Publications by authors named "J M Taylor"

12,546 Publications

Child abuse in children living with special guardians, a service evaluation of child protection medical examinations.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2021 2;5(1):e001103. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK.

Objective: To determine difference in frequency of referral for child protection medical examination (CPME) in children subject to special guardianship order (SGO), subject to child protection plan (CPP) or neither.

Design: Service evaluation analysing data from CPME reports.

Setting: Acute and community healthcare providers in Birmingham UK, during 2018.

Patients: All children aged 0-18 years requiring CPME.

Main Outcome Measures: Details were obtained from CPME reports on: age, SGO status, CPP status, reason for CPME, injuries sustained, presence of non-accidental injury.Population data were obtained from the local children's safeguarding board and national statistics.

Results: Reports were available for 292/298 (98%) CPME, relating to 288 children. 5 children were subject to SGO, 39 were subject to CPP, none subject to both. Non-accidental injury was substantiated in 189/288 (66%). The child population was 288 000. 1665 children were subject to CPP and approximately 750 subject to SGO. The relative risk (RR) for children subject to SGO requiring a CPME compared with children not subject to SGO or CPP is 7.86, p<0.0001 with 95% CI (3.26 to 19.02). The RR for children subject to a CPP requiring CPME compared with children not subject to SGO or CPP is 27.65, p<0.0001 with 95% CI (19.78 to 38.63).

Conclusions: This is a small study and findings need interpreting cautiously. Children subject to SGO may potentially be at higher risk of abuse than the general population despite living with carers who have passed social care parenting assessments. There is no register of children subject to SGO so professionals may be unable to offer families additional support. SGO families should be offered enhanced support and monitoring routinely. Children subject to CPP are not being adequately protected from further abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2021-001103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256753PMC
July 2021

A tool for assessing the climate change mitigation and health impacts of environmental policies: the Cities Rapid Assessment Framework for Transformation (CRAFT).

Wellcome Open Res 2020 18;5:269. Epub 2021 May 18.

UCL Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering, London, WC1H 0NN, UK.

A growing number of cities, including Greater London, have set ambitious targets, including detailed policies and implementation plans, to reach global goals on sustainability, health, and climate change. Here we present a tool for a rapid assessment of the magnitude of impact of specific policy initiatives to reach these targets. The decision-support tool simultaneously quantifies the environmental and health impacts of specified selected policies. The 'Cities Rapid Assessment Framework for Transformation (CRAFT)' tool was applied to Greater London. CRAFT quantifies the effects of ten environmental policies on changes in (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, (2) exposures to environmental hazards, (3) travel-related physical activity, and (4) mortality (the number of attributable deaths avoided in one typical year). Publicly available data and epidemiological evidence were used to make rapid quantitative estimates of these effects based on proportional reductions in GHG emissions and environmental exposures from current baseline levels and to compute the mortality impacts. The CRAFT tool estimates that, of roughly 50,000 annual deaths in Greater London, the modelled hazards (PM (from indoor and outdoor sources), outdoor NO , indoor radon, cold, overheating) and low travel-related physical activity are responsible for approximately 10,000 premature environment-related deaths. Implementing the selected polices could reduce the annual mortality number by about 20% (~1,900 deaths) by 2050. The majority of these deaths (1,700) may be avoided through increased uptake in active travel. Thus, out of ten environmental policies, the 'active travel' policy provides the greatest health benefit. Also, implementing the ten policies results in a GHG reduction of around 90%. The CRAFT tool quantifies the effects of city policies on reducing GHG emissions, decreasing environmental health hazards, and improving public health. The tool has potential value for policy makers through providing quantitative estimates of health impacts to support and prioritise policy options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16345.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280949PMC
May 2021

Considerations for Cardiovascular Genetic and Genomic Research With Marginalized Racial and Ethnic Groups and Indigenous Peoples: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Jul 26:HCG0000000000000084. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Historically marginalized racial and ethnic groups and Indigenous peoples are burdened by significant health inequities that are compounded by their underrepresentation in genetic and genomic research. Of all genome-wide association study participants, ≈79% are of European descent, despite this group constituting only 16% of the global population. For underrepresented populations, polygenic risk scores derived from these studies are less accurate in predicting disease phenotypes, novel population-specific genetic variations may be misclassified as potentially pathogenic, and there is a lack of understanding of how different populations metabolize drugs. Although inclusion of marginalized racial and ethnic groups and Indigenous peoples in genetic and genomic research is crucial, scientific studies must be guided by ethical principles of respect, honesty, justice, reciprocity, and care for individuals and communities. Special considerations are needed to support research that benefits the scientific community as well as Indigenous peoples and marginalized groups. Before a project begins, collaboration with community leaders and agencies can lead to successful implementation of the study. Throughout the study, consideration must be given to issues such as implications of informed consent for individuals and communities, dissemination of findings through scientific and community avenues, and implications of community identity for data governance and sharing. Attention to these issues is critical, given historical harms in biomedical research that marginalized groups and Indigenous peoples have suffered. Conducting genetic and genomic research in partnership with Indigenous peoples and marginalized groups guided by ethical principles provides a pathway for scientific advances that will enhance prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease for everyone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HCG.0000000000000084DOI Listing
July 2021

Predicting subclinical psychotic-like experiences on a continuum using machine learning.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 22:118329. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia; Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Australia; Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Integrative Brain Function; Centre for Advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Australia.

Previous studies applying machine learning methods to psychosis have primarily been concerned with the binary classification of chronic schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. The aim of this study was to use electroencephalographic (EEG) data and pattern recognition to predict subclinical psychotic-like experiences on a continuum between these two extremes in otherwise healthy people. We applied two different approaches to an auditory oddball regularity learning task obtained from N = 73 participants:Using the latter approach, optimal performance was achieved using the response to frequent, predictable sounds. Features within the P50 and P200 time windows had the greatest contribution toward lower Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) scores and the N100 time window contributed most to higher PQ scores. As a proof-of-concept, these findings demonstrate that EEG data alone are predictive of individual psychotic-like experiences in healthy people. Our findings are in keeping with the mounting evidence for altered sensory responses in schizophrenia, as well as the notion that psychosis may exist on a continuum expanding into the non-clinical population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118329DOI Listing
July 2021

Implicit visuomotor adaptation remains limited after several days of training.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University.

Learning in sensorimotor adaptation tasks has been viewed as an implicit learning phenomenon. The implicit process affords recalibration of existing motor skills so that the system can adjust to changes in the body or environment without relearning from scratch. However, recent findings suggest that the implicit process is heavily constrained, calling into question its utility in motor learning and the theoretical framework of sensorimotor adaptation paradigms. These inferences have been based mainly on results from single bouts of training, where explicit compensation strategies, such as explicitly re-aiming the intended movement direction, contribute a significant proportion of adaptive learning. It is possible, however, that the implicit process supersedes explicit compensation strategies over repeated practice sessions. We tested this by dissociating the contributions of explicit re-aiming strategies and the implicit process in human participants over five consecutive days of training. Despite a substantially longer duration of training, the implicit process still plateaued at a value far short of complete learning and, as has been observed in previous studies, was inappropriate for a mirror-reversal task. Notably, we find significant between subject differences that call into question traditional interpretation of these group-level results.In this set of studies, we find that the implicit process cannot fully account for learning in adaptation tasks, such as the visuomotor rotation and mirror-reversal tasks, even following several days of training. In fact, the implicit process can be counterproductive to learning. Most notably, we find significant between subject differences that call into question traditional interpretation of these group-level results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0312-20.2021DOI Listing
July 2021
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