to others (pure altruism). Our empirical results highlight the relative importance of appeals to self: individuals who received such an appeal were 6.6% more likely to give and gave 23% more than counterparts in the control group. Yet, a message that instead appealed to recipient benefits (motivated by altruism) had no statistically significant effect on average donations relative to the control group. We also find evidence of long-run effects of warm-glow appeals in the subsequent year. Our results have import for theoreticians and empiricists interested in modelling charitable giving as well as practitioners and policymakers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01095-8DOI Listing
April 2021

FAK in the nucleus prevents VSMC proliferation by promoting p27 and p21 expression via Skp2 degradation.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688.

Aim: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) normally exhibit a very low proliferative rate. Vessel injury triggers VSMC proliferation, in part, through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation, which increases transcription of cyclin D1, a key activator for cell cycle-dependent kinases (CDKs). At the same time, we also observe that FAK regulates the expression of the CDK inhibitors (CDKIs) p27 and p21. However, the mechanism of how FAK controls CDKIs in cell cycle progression is not fully understood.

Methods And Results: We found that pharmacological and genetic FAK inhibition increased p27 and p21 by reducing stability of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), which targets the CDKIs for degradation. FAK N-terminal domain interacts with Skp2 and an APC/C E3 ligase activator, fizzy-related 1 (Fzr1) in the nucleus, which promotes ubiquitination and degradation of both Skp2 and Fzr1. Notably, overexpression of cyclin D1 alone failed to promote proliferation of genetic FAK kinase-dead (KD) VSMCs, suggesting that the FAK-Skp2-CDKI signaling axis is distinct from the FAK-cyclin D1 pathway. However, overexpression of both cyclin D1 and Skp2 enables proliferation of FAK-KD VSMCs, implicating that FAK ought to control both activating and inhibitory switches for CDKs. In vivo, wire injury activates FAK in the cytosol and increased Skp2 and decreased p27 and p21 levels.

Conclusions: Both pharmacological FAK and genetic FAK inhibition reduced Skp2 expression in VSMCs upon injury, which significantly reduced intimal hyperplasia through elevated expression of p27 and p21. This study revealed that nuclear FAK-Skp2-CDKI signaling negatively regulates CDK activity in VSMC proliferation.

Translational Perspective: Increased VSMC proliferation contributes to pathological vessel narrowing in atherosclerosisand following vascular interventions. Blocking VSMC proliferation will reduce atherosclerosisprogression and increase patency of vascular interventions. We found that forced nuclear FAKlocalization by FAK inhibition reduced VSMC proliferation upon vessel injury. Nuclear FAKdecreased Skp2 protein expression by proteasomal degradation, thereby increasing theexpression of cell cycle inhibitors p27 and p21 and blocking cell cycle progression. This studyhas demonstrated the potential for FAK inhibitors in blocking VSMC proliferation to treat vessel narrowing diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab132DOI Listing
April 2021

Cost-effectiveness of single-use negative-pressure therapy compared with standard care for prevention of reconstruction failure in prepectoral breast reconstruction.

BJS Open 2021 Mar;5(2)

Smith and Nephew, Hull, UK.

Background: Single-use negative-pressure wound therapy (sNPWT) has been reported to reduce the incidence of reconstruction failure in prepectoral breast reconstruction compared with standard surgical dressings. The aim of this economic evaluation was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of sNPWT compared with standard care for the prevention of reconstruction failure in prepectoral breast reconstruction in the UK.

Method: A decision tree model was used to estimate the expected cost and effectiveness per patient. Effectiveness was measured both by the number of reconstruction failures avoided and the gain in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The baseline incidence of reconstruction failure (8.6 per cent) was taken from a recently published study of 2655 mastectomies in the UK. The effectiveness of sNPWT used results from a clinical study comparing sNPWT with standard dressings. Previously published utility weights were applied. The cost of reconstruction failure was estimated from detailed resource data from patients with reconstruction failure, applying National Health Service reference costs. One-way, probabilistic, scenario and threshold analyses were conducted.

Results: The undiscounted cost per patient associated with reconstruction failure was estimated to be £23 628 (£22 431 discounted). The use of sNPWT was associated with an expected cost saving of £1706 per patient, an expected increase in QALYs of 0.0187 and an expected 0.0834 reconstruction failures avoided. Cost-effectiveness acceptability analysis demonstrated that, at a threshold of £20 000 per QALY, 99.94 per cent of the simulations showed sNPWT to be more cost-effective than standard care.

Conclusion: Among patients undergoing immediate prepectoral breast reconstruction, the use of sNPWT is more cost-effective than standard dressings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsopen/zraa042DOI Listing
March 2021

Does Mastectomy Reduce Overall Survival in Early Stage Breast Cancer?

Authors:
J Murphy A Gandhi

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Nightingale Breast Centre, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2021.03.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk of early complication following anterior vertebral body tethering for idiopathic scoliosis.

Spine Deform 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, IWK Health Center, 5850 University Avenue, PO Box 9700, Halifax, NS, B3K-6R8, Canada.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine peri-operative morbidity associated with anterior vertebral body tethering (aVBT) for idiopathic scoliosis.

Method: Of 175 patients treated with aVBT, 120 patients had 2 year follow up and were included in this study. Prospectively collected clinical and radiographic data was analyzed retrospectively.

Results: Pre-operatively, the mean patient age was 12.6 year (8.2-15.7 year), Risser 0-3, with main thoracic scoliosis 51.2° (40-70°). Immediately post-operative, scoliosis improved to 26.9° (6-53°; p < 0.05), at 1-year post-operative was 23.0° (- 11 to 50°; p < 0.01 vs immediate post-op) and at 2-year post-operative was 27.5° (- 5 to 52; p = 0.64 vs immediate post-op). Pre-operative T5-T12 kyphosis was 16.0° (- 23 to 52°), post-operative was 16.9° (- 7 to 44°), at 1-year was 17.5° (- 14 to 61°) and at 2-year was 17.0° (- 10 to 50°; p = 0.72 vs pre-op). All patients underwent thoracoscopic approach, EBL 200 ml (20-900 ml), surgical time 215.3 min (111-472 min), anesthesia time 303.5 min (207-480 min), ICU stay of 0.2 day (0-2 days), and post-operative hospital stay 4.5 days (2-9 days). During the in-hospital peri-operative period, there were no unplanned return to the operating room (UPROR) and there was a 0.8% rate of complication: one pneumothorax requiring reinsertion of chest tube. By 90 days post-operative, there was no UPROR and a 5% rate of complication. Five additional patients developed complications after discharge: one CSF leak treated with blood patch injection in the clinic and resolved, two pleural effusions requiring chest tubes, one superficial wound infection and one pneumonia treated with outpatient antibiotics. By 1-year post-op, there was a 1.7% rate of UPROR and 8.3% rate of complication. Four additional patients developed complications beyond 90 days: two upper limb paresthesia required outpatient medical management, one CSF leak which initially treated blood patch injection in the clinic initially which then required UPROR, and one compensatory lumbar curve add on that was treated with extension of the tether. By 2-years post-op, there was a 6.7% rate of UPROR and 15.8% rate of complication. 9 additional complications developed after 1 year. One curve progression, one keloid scar, one right leg weakness, 4 cable failures and 2 curve overcorrections.

Conclusion: This large, multicenter series of aVBT demonstrated a 15.8% complication rate and a 6.7% UPROR rate at 2 year post-operatively. This early study during the learning curve of aVBT found higher rates of CSF leaks and overall complications than would be expected for PSFI at 1 year post-operatively and a higher rate of overall complications and of UPROR than would be expected for PSFI at 2 year post-operatively. As is common with new procedures, the complication rate may fall with further experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00326-2DOI Listing
April 2021

COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian/Alaska Native and White Persons - Montana, March 13-November 30, 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 9;70(14):510-513. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Geographic differences in infectious disease mortality rates have been observed among American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons in the United States (1), and aggregate analyses of data from selected U.S. states indicate that COVID-19 incidence and mortality are higher among AI/AN persons than they are among White persons (2,3). State-level data could be used to identify disparities and guide local efforts to reduce COVID-19-associated incidence and mortality; however, such data are limited. Reports of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and COVID-19-associated deaths reported to the Montana Department of Public Health and Human Services (MDPHHS) were analyzed to describe COVID-19 incidence, mortality, and case-fatality rates among AI/AN persons compared with those among White persons. During March-November 2020 in Montana, the estimated cumulative COVID-19 incidence among AI/AN persons (9,064 cases per 100,000) was 2.2 times that among White persons (4,033 cases per 100,000).* During the same period, the cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate among AI/AN persons (267 deaths per 100,000) was 3.8 times that among White persons (71 deaths per 100,000). The AI/AN COVID-19 case-fatality rate (29.4 deaths per 1,000 COVID-19 cases) was 1.7 times the rate in White persons (17.0 deaths per 1,000). State-level surveillance findings can help in developing state and tribal COVID-19 vaccine allocation strategies and assist in local implementation of culturally appropriate public health measures that might help reduce COVID-19 incidence and mortality in AI/AN communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7014a2DOI Listing
April 2021

A longitudinal assessment of depression and anxiety in the Republic of Ireland before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Mar 31;300:113905. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Trinity Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

Few studies have examined changes in mental health before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. We examined changes in the prevalence of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) between February 2019 and March-April 2020; if there were changes in major depression and GAD during six weeks of nationwide lockdown; and we identified factors that predicted major depression and GAD across the six-week lockdown period. Nationally representative samples of Irish adults were gathered using identical methods in February 2019 (N = 1020) and March-April 2020 (N = 1041). The latter was reassessed six weeks later. Significantly more people screened positive for depression in February 2019 (29.8% 95% CI = 27.0, 32.6) than in March-April 2020 (22.8% 95% CI = 20.2, 25.3), and there was no change in GAD. There were no significant changes in depression and GAD during the lockdown. Major depression was predicted by younger age, non-city dwelling, lower resilience, higher loneliness, and higher somatic problems. GAD was predicted by a broader set of variables including several COVID-19 specific variables. These findings indicate that the prevalence of major depression and GAD did not increase as a result of, or during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ireland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113905DOI Listing
March 2021

Paradoxical relationships between active transport and global protein distributions in neurons.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Neural function depends on continual synthesis and targeted trafficking of intracellular components, including ion channel proteins. Many kinds of ion channels are trafficked over long distances to specific cellular compartments. This raises the question of whether cargo is directed with high specificity during transit, or whether cargo is distributed widely and sequestered at specific sites. We addressed this question by experimentally measuring transport and expression densities of Kv4.2, a voltage-gated transient potassium channel that exhibits a specific dendritic expression that increases with distance from the soma, and little or no functional expression in axons. In over 500 hours of quantitative live imaging, we found substantially higher densities of actively transported Kv4.2 subunits in axons as opposed to dendrites. This paradoxical relationship between functional expression and traffic density supports a model - commonly known as the sushi belt model - in which trafficking specificity is relatively low and active sequestration occurs in compartments where cargo is expressed. In further support of this model, we find that kinetics of active transport differ qualitatively between axons and dendrites, with axons exhibiting strong superdiffusivity while dendritic transport resembles a weakly directed random walk, promoting mixing and opportunity for sequestration. Finally, we use our data to constrain a compartmental reaction-diffusion model that can recapitulate the known Kv4.2 density profile. Together, our results show how nontrivial expression patterns can be maintained over long distances with a relatively simple trafficking mechanism, and how the hallmarks of a global trafficking mechanism can be revealed in the kinetics and density of cargo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2021.02.048DOI Listing
April 2021

Barriers and drivers to stakeholder engagement in global mental health projects.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2021 Apr 3;15(1):30. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Centre for Global Mental Health, Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, Bloomsbury, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

Background: Engagement with diverse stakeholders, including policy makers, care providers and service users and communities, is essential for successful implementation of global mental health interventions. Despite being a fundamental factor in the implementation process, evidence about challenges and drivers to stakeholder engagement is limited in the global mental health literature.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 29 recipients of Grand Challenges Canada Global Mental Health funding to assess barriers and drivers to global mental health implementation across a portfolio of projects. We used framework analysis to identify key themes related to implementation barriers and drivers. This paper reports on barriers and drivers to stakeholder engagement, with results related to capacity development and service delivery reported elsewhere in this journal.

Results: Barriers and drivers to stakeholder engagement were identified across four themes: (1) Contextual Considerations, (2) Resources, (3) Participation, Uptake and Empowerment, and (4) Stigma. While complex contextual challenges create barriers, mechanisms such as formative research can facilitate a deeper contextual understanding that supports effective implementation planning. Limited financial and human resources and competing priorities can lead to substantial challenges. Investing in and leveraging existing local resources and expertise can help to mitigate these barriers. The challenge of achieving active participation from stakeholders and diverging expectations about the nature of participation were identified as barriers, while providing opportunities for meaningful participation and empowerment acted as drivers. Stigma at the institutional, community and individual level was also identified as a substantial barrier to engagement.

Conclusion: The findings of this study are relevant to implementers in global mental health. They also have implications for global mental health funding agencies and policy organizations, who can support improved stakeholder engagement by investing in high-quality formative research, supporting capacity building for policy engagement, investing in longer-term funding schemes to support sustainable partnerships and scale-up, thus fostering successful engagement and supporting effective implementation of global mental health innovations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-021-00458-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019163PMC
April 2021

Attachment to Pets Moderates Transitions in Latent Patterns of Mental Health Following the Onset of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results of a Survey of U.S. Adults.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 21;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Sociology and Criminology & Law, University of Florida, 3219 Turlington Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

This cross-sectional study examined whether, and to what extent, attachment to pets was associated with changes in latent patterns of adults' perceived mental health symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic ( = 1942). We used latent transition analysis to determine the stability of subgroup membership pre- and post-COVID and the effect of attachment to pets on transition probabilities. Mental health before COVID-19 was measured retrospectively. Five subgroups were identified: low symptoms, mild symptoms, moderate symptoms, high symptoms, and severe symptoms. Among individuals in the moderate and high symptoms subgroups, those who reported high attachment to pets generally had greater odds of transitioning to a less severe symptom profile ( = 2.12) over time than those with low attachment to pets ( = 1.39). However, those who had a severe symptom profile and high attachment to pets had lower odds of transitioning to a less severe symptom profile ( = 0.30) and higher odds of maintaining a severe symptom profile ( = 3.33) than those with low attachment to pets. These findings suggest that the protective and risk effects of attachment to pets differ based on individuals' psychological symptom patterns across multiple indicators. We discuss the implications of these findings for research, policy, and practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004029PMC
March 2021

Acceptability of urine diversion dry toilets in Dollo Ado refugee camp, Ethiopia.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 Mar 31;234:113745. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Emergency Response and Recovery Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Given the increasing frequency and duration of humanitarian emergencies worldwide, there is a need to identify a greater range of effective and contextually appropriate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. Typical sanitation systems may be poorly suited for some of the conditions in which humanitarian emergencies can occur, such as in drought-prone regions. Urine-diversion dry toilets (UDDTs) are one potential alternative sanitation option which can be used in these conditions. Between 2014 and 2016, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partnered with local agencies to evaluate the acceptability of UDDTs in a refugee camp in Ethiopia. The overall goals were to provide evidence regarding the level of adoption and satisfaction with UDDTs in this emergency context and the factors associated with satisfaction. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted 18-months apart, using a stratified design to sample UDDT and latrine users for comparison. The proportion who reported to use their UDDT consistently was 88.8% (95% CI 85.1-92.5) in the first survey and 93.4% (95% CI 90.6-96.2) in the second survey. Reported satisfaction levels were significantly higher among respondents in the second survey (p < 0.0001), where 97.0% (95% CI 95.1-98.9) of respondents stated either that they were mostly or very satisfied with their UDDT. There was no significant difference detected in satisfaction between UDDT and latrine users (p = 0.28). Using a multivariable logistic regression model, we identified several factors associated with a higher level of satisfaction with UDDTs. Those who had previously (before coming to the camp) used a pit latrine (AOR = 4.2; 95% CI 1.4-12.7) or had no sanitation system (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.4) relative to a pour-flush toilet, had a clean UDDT (AOR = 2.8; 95% CI 1.7-4.6), had been in the camp for a longer time period (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.7-3.0), did not share their UDDT (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0-3.0) and had used their UDDT for a longer time period (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2-2.4) had higher odds of satisfaction. The findings demonstrate that UDDTs have been effectively introduced and utilized in this context and this may have implications for other humanitarian settings where they can be similarly managed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2021.113745DOI Listing
March 2021

A family harboring an MLKL loss of function variant implicates impaired necroptosis in diabetes.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 1;12(4):345. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Research Department, Sidra Medicine, Doha, 26999, Qatar.

Maturity-onset diabetes of the young, MODY, is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. In a family with multiple generations of diabetes and several early onset diabetic siblings, we found the previously reported P33T PDX1 damaging mutation. Interestingly, this substitution was also present in a healthy sibling. In contrast, a second very rare heterozygous damaging mutation in the necroptosis terminal effector, MLKL, was found exclusively in the diabetic family members. Aberrant cell death by necroptosis is a cause of inflammatory diseases and has been widely implicated in human pathologies, but has not yet been attributed functions in diabetes. Here, we report that the MLKL substitution observed in diabetic patients, G316D, results in diminished phosphorylation by its upstream activator, the RIPK3 kinase, and no capacity to reconstitute necroptosis in two distinct MLKL human cell lines. This MLKL mutation may act as a modifier to the P33T PDX1 mutation, and points to a potential role of impairment of necroptosis in diabetes. Our findings highlight the importance of family studies in unraveling MODY's incomplete penetrance, and provide further support for the involvement of dysregulated necroptosis in human disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03636-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Mechanism of NanR gene repression and allosteric induction of bacterial sialic acid metabolism.

Nat Commun 2021 03 31;12(1):1988. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Biomolecular Interaction Centre and School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Bacteria respond to environmental changes by inducing transcription of some genes and repressing others. Sialic acids, which coat human cell surfaces, are a nutrient source for pathogenic and commensal bacteria. The Escherichia coli GntR-type transcriptional repressor, NanR, regulates sialic acid metabolism, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that three NanR dimers bind a (GGTATA)-repeat operator cooperatively and with high affinity. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structures reveal the DNA-binding domain is reorganized to engage DNA, while three dimers assemble in close proximity across the (GGTATA)-repeat operator. Such an interaction allows cooperative protein-protein interactions between NanR dimers via their N-terminal extensions. The effector, N-acetylneuraminate, binds NanR and attenuates the NanR-DNA interaction. The crystal structure of NanR in complex with N-acetylneuraminate reveals a domain rearrangement upon N-acetylneuraminate binding to lock NanR in a conformation that weakens DNA binding. Our data provide a molecular basis for the regulation of bacterial sialic acid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22253-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of Radiation on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Older Resectable Esophageal Cancer Patients With Medicare.

Am J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

University of California San Diego School of Medicine Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR.

Objectives: Preoperative radiotherapy improves outcomes for operable esophageal cancer patients, though the proximity of the heart to the esophagus puts patients at risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. This study characterizes the impact of radiotherapy and different radiation techniques on cardiovascular morbidity among a cohort of esophageal cancer patients.

Materials And Methods: We identified 1125 patients aged 65 and older diagnosed between 2000 and 2011 with esophageal cancer who received surgery alone, or surgery preceded by either preoperative chemotherapy or preoperative chemoradiation from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database. We used Medicare claims to identify severe perioperative and late cardiovascular events. Multivariable logistic regression and Fine-Gray models were used to determine the effect of presurgery treatment on the risk of perioperative and late cardiovascular disease.

Results: Preoperative chemotherapy or chemoradiation did not significantly increase the risk of perioperative cardiovascular complications compared with surgery alone. Patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation had a 36% increased risk of having a late cardiovascular event compared with patients treated with surgery alone (subdistribution hazard ratio [SDHR]: 1.36; P=0.035). There was no significant increase in late cardiovascular events among patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy (SDHR: 1.18; P=0.40). Among patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation, those receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy had a 68% decreased risk of having a late cardiovascular event compared with patients receiving conventional radiation (SDHR: 0.32; P=0.007).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates an increased risk of cardiovascular complications among operative esophageal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation, though these risks might be reduced with more cardioprotective radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/COC.0000000000000815DOI Listing
March 2021

Psychometric evaluation of the Reward Probability Index in emerging adult drinkers.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: Diminished access to environmental rewards is an established risk factor for addiction and a focus of many effective treatment approaches. Nevertheless, there is inconsistency in measurement approaches and a need for a psychometrically sound measure. The Reward Probability Index (RPI; Carvalho, , 2011, pp. 249-262) is a 20-item self-report rating scale that measures access to and ability to experience psychosocial reward.

Method: The current studies sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of the RPI in 2 samples of emerging adult heavy drinkers.

Results: In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis in a sample of 393 college student drinkers supported a 2-factor model of the RPI (Reward Probability and Environmental Suppressors) after removal of redundant items, and corresponding subscales demonstrated good internal consistency. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis with 602 emerging adult drinkers recruited from the community supported the 2-factor model as best fitting after removal of one poor indicator, although absolute fit was only adequate. This 2-factor model demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance across non-college and college subgroups as well as Black and White subgroups. Study 2 also demonstrated that the revised RPI subscales showed significant associations with measures of substance-free activity participation and enjoyment, anhedonia, and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the study revealed the RPI Environmental Suppressors subscale predicted alcohol-related problems (β = .25, < .001) beyond demographic covariates, weekly drinking, and depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: These studies provide evidence for the validity of the RPI as an efficient measure of access to reward among emerging adult heavy drinkers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000712DOI Listing
March 2021

Commentary on Martínez-Loredo et al.: Where do we go from here? Increasing the clinical utility of alcohol purchase tasks by expanding our definition of constraint.

Addiction 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Psychology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15481DOI Listing
March 2021

Risk compensation after HIV-1 vaccination may accelerate viral adaptation and reduce cost-effectiveness: a modeling study.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 24;11(1):6798. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Pathogen populations can evolve in response to selective pressure from vaccine-induced immune responses. For HIV, models predict that viral adaptation, either via strain replacement or selection on de novo mutation, may rapidly reduce the effectiveness of an HIV vaccine. We hypothesized that behavioral risk compensation after vaccination may accelerate the transmission of vaccine resistant strains, increasing the rate of viral adaptation and leading to a more rapid decline in vaccine effectiveness. To test our hypothesis, we modeled: (a) the impact of risk compensation on rates of HIV adaptation via strain replacement in response to a partially effective vaccine; and (b) the combined impact of risk compensation and viral adaptation on vaccine-mediated epidemic control. We used an agent-based epidemic model that was calibrated to HIV-1 trends in South Africa, and includes demographics, sexual network structure and behavior, and within-host disease dynamics. Our model predicts that risk compensation can increase the rate of HIV viral adaptation in response to a vaccine. In combination, risk compensation and viral adaptation can, under certain scenarios, reverse initial declines in prevalence due to vaccination, and result in HIV prevalence at 15 years equal to or greater than prevalence without a vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85487-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991033PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of a health-related intervention to reduce overweight, obesity and increase employment in France and the United Kingdom: a mixed-methods realist evaluation protocol.

BMC Public Health 2021 Mar 24;21(1):582. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, 5th Floor, Bournemouth Gateway Building, Bournemouth University, St Paul's Lane, Bournemouth, BH8 8GP, UK.

Background: Obesity, overweight and unemployment are interlinked, with debilitating effects on mortality, health, wellbeing and quality of life. Existing interventions to reduce overweight, obesity and unemployment have addressed these challenges independent of each other with limited success. The Adding to Social capital and individual Potential In disadvantaged REgions (ASPIRE) project will develop an innovative model using a combination of skills training and health and wellbeing interventions to improve health, wellbeing, quality of life and reduce overweight, obesity and unemployment in England and France. The aim of this paper is to outline the protocol for evaluating the ASPIRE project to examine the effectiveness of the intervention and clarify the mechanisms and contextual factors which interact to achieve outcomes.

Methods: A mixed-method realist evaluation using a single-group before-and-after design will be used. The evaluation will consist of development of an initial programme theory, theory validation and refinement using quantitative and qualitative data to understand the causal mechanisms, contexts of implementation and their interactions that result in outcomes observed in ASPIRE. Primary outcomes that will be assessed are change in body weight and body mass index, reemployment and a rise on the ASPIRE participation ladder. The ASPIRE participation ladders consists of a series of 5 steps to engage participants in the project. The first step on the ladder is joining an ASPIRE hub with paid employment as the final step on the ladder. Secondary outcomes will be physical activity, diet quality, self-efficacy and health-related quality of life. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches are appropriate in this study because the use of validated questionnaires and objective measures will demonstrate how much the intervention addressed outcomes related to weight loss and reemployment and the qualitative data (photovoice) will provide insights into the contexts and experiences that are unique to participants in the project.

Discussion: The results from this evaluation will provide an understanding of how a model of health-related interventions which improve health, wellbeing and maintenance of a healthy lifestyle could reduce overweight, obesity and unemployment. The findings will enable the adaptation of this model for effective implementation in different contexts and circumstances.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN registry: Study ID: ISRCTN17609001 , 24th February 2021 (Retrospectively registered).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10523-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987742PMC
March 2021

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination modelling for safe surgery to save lives: data from an international prospective cohort study.

Authors:

Br J Surg 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Background: Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling.

Methods: The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18-49, 50-69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty.

Results: NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year.

Conclusion: As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjs/znab101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995808PMC
March 2021

Towards the development of a national patient transfer document between residential and acute care-A pilot study.

Int J Older People Nurs 2021 Mar 24:e12374. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Nursing & Midwifery, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

Background: A lack of standardisation of documentation accompanying older people when transferring from residential to acute care is common and this may result in gaps in information and in care for older people. In Ireland, this lack of standardisation prompted the development of an evidence based national transfer document.

Objectives: To pilot a new national transfer document for use when transferring older people from residential to acute care and obtain the perceptions of its use from staff in residential and acute care settings.

Methods: This was a pre- and post-study design using purposive sampling following the STROBE guidelines. The pilot was conducted in 26 sites providing residential care and three university hospitals providing acute care. Pre-pilot questionnaires focused on current documentation and were distributed to staff in residential care (n = 875). A pilot of the new paper-based transfer document was then conducted over three months and post-pilot questionnaires distributed to staff from both residential and acute care settings (n = 1085). The findings of the pilot study were discussed with multidisciplinary expert advisory and stakeholder groups who recommended some revisions. This consensus informed the development of the final design of the new revised transfer document.

Results: Pre-pilot: 23% response rate; 83% (n = 168) participants agreed/strongly agreed that existing documentation was straightforward to complete but could be more person-centred. Post-pilot: 11% response rate; 75% (n = 93) of participants agreed/strongly agreed that the new transfer document promoted person-centred care but recommended revisions to the new document regarding layout and time to complete.

Conclusions: This study highlighted some of the challenges of providing safe, effective and relevant transfer information that is feasible and usable in everyday practice.

Implications For Practice: Standardisation and being person-centred are important determining factors in the provision of relevant up to date information on the resident being transferred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/opn.12374DOI Listing
March 2021

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses are attenuated in patients with IBD treated with infliximab.

Gut 2021 05 22;70(5):865-875. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, UK

Objective: Antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) drugs impair protective immunity following pneumococcal, influenza and viral hepatitis vaccination and increase the risk of serious respiratory infections. We sought to determine whether infliximab-treated patients with IBD have attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Design: Antibody responses in participants treated with infliximab were compared with a reference cohort treated with vedolizumab, a gut-selective anti-integrin α4β7 monoclonal antibody that is not associated with impaired vaccine responses or increased susceptibility to systemic infections. 6935 patients were recruited from 92 UK hospitals between 22 September and 23 December 2020.

Results: Rates of symptomatic and proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were similar between groups. Seroprevalence was lower in infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (3.4% (161/4685) vs 6.0% (134/2250), p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed that infliximab (vs vedolizumab; OR 0.66 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.87), p=0.0027) and immunomodulator use (OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.92), p=0.012) were independently associated with lower seropositivity. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion was observed in fewer infliximab-treated than vedolizumab-treated patients (48% (39/81) vs 83% (30/36), p=0.00044) and the magnitude of anti-SARS-CoV-2 reactivity was lower (median 0.8 cut-off index (0.2-5.6) vs 37.0 (15.2-76.1), p<0.0001).

Conclusions: Infliximab is associated with attenuated serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 that were further blunted by immunomodulators used as concomitant therapy. Impaired serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection might have important implications for global public health policy and individual anti-TNF-treated patients. Serological testing and virus surveillance should be considered to detect suboptimal vaccine responses, persistent infection and viral evolution to inform public health policy.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN45176516.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2021-324388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992387PMC
May 2021

The effect of fiber-matrix interaction on the Poynting effect for torsion of fibrous soft biomaterials.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Feb 25;118:104410. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin, D09 W6Y4, Ireland.

The response of fibrous soft tissues undergoing torsional deformations is a topic of considerable current interest. Such deformations are common in ligaments and tendons and are also of particular interest in cardiac mechanics. A well-known context where such issues arise is in understanding the mechanical response of papillary muscles of the heart. Thus the classical torsion problem for solid or hollow cylinders composed of rubber-like materials has received renewed recent attention in the context of anisotropic materials. Here we consider the torsion of a solid circular cylinder composed of a transversely isotropic incompressible fiber-reinforced hyperelastic material. The focus of the work is on examining the effect of fiber-matrix interaction on the axial stress response with emphasis on the Poynting effect. The classic Poynting effect for isotropic rubber-like materials where torsion induces elongation of the cylinder is shown to be significantly different for the transversely isotropic models considered here. For sufficiently small total angles of twist, well within the range of physiological response, a reverse-Poynting effect is shown to hold where the cylinder tends to shorten on twisting while for larger angles of twist, the usual positive Poynting effect occurs. It is shown that the influence of the fiber-matrix interaction is to enhance the reverse Poynting effect. The results are illustrated using experimental data of other authors for skeletal muscles and for brain white matter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104410DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical Data Prediction Model to Identify Patients With Early-Stage Pancreatic Cancer.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2021 Mar;5:279-287

Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Purpose: Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy with patients often experiencing nonspecific symptoms before diagnosis. This study evaluates a machine learning approach to help identify patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer from clinical data within electronic health records (EHRs).

Materials And Methods: From the Optum deidentified EHR data set, we identified early-stage (n = 3,322) and late-stage (n = 25,908) pancreatic cancer cases over 40 years of age diagnosed between 2009 and 2017. Patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer were matched to noncancer controls (1:16 match). We constructed a prediction model using eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) to identify early-stage patients on the basis of 18,220 features within the EHR including diagnoses, procedures, information within clinical notes, and medications. Model accuracy was assessed with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the area under the curve.

Results: The final predictive model included 582 predictive features from the EHR, including 248 (42.5%) physician note elements, 146 (25.0%) procedure codes, 91 (15.6%) diagnosis codes, 89 (15.3%) medications, and 9 (1.5%) demographic features. The final model area under the curve was 0.84. Choosing a model cut point with a sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 90% would enable early detection of 58% late-stage patients with a median of 24 months before their actual diagnosis.

Conclusion: Prediction models using EHR data show promise in the early detection of pancreatic cancer. Although widespread use of this approach on an unselected population would produce high rates of false-positive tests, this technique may be rapidly impactful if deployed among high-risk patients or paired with other imaging or biomarker screening tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.20.00137DOI Listing
March 2021

In-hospital opioid usage following posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Does methadone offer an advantage when used with an ERAS pathway?

Spine Deform 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Scottish Rite Campus, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose: Intraoperative methadone has been shown to decrease opioid medication requirement following posterior spinal fusion (PSF) for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). No study to date has investigated the effect of methadone on opioid medication requirement when used in conjunction with an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol following PSF.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed at a single, tertiary care pediatric hospital. Patients with AIS undergoing PSF were consecutively given a single intra-operative methadone dose and matched 1:2 to a AIS control group without methadone. Patients were matched for age, curve magnitude, levels fused, blood loss, and operating time. All children followed a standard ERAS protocol with methadone being the only change in the post-operative regimen. In-hospital data for opioid and non-opioid medication use, surgical, and patient variables were recorded and compared between cohorts.

Results: Twenty-six patients received methadone (average 15.1 ± 1.9 years) and were matched with 52 control patients without methadone (average 14.7 ± 2.2 years). There were no significant differences in total opioid usage at any time-interval prior to hospital discharge or in cumulative opioid usage. Additionally, patients had a similar VAS pain level at discharge (methadone: 4.0 ± 2.3 vs control: 3.8 ± 1.9; P = 0.572). Total opioid usage was correlated with LOS. There were no opioid-related medication complications in either cohort.

Conclusion: There was no decrease of in-hospital opioid usage when methadone was used with an ERAS protocol. Total opioid usage is correlated with hospital LOS following PSF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00288-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Implantable system for treprostinil and lung transplantation: case series from delivery for pulmonary arterial hypertension study.

Pulm Circ 2021 Jan-Mar;11(1):2045894021999290. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

The implanted system for treprostinil has been described in previous publications. There is no information published about how to handle this system around lung or heart-lung transplantation. We present the experience from the DelIVery for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension study. Seven subjects from five pulmonary arterial hypertension centers were included in this retrospective chart review. All subjects were participating in the previously described DelIVery for pulmonary arterial hypertension study. Seven subjects with implanted pumps have been listed for lung or heart-lung transplant. Six subjects underwent lung or heart-lung transplantation and one remains on the transplant list. Three different methods of patient management for transplant were used. In three subjects, the implanted system was filled with saline prior to transplantation and treprostinil was infused via an external system. Three subjects had their drug-filled implanted pump and catheter system explanted at the time of transplant. One patient had the drug-filled implanted system removed prior to being listed for transplantation. Four subjects were hospitalized while waiting for transplantation. In conclusion, the implanted system for treprostinil is an important advance in the care of pulmonary arterial hypertension subjects. The experience described here provides three effective strategies for managing the implanted system around lung or heart-lung transplantation. The optimal strategy will depend on patient characteristics and lung transplant program preferences and wait list times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2045894021999290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934050PMC
March 2021

A UK survey of nutritional care pathways for patients with Covid-19 prior to and post hospital stay.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bournemouth University, 10 St Paul's Lane, Bournemouth, BH8 8GP, UK.

Background: During the global Covid-19 pandemic, UK dietitians have delivered the best care to help patients recover from the infection. This study examined the development and evaluation of care pathways to manage nutritional care of patients following Covid-19 infection prior to and after discharge.

Methods: Registered UK dietitians completed an online questionnaire comprising 26 questions about the development of a pathway, its use, evaluation and training needs.

Results: Of 57 responses from organisations, 37 (65%) were involved in the planning/management of nutritional care. Only 19 responses had a new or adapted Covid-19 pathway. Of these, 74% reported involvement of dietetic services, 47% reported >1 eligibility criteria for pathway inclusion and 53% accepted all positive or suspected cases. All respondents used nutritional screening, first line dietary advice (food first) and referral for further advice and monitoring. Weight and food intake were the most used outcome measure. All pathways addressed symptoms related to nutrition, the most common being weight loss with poor appetite, not being hungry and skipping meals in 84% of pathways. Over half of respondents (54%) planned to evaluate their pathway and 83% reported they were 'very or reasonably confident' in their team's nutritional management of Covid-19. Less than half (42%) reported on training needs.

Conclusions: Despite challenges encountered, pathways were developed and implemented. Dietitians had adapted to new ways of working to manage nutritional care in patients prior to and after discharge from hospital following Covid-19 infection. Further work is needed to develop strategies for evaluation of their impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12896DOI Listing
March 2021

Fast-track treatment initiation counselling in South Africa: A cost-outcomes analysis.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(3):e0248551. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Introduction: In 2016, under its new National Adherence Guidelines (AGL), South Africa formalized an existing model of fast-track HIV treatment initiation counselling (FTIC). Rollout of the AGL included an evaluation study at 24 clinics, with staggered AGL implementation. Using routinely collected data extracted as part of the evaluation study, we estimated and compared the costs of HIV care and treatment from the provider's perspective at the 12 clinics implementing the new, formalized model (AGL-FTIC) to costs at the 12 clinics continuing to implement some earlier, less formalized, model that likely varied across clinics (denoted here as early-FTIC).

Methods: This was a cost-outcome analysis using standard methods and a composite outcome defined as initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 30 days of treatment eligibility and retained in care at 9 months. Using patient-level, bottom-up resource-utilization data and local unit costs, we estimated patient-level costs of care and treatment in 2017 U.S. dollars over the 9-month evaluation follow-up period for the two models of care. Resource use and costs, disaggregated by antiretroviral medications, laboratory tests, and clinic visits, are reported by model of care and stratified by the composite outcome.

Results: A total of 350/343 patients in the early-FTIC/AGL-FTIC models of care are included in this analysis. Mean/median costs were similar for both models of care ($135/$153 for early-FTIC, $130/$151 for AGL-FTIC). For the subset achieving the composite outcome, resource use and therefore mean/median costs were similar but slightly higher, reflecting care consistent with treatment guidelines ($163/$166 for early-FTIC, $168/$170 for AGL-FTIC). Not surprisingly, costs for patients not achieving the composite outcome were substantially less, mainly because they only had two or fewer follow-up visits and, therefore, received substantially less ART than patients who achieved the composite outcome.

Conclusion: The 2016 adherence guidelines clarified expectations for the content and timing of adherence counseling sessions in relation to ART initiation. Because clinics were already initiating patients on ART quickly by 2016, little room existed for the new model of fast-track initiation counseling to reduce the number of pre-ART clinic visits at the study sites and therefore to reduce costs of care and treatment.

Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Number: NCT02536768.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248551PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971492PMC
March 2021

Adverse childhood experiences, racial microaggressions, and alcohol misuse in Black and White emerging adults.

Psychol Addict Behav 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: Research indicates that emerging adults (EAs) are at an increased risk for heavy drinking and its associated alcohol problems, and that both proximal and distal stressors (e.g., adverse childhood experiences [ACEs], and subtle racial discrimination [racial microaggressions]) may contribute to these high-risk outcomes. We investigated the relationship of ACEs with alcohol consumption and alcohol problems in a sample of Black and White EAs, and racial microaggressions with alcohol consumption and alcohol problems in the Black EAs in our sample.

Method: Six hundred two EAs (41.5% Black, 47% White; 57.3% women) completed measures assessing ACEs, alcohol consumption, and alcohol problems. One hundred ninety-six Black EAs in the sample were also asked to complete a measure of racial microaggressions that assessed their level of distress related to these experiences.

Results: Regression analyses demonstrated a positive association of ACEs with alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Sex moderated the relation of ACEs with alcohol consumption such that the positive relationship between ACEs and alcohol consumption was minimally stronger for females. College status moderated the relation of ACEs with alcohol consumption such that the relationship between ACEs and alcohol consumption was stronger for college students than non-college students. Racial microaggressions were positively associated with alcohol problems, but not alcohol consumption.

Conclusion: Findings underscore the importance of childhood stressors with alcohol consumption and problems for EAs, and the need for additional research on racial microaggressions and alcohol problems in Black EAs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000597DOI Listing
March 2021

Light-Induced Paramagnetism in Colloidal Ag-Doped CdSe Nanoplatelets.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Mar 16;12(11):2892-2899. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Physics, University at Buffalo SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260, United States.

We describe a study of the magneto-optical properties of Ag-doped CdSe colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) that were grown using a novel doping technique. In this work, we used magnetic circularly polarized luminescence and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to study light-induced magnetism for the first time in 2D solution-processed structures doped with nominally nonmagnetic Ag impurities. The excitonic circular polarization () and the exciton Zeeman splitting () were recorded as a function of the magnetic field () and temperature (). Both and have a Brillouin-function-like dependence on and , verifying the presence of paramagnetism in Ag-doped CdSe NPLs. The observed light-induced magnetism is attributed to the transformation of nonmagnetic Ag ions into Ag, which have a nonzero magnetic moment. This work points to the possibility of incorporating these nanoplatelets into spintronic devices, in which light can be used to control the spin injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00398DOI Listing
March 2021