Publications by authors named "J Michael Gaziano"

624 Publications

Risk factors and prediction models for incident heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), Cardiology Section, VA Boston Healthcare System, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, Boston, MA, 02132, USA.

Aims: This study aims to develop the first race-specific and sex-specific risk prediction models for heart failure with preserved (HFpEF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).

Methods And Results: We created a cohort of 1.8 million individuals who had an outpatient clinic visit between 2002 and 2007 within the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System and obtained information on HFpEF, HFrEF, and several risk factors from electronic health records (EHR). Variables were selected for the risk prediction models in a 'derivation cohort' that consisted of individuals with baseline date in 2002, 2003, or 2004 using a forward stepwise selection based on a change in C-index threshold. Discrimination and calibration were assessed in the remaining participants (internal 'validation cohort'). A total of 66 831 individuals developed HFpEF, and 92 233 developed HFrEF (52 679 and 71 463 in the derivation cohort) over a median of 11.1 years of follow-up. The HFpEF risk prediction model included age, diabetes, BMI, COPD, previous MI, antihypertensive treatment, SBP, smoking status, atrial fibrillation, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), while the HFrEF model additionally included previous CAD. For the HFpEF model, C-indices were 0.74 (SE = 0.002) for white men, 0.76 (0.005) for black men, 0.79 (0.015) for white women, and 0.77 (0.026) for black women, compared with 0.72 (0.002), 0.72 (0.004), 0.77 (0.017), and 0.75 (0.028), respectively, for the HFrEF model. These risk prediction models were generally well calibrated in each race-specific and sex-specific stratum of the validation cohort.

Conclusions: Our race-specific and sex-specific risk prediction models, which used easily obtainable clinical variables, can be a useful tool to implement preventive strategies or subtype-specific prevention trials in the nine million users of the VA healthcare system and the general population after external validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13429DOI Listing
September 2021

Chocolate consumption and risk of coronary artery disease: the Million Veteran Program.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 05 1;113(5):1137-1144. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Although previous studies have suggested cocoa products may promote cardiovascular health in the general population, no public data are available from patients receiving care in a national integrated health care system.

Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that regular chocolate consumption is associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) events among participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP). Secondary analysis examined if the main hypothesis was observed among participants with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: We analyzed data from MVP participants who completed the food frequency section of the MVP Lifestyle Survey and were free of CAD at the time of survey completion. CAD events during follow-up (International Statistical Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes 410-411 and 413-414, and Tenth Revision codes I20-I25 except I25.2) were assessed using electronic health records. We fitted a Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the RR of CAD.

Results: Of 188,447 MVP enrollees with survey data, mean ± SD age was 64 ± 12.0 y and 90% were men. For regular chocolate (28.3 g/serving) consumption of <1 serving/mo, 1-3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, 2-4 servings/wk, and ≥5 servings/wk, crude incidence rates (per 1000 person-years) for fatal and nonfatal CAD events or coronary procedures were 20.2, 17.5, 16.7, 17.1, and 16.9, respectively, during a mean follow-up of 3.2 y. After adjusting for age, sex, race, and lifestyle factors, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (ref), 0.92 (0.87, 0.96), 0.88 (0.83, 0.93), 0.89 (0.84, 0.95), and 0.89 (0.84, 0.96), respectively ( for linear trend < 0.0001). In a secondary analysis of 47,265 diabetics, we did not observe a decreasing trend in CAD mortality among those who consumed ≥1 serving of chocolate a month compared with those who consumed <1 serving/mo.

Conclusions: Regular chocolate consumption was associated with a lower risk of CAD among veterans, but was not associated with cardiovascular disease risk in veterans with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412179PMC
May 2021

Discovery and prioritization of variants and genes for kidney function in >1.2 million individuals.

Nat Commun 2021 07 16;12(1):4350. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Genes underneath signals from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for kidney function are promising targets for functional studies, but prioritizing variants and genes is challenging. By GWAS meta-analysis for creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the Chronic Kidney Disease Genetics Consortium and UK Biobank (n = 1,201,909), we expand the number of eGFRcrea loci (424 loci, 201 novel; 9.8% eGFRcrea variance explained by 634 independent signal variants). Our increased sample size in fine-mapping (n = 1,004,040, European) more than doubles the number of signals with resolved fine-mapping (99% credible sets down to 1 variant for 44 signals, ≤5 variants for 138 signals). Cystatin-based eGFR and/or blood urea nitrogen association support 348 loci (n = 460,826 and 852,678, respectively). Our customizable tool for Gene PrioritiSation reveals 23 compelling genes including mechanistic insights and enables navigation through genes and variants likely relevant for kidney function in human to help select targets for experimental follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24491-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285412PMC
July 2021

Hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism genes and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: a pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC.

Methods: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs.

Results: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association.

Conclusions: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab217DOI Listing
July 2021
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