Publications by authors named "J M Hart"

2,555 Publications

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Association Between the 5As and Stage of Change Among African American Smokers Eligible for Low-Dose Computed Tomography Screening.

Prev Chronic Dis 2021 Jul 15;18:E71. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Epidemiology, LSUHSC School of Public Health, New Orleans, Louisiana.

We investigated the association between the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) clinical protocol and stage of change among African American smokers who are eligible for low-dose computed tomography screening. In 2019, 60 African American daily smokers aged 55 years or older were recruited in a large hospital in New Orleans, Louisiana. Smokers who received assistance for smoking cessation were more likely to be in the preparation stage than those who did not receive any assistance. Assistance from health professionals is an essential form of support and may substantially enhance smokers' motivation to quit smoking in this population that is at higher risk for mortality from lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd18.210073DOI Listing
July 2021

Intake of fruits and vegetables by pesticide residue status in relation to cancer risk.

Environ Int 2021 Jul 10;156:106744. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Conventionally grown fruits and vegetables (FVs) are the main source of general population exposure to pesticide residues.

Objective: To evaluate the relation of intake of high- and low-pesticide-residue FVs with cancer risk.

Methods: We followed 150,830 women (Nurses' Health Study, 1998-2016, and Nurses' Health Study II, 1999-2017) and 29,486 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1998-2016) without a history of cancer. We ascertained FV intake via validated food frequency questionnaires and categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residue levels based on USDA surveillance data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of total and site-specific cancer related to quintiles of high- and low-pesticide-residue FV intake.

Results: We documented 23,678 incident cancer cases during 2,862,118 person-years of follow-up. In the pooled multivariable analysis, neither high- nor low-pesticide-residue FV intake was associated with cancer. The HRs (95% CI) per 1 serving/day increase in intake were 0.99 (0.97-1.01) for high- and 1.01 (0.99-1.02) for low-pesticide-residue FVs. Additionally, we found no association between high-pesticide-residue FV intake and risk of specific sites, including malignancies previously linked to occupational pesticide exposure ([HR, 95% CI comparing extreme quintiles of intake] lung [1.17 (0.95-1.43)], non-Hodgkin lymphoma [0.89 (0.72-1.09)], prostate [1.31 (0.88-1.93)]) or inversely related to intake of organic foods (breasts [1.03 (0.94-1.31)]).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that overall exposure to pesticides through FV intake is not related to cancer risk, although they do not rule out associations with specific chemicals or sub-types of specific cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106744DOI Listing
July 2021

A soft x-ray probe of a titania photoelectrode sensitized with a triphenylamine dye.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jun;154(23):234707

School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.

We present a thorough soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of a mesoporous titanium dioxide electrode sensitized with the dye 4-(diphenylamino)phenylcyanoacrylic acid, referred to as "L0." Supported by calculations, the suite of XPS, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and resonant photoelectron spectroscopy allows us to examine bonding interactions between the dye and the surface and the frontier electronic structure at the molecule-oxide interface. While placing these measurements in the context of existing literature, this paper is intended as a useful reference for further studies of more complex triphenylamine based sensitizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0050531DOI Listing
June 2021

American Frontline Healthcare Personnel's Access to and Use of Personal Protective Equipment Early in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Division of Women's Health, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (Rich-Edwards); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (Rich-Edwards, Chavarro); Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (Ding, Chavarro); National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA (Rocheleau, Boiano, Lawson); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (Kang, Hart); Tufts University, Somerville, Massachusetts, USA (Becene, Chavarro); Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA (Nguyen, Chan); Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (Hart).

Objectives: To quantify adequacy of personal protective equipment (PPE) for U.S. healthcare personnel (HCP) at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with infection risk.

Methods: March-May 2020 survey of the national Nurses' Health Studies and the Growing Up Today study regarding self-reported PPE access, use and reuse. COVID-19 endpoints included SARS-CoV-2 tests and COVID-19 status predicted from symptoms.

Results: Nearly 22% of 22,232 frontline HCP interacting with COVID-19 patients reported sometimes or always lacking PPE. Fifty percent of HCP reported not needing respirators, including 13% of those working in COVID-19 units. Lack of PPE was cross-sectionally associated with two-fold or greater odds of COVID-19 among those who interacted with infected patients.

Conclusion: These data show the need to improve the U.S. infection prevention culture of safety when confronting a novel pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002308DOI Listing
July 2021

Air pollution and cardiovascular disease hospitalization - Are associations modified by greenness, temperature and humidity?

Environ Int 2021 Jul 2;156:106715. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, United States; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, United States.

Background: Studies have observed associations between long-term air pollution and cardiovascular disease hospitalization. Little is known, however, about effect modification of these associations by greenness, temperature and humidity.

Methods: We constructed an open cohort consisting of all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, aged ≥ 65, living in the contiguous US from 2000 through 2016 (~63 million individuals). We assigned annual average PM, NO and ozone zip code concentrations. Cox-equivalent Poisson models were used to estimate associations with first cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBV) hospitalization.

Results: PM and NO were both positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization, after adjustment for potential confounders. Associations were substantially stronger at the lower end of the exposure distributions. For CVD hospitalization, the hazard ratio (HR) of PM was 1.041 (1.038, 1.045) per IQR increase (4.0 µg/m) in the full study population and 1.327 (1.305, 1.350) per IQR increase for a subgroup with annual exposures always below 10 µg/m PM. Ozone was only positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization for the low-exposure subgroup (<40 ppb). Associations of PM were stronger in areas with higher greenness, lower ozone and O, lower summer and winter temperature and lower summer and winter specific humidity.

Conclusion: PM and NO were positively associated with CVD, CHD and CBV hospitalization. Associations were more pronounced at low exposure levels. Associations of PM were stronger with higher greenness, lower ozone and O, lower temperature and lower specific humidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106715DOI Listing
July 2021