Publications by authors named "J Martin Gibson"

3,266 Publications

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A novel power-amplified jumping behavior in larval beetles (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).

PLoS One 2022 19;17(1):e0256509. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Research & Collections, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, NC, United States of America.

Larval insects use many methods for locomotion. Here we describe a previously unknown jumping behavior in a group of beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae). We analyze and describe this behavior in Laemophloeus biguttatus and provide information on similar observations for another laemophloeid species, Placonotus testaceus. Laemophloeus biguttatus larvae precede jumps by arching their body while gripping the substrate with their legs over a period of 0.22 ± 0.17s. This is followed by a rapid ventral curling of the body after the larvae releases its grip that launches them into the air. Larvae reached takeoff velocities of 0.47 ± 0.15 m s-1 and traveled 11.2 ± 2.8 mm (1.98 ± 0.8 body lengths) horizontally and 7.9 ± 4.3 mm (1.5 ± 0.9 body lengths) vertically during their jumps. Conservative estimates of power output revealed that some but not all jumps can be explained by direct muscle power alone, suggesting Laemophloeus biguttatus may use a latch-mediated spring actuation mechanism (LaMSA) in which interaction between the larvae's legs and the substrate serves as the latch. MicroCT scans and SEM imaging of larvae did not reveal any notable modifications that would aid in jumping. Although more in-depth experiments could not be performed to test hypotheses on the function of these jumps, we posit that this behavior is used for rapid locomotion which is energetically more efficient than crawling the same distance to disperse from their ephemeral habitat. We also summarize and discuss jumping behaviors among insect larvae for additional context of this behavior in laemophloeid beetles.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256509PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8769368PMC
January 2022

The Unspeakable Nature of Death & Dying During Childhood: A Silenced Phenomenon in Pediatric Care.

Omega (Westport) 2022 Jan 14:302228211067034. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, 7938University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

In pediatric settings, the concept of hope is frequently positioned as a fundamental aspect of care and at odds with the possibility and proximity of death. This arguably fosters silence about death and dying in childhood despite evidence indicating the benefits of open communication at the end of life. In this paper, we describe the unspeakable nature of death and dying in childhood, including its conceptual and clinical causes and dimensions, its persistence, and the associated challenges for children and youth facing critical illnesses, their families, and society. We explore how the tension between hope and death can be reframed and apply our analysis to the context of medical assistance in dying for mature minors in Canada. Considering the lack of related literature, this paper offers initial reflections to form a framework for the unspeakable nature of death and dying in childhood and to advance the crucial need for research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00302228211067034DOI Listing
January 2022

Bond Dissociation Energies Reveal the Participation of d Electrons in f-Element Halide Bonding.

Authors:
John K Gibson

J Phys Chem A 2022 Jan 10;126(2):272-285. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) reported in the literature for lanthanide monofluorides and lanthanide monochlorides LnX, where X = F or Cl, exhibit substantial irregular variations across the Ln series. It is demonstrated here that correlations of these variations with reported experimentally based atomic energies to prepare the Ln constituent for bonding reveal the nature of the bonding. Whereas some molecular characteristics are well understood in the context of highly ionic bonding, with LnX considered to be (Ln)(X), some significant variations in BDEs are not well rationalized simply by ionization to convert Ln to Ln for bonding. Focusing here on lanthanide monofluorides LnF, a consideration of alternative Ln preparation schemes shows that a particularly good rationalization of BDEs is obtained by invoking the participation of a lanthanide 5d electron in bonding. This 5d participation could be in ionic (Ln)(F) via π-donation from F 2p to empty Ln 5d orbitals or in covalent π-bonded Ln:F via polarization from Ln 5d to F 2p, with these ionic and polar covalent perspectives ultimately being equivalent. The inference of lanthanide 5d involvement suggests that the valence 4f and 6s electrons do not effectively participate in some key aspects of the bonding, presumably due to poor spatial overlap with F 2p orbitals. An extension to actinide monofluorides, AnF, assumes analogous ionic or polar covalent bonding involving a valence 6d electron and results in predictions for BDEs that include a general decrease from left to right across the series, except for a distinctive local minimum at AmF. Determining the BDE for AmF would serve to evaluate the predictions and the underlying assumption of 6d bonding. The BDE assessments/predictions for neutral monofluorides, LnF and AnF, are also applied to cationic LnF and AnF, and it is noted that the approach can be directly extended to f-element monochlorides, monobromides, and monoiodides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.1c09090DOI Listing
January 2022

'No insulin.' Ethical considerations when clinical teams and patients disagree on treatment preference.

Nursing 2022 Jan;52(1):60-62

Jennifer A. Gibson is the director of Ethics Services at Providence Health Care and an adjunct professor at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NURSE.0000803508.89915.55DOI Listing
January 2022

Construct validity of the anglicised FACE-Q skin cancer module.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Dec 1. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Reconstructive Surgery & Regenerative Medicine Research Group, Institute Of Life Sciences, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, UK; Welsh Centre for Burns and Plastics, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK.

Objectives: The FACE-Q Skin Cancer module is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for facial skin cancer. It has been anglicised for the UK population and undergone psychometric testing using classical test theory. In this study, further evaluation of construct validity using Rasch measurement theory and hypothesis testing was performed.

Methods: Patients were prospectively recruited to the Patient-Reported Outcome Measures In Skin Cancer Reconstruction (PROMISCR) study and asked to complete the anglicised FACE-Q Skin Cancer module. The scalability and unidimensionality of the data were assessed with a Mokken analysis prior to Rasch analysis. Response thresholds, targeting, fit statistics, local dependency, and internal consistency were examined for all items and subscales. Four a priori hypotheses were tested to evaluate the convergent and divergent validity. We additionally hypothesised that the median 'cancer worry' score would be lower in post-operative than pre-operative patients.

Results: 239 patients self-completed the questionnaire between August 2017 and May 2019. Of the ten subscales assessed, five showed relative fit to the Rasch model. Unidimensionality was present for all five subscales, with most demonstrating ordered item thresholds and appropriate fit statistics. Two items in the 'cancer worry' subscale had either disordered or very close response thresholds. Subscales of the FACE-Q Skin Cancer module demonstrated convergent and divergent validity with relevant Skin Cancer Index comparators (p < 0.001). Median 'cancer worry' was lower in post-operative patients (44 vs 39, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The anglicised FACE-Q Skin Cancer module shows psychometric validity through hypothesis testing, and both classical and modern test theory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2021.11.093DOI Listing
December 2021
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