Publications by authors named "J Kellogg Parsons"

2,617 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic.

Br J Gen Pract 2021 12 25;71(713):541. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

University of Warwick, Coventry.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/bjgp21X717761DOI Listing
December 2021

Disparities and trends in the participation of minorities, women, and the elderly in breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer clinical trials.

Cancer 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Urology, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California.

Background: This study was done to determine the representation of minorities, women, and the elderly in National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical trials.

Methods: This is an analysis in the NCI Clinical Data Update System. Patients were evaluated in breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer trials from 2000 to 2019. Representation in a trial was determined by race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Secondarily, the change in trial participation by multivariable analysis by comparing years 2000 through 2004 to 2015 through 2019 was evaluated.

Results: The cohort included 242,720 participants: 197,320 Non-Hispanic White (81.3%), 21,190 Black (8.7%), 11,587 Hispanic (4.8%), and 6880 Asian/Pacific Islander (2.8%). Black and Hispanic patients were underrepresented for colorectal (odds ratio [OR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.67; P < .001 and OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87; P < .001, respectively), lung (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; P < .001 and 0.66; 95% CI, 0.57-0.77; P < .001, respectively), and prostate cancer trials (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.92; P < .001 and OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.51-0.66; P < .001) between 2015 and 2019. The odds of participation in 2015 to 2019 increased among Black patients in breast (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 2.07-%2.32; P < .001), lung (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.38-1.73; P < .001), and prostate cancer trials (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.26; P < .001). The odds of participation in a trial among Hispanic patients increased for breast (OR, 3.32; 95% CI, 3.09-3.56; P < .001), colorectal (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 2.04-2.96; P < .001), lung (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 3.20-4.69; P < .001), and prostate cancer (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.42-2.04; P = .005).

Conclusions: This study identified that Black and Hispanic patients remain underrepresented in trials, but in recent years, participation has increased. These findings indicate that minority participation has increased over time, but further efforts are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33991DOI Listing
November 2021

Independent mode sorption of perfluoroalkyl acids by single and multiple adsorbents.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Infinite dilution partition coefficients, , of a series of unbranched perfluoralkylacids, PFAAs with 3 to 8 CF units between water and commercially available weak anion exchange (WAX) and strong anion exchange (MAX) polymers, C-modified silica, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance polymer (HLB), and AlO sorbents were determined with self-packed columns using an HPLC-MS/MS setup. The anionic WAX sorbent shows a much higher adsorption affinity (about 450 fold) for PFBA than was observed for the applied hydrophobic sorbent HLB. Since the incremental value for each CF group is smaller when the electrostatic adsorption process is observed, the hydrophobic partition coefficient of HLB supersedes the electrostatic one of WAX at around PFTeDA. Adsorption of PFAAs to AlO was weak and did not show a clear chain length dependency. A recently developed independent mode (IM) adsorption model is a more accurate model to combine the electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction terms. This model predicts the correct behaviour of especially short chain PFAAs in soil or sediment sorption experiments. Factors increasing sorption efficiency of well- and ill-defined single and multiple adsorbents towards PFAAs are discussed. The IM model provides a method to optimise sorption remediation strategies of PFAAs in contaminated waters and proposes a two-step strategy, a starting hydrophobic step followed by an electrostatic one to remove more efficiently the short chain PFAAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1em00322dDOI Listing
November 2021

Moving persistence assessments into the 21 Century: A role for weight-of-evidence (WoE) and overall persistence (P ).

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Total Marketing & Services, cour Michelet, 92069, Paris la Défense, France.

Assessing the persistence of chemicals in the environment is a key element in existing regulatory frameworks to protect human health and ecosystems. Persistence in the environment depends on many fate processes, including abiotic/ biotic transformations and physical partitioning, which depend on substances' physico-chemical properties and environmental conditions. One of the main challenges in persistence assessment is that existing frameworks rely on simplistic and reductionist evaluation schemes that may lead substances to be falsely assessed as persistent or the other way around, to be falsely assessed as non-persistent. Those evaluation schemes typically assess persistence against degradation half-lives determined in single-compartment simulation tests or against degradation levels measured in stringent screening tests. Most of the available test methods are however not applicable to all types of substances, especially substances that are poorly soluble, complex in composition, highly sorptive or volatile. Besides, the currently applied half-life criteria are mainly derived from a few legacy Persistent Organic Pollutants which are not representative of the large diversity of substances entering the environment. Persistence assessment would undoubtedly benefit from the development of more flexible and holistic evaluation schemes including new concepts and methods. A weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach incorporating multiple influencing factors is needed to account for chemical fate and transformation in the whole environment so as to assess overall persistence. The aim of the present paper is to begin to develop an integrated assessment framework that combines multimedia approaches to organize and interpret data using a clear WoE approach to allow for a more consistent, transparent and thorough assessment of persistence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4548DOI Listing
November 2021

Meta-analyses of deflazacort versus prednisone/prednisolone in patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

J Comp Eff Res 2021 10 25. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

University of California Davis Health, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Compare efficacies of deflazacort and prednisone/prednisolone in providing clinically meaningful delays in loss of physical milestones in patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Placebo data from Phase IIb (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00592553) and ACT DMD (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01826487) ataluren nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy clinical trials were retrospectively combined in meta-analyses (intent-to-treat population; for change from baseline to week 48 in 6-min walk distance [6MWD] and timed function tests). Significant improvements in change in 6-min walk distance with deflazacort versus prednisone/prednisolone (least-squares mean difference 39.54 m [95% CI: 13.799, 65.286; p = 0.0026]). Significant and clinically meaningful improvements in 4-stair climb and 4-stair descend for deflazacort versus prednisone/prednisolone. Deflazacort provides clinically meaningful delays in loss of physical milestones over 48 weeks compared with prednisone/prednisolone for patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/cer-2021-0018DOI Listing
October 2021
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