Publications by authors named "J Jiang"

17,245 Publications

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Correction: A Novel Remote Follow-Up Tool Based on an Instant Messaging/Social Media App for the Management of Patients With Low Anterior Resection Syndrome: Pilot Prospective Self-Control Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Apr 10;9(4):e29325. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/22647.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/29325DOI Listing
April 2021

Induced differentiation of macaque adipose-derived stem cells in vitro.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Orthopedics and Trauma, The Second People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan 650000, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001486DOI Listing
April 2021

Characteristics, Accumulation, and Potential Health Risks of Antimony in Atmospheric Particulate Matter.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 1;6(14):9460-9470. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China.

Antimony (Sb), a priority pollutant listed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), can cause adverse effects on human health, with particular impacts on skin, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory system. In this study, a database of Sb concentrations in the global atmosphere was developed through a survey of measurements published in more than 600 articles, which was then used to assess the health risks of Sb exposure based on a USEPA assessment model. Most measurements showed Sb concentrations of less than ∼10 ng m, but those at several contaminated sites exhibited Sb concentrations of more than 100 ng m. For measurements conducted in urban environments, Sb concentrations in the total suspended particles (TSP) and particles of less than 10 (PM) or 2.5 μm (PM) were the highest in Asia, followed by Europe, South America, and North America. Sb concentrations were generally higher in winter and fall than during other seasons in TSP and PM samples. A significant correlation was observed between Sb and As in TSP and PM on a global scale. Sb was mainly derived from anthropogenic sources, especially traffic emission, industrial emission, and fossil combustion. Hazard quotients (HQ) of Sb in TSP, PM, and PM were higher for children than adults because of their lighter body weight, inferior physical resistance, and higher ingestion probability. The global database for atmospheric Sb concentrations demonstrates a relatively low noncarcinogenic risk in most regions. Long-term monitoring is still required to identify the sources and growth potentials of Sb so that effective control policies can be established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c06091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047740PMC
April 2021

Hippo-Independent Regulation of Yki/Yap/Taz: A Non-canonical View.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 1;9:658481. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Molecular Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Initially identified in , the Hippo signaling pathway has emerged as an evolutionarily conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls tissue growth and organ size by simultaneously inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cell death. Deregulation of Hippo pathway activity has been implicated in a wide range of human cancers. The core Hippo pathway consists of a kinase cascade: an upstream kinase Hippo (Hpo)/MST1/2 phosphorylates and activates a downstream kinase Warts (Wts)/Lats1/2, leading to phosphorylation and inactivation of a transcriptional coactivator Yki/YAP/Taz. Many upstream signals, including cell adhesion, polarity, mechanical stress, and soluble factors, regulate Hippo signaling through the kinase cascade, leading to change in the cytoplasmic/nuclear localization of Yki/YAP/Taz. However, recent studies have uncovered other mechanisms that regulate Yki/YAP/Taz subcellular localization, stability, and activity independent of the Hpo kinase cascade. These mechanisms provide additional layers of pathway regulation, nodes for pathway crosstalk, and opportunities for pathway intervention in cancer treatment and regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.658481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047194PMC
April 2021

Gender Differences in Hemocyte Immune Parameters of Hong Kong Oyster During Immune Stress.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:659469. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Gender differences in individual immune responses to external stimuli have been elucidated in many invertebrates. However, it is unclear if gender differences do exist in the Hong Kong oyster , one of the most valuable marine species cultivated along the coast of South China. To clarify this, we stimulated post-spawning adult with and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Gender-based differences in some essential functional parameters of hemocytes were studied flow cytometry. Obvious gender-, subpopulation-, and immune-specific alterations were found in the hemocyte immune parameters of . Three hemocyte subpopulations were identified: granulocytes, semi-granulocytes, and agranulocytes. Granulocytes, the chief phagocytes and major producers of esterase, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, were the main immunocompetent hemocytes. Immune parameter alterations were notable in the accumulation of granulocyte esterase activities, lysosomal masses, nitric oxide levels, and granulocyte numbers in male oysters. These results suggest that post-spawning-phase male oysters possess a more powerful immune response than females. Gender and subpopulation differences in bivalve immune parameters should be considered in the future analysis of immune parameters when studying the impact of pathogenic or environmental factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.659469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044396PMC
March 2021

Investigation of echocardiographic characteristics and predictors for persistent defects of patent foramen ovale or patent ductus arteriosus in Chinese newborns.

Biomed J 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Center for Shockwave Medicine and Tissue Engineering, Department of Medical Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Persistent patent foramen ovale (PFO) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) increase the adult risk of cryptogenic embolic stroke and chronic pulmonary hypertension. To understand the characteristics of PFO and PDA in newborns, we investigated the spontaneous closure rate and derived the determinants for residual defects.

Methods: We utilized the database of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Xiamen ChangGung Memorial Hospital from 2015 to 2017 and allocated 2523 eligible newborns into four groups according to PDA, PFO, both or neither at birth. A total of 574, 1229, 202 and 518 newborns were assigned into the group of PFO and PDA, PFO alone, PDA alone and non-PFO/non-PDA, respectively. Regular echocardiographic follow-ups at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months after birth were performed for evaluating the spontaneous closure rate in the subjects. Regression analysis was carried out to study the risk factors of residual congenital defects.

Results: Newborns with PFO alone had the youngest birth age and lowest birth weight among the four groups. About one in four PDA-alone newborns had concomitant small ASD, i.e., <5 mm in diameter. Echocardiographic study showed that 71.3% and 30.8% of CHD newborns had PFO and PDA, respectively, compared to less than 10% of them having ASD or VSD. However, more than 95% of newborns with PFO or PDA closed spontaneously at 6 months, in contrast to about 30% of newborns with ASD or VSD had persistent existence of the intracardiac defects. Complex CHD significantly linked to persistent PFO or PDA at 6 and 12 months, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 9.03 (95% CI 1.97-41.46) and 12.11 (95% CI 2.11-69.72), respectively.

Conclusions: Chinese newborns with PFO or PDA expressed differences in characteristics and concomitant congenital defects. Additionally, persistent PFO or PDA is strongly associated with complex CHD and requires long-term regular monitoring for future associated complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2019.12.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Dietary isoleucine improved flesh quality, muscle antioxidant capacity, and muscle growth associated with AKT/TOR/S6K1 and AKT/FOXO3a signaling in hybrid bagrid catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂).

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Apr 19;12(1):53. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

Background: Muscle is the complex and heterogeneous tissue, which comprises the primary edible part of the trunk of fish and mammals. Previous studies have shown that dietary isoleucine (Ile) exerts beneficial effects on growth in aquatic animals. However, there were limited studies regarding the benefits of Ile on fish muscle and their effects on flesh quality and muscle growth. Thus, this study was conducted to explore whether dietary Ile had affected flesh quality and muscle growth in hybrid bagrid catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂).

Methods: A total of 630 hybrid fish, with an initial average body weight of 33.11 ± 0.09 g, were randomly allotted into seven experimental groups with three replicates each, and respectively fed seven diets with 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0 g Ile/kg diets for 8 weeks.

Results: In the present study, we demonstrated that Ile significantly: (1) increased muscle protein and lipid contents and the frequency distribution of myofibers with ≤ 20 μm and ≥ 50 μm of diameter; (2) improved pH value, shear force, cathepsin B and L activities, hydroxyproline content, resilience, cohesiveness, and decreased cooking loss, lactate content, hardness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness; (3) decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein carbonyl (PC) contents, GCLC and Keap1 mRNA levels, and up-regulated CuZnSOD, CAT, GPX1a, GST, and Nrf2 mRNA levels; (4) up-regulated the insulin-like growth factor 1, 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Myf5, Myod, Myog, Mrf4, and MyHC mRNA levels, and decreased MSTN mRNA level; (5) increased muscle protein deposition by activating AKT-TOR-S6K1 and AKT-FOXO3a signaling pathways.

Conclusion: These results revealed that dietary Ile improved flesh quality, which might be due to increasing nutritional content, physicochemical, texture parameters, and antioxidant ability; promoting muscle growth by affecting myocytes hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and muscle protein deposition associated with protein synthesis and degradation signaling pathways. Finally, the quadratic regression analysis of chewiness, ROS, and protein contents against dietary Ile levels suggested that the optimal dietary Ile levels for hybrid bagrid catfish was estimated to be 14.19, 12.36, and 12.78 g/kg diet, corresponding to 36.59, 31.87, and 32.96 g/kg dietary protein, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00572-4DOI Listing
April 2021

HBx induces hepatocellular carcinogenesis through ARRB1-mediated autophagy to drive the G/S cycle.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

The hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is involved in the process of hepatocellular carcinoma via the activation of various oncogenes. Our previous study indicated that ARBB1 (arrestin beta 1) promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis (HCC). However, the role of ARRB1 in HBx-related HCC remains unclear. Herein, we identified that ARRB1 was upregulated by HBx and deficiency suppressed HBx-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis in several mouse models. Furthermore, knockdown of blocked HBx-induced macroautophagic/autophagic flux and disrupted the formation of autophagosomes. ARRB1 interacted with HBx, and the autophagic core protein MAP1LC3/LC3, a scaffolding protein, was essential for complete autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine or interference of or attenuated HBx-induced cell cycle acceleration and the subsequent proliferative response via the induction of G/S arrest. The absence of autophagy abolished the phosphorylation of CDK2 and the activity of the CDK2-CCNE1 complex. Our results demonstrate that ARRB1 plays a critical role in HBV-related HCC via modulating autophagy and the CDKN1B-CDK2-CCNE1-E2F1 axis and indicate that ARRB1 may be a potential therapeutic target for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1917948DOI Listing
April 2021

Detection of Blackleg Resistance Gene Rlm1 in Double-Low Rapeseed Accessions from Sichuan Province, by Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR.

Plant Pathol J 2021 Apr 1;37(2):194-199. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Crop Research Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610066, China.

Blackleg is a serious disease in Brassica plants, causing moderate to severe yield losses in rapeseed worldwide. Although China has not suffered from this disease yet (more aggressive Leptosphaeria maculans is not present yet), it is crucial to take provisions in breeding for disease resistance to have excellent blackleg-resistant cultivars already in the fields or in the breeding pipeline. The most efficient strategy for controlling this disease is breeding plants with identified resistance genes. We selected 135 rapeseed accessions in Sichuan, including 30 parental materials and 105 hybrids, and we determined their glucosinolate and erucic acid content and confirmed 17 double-low materials. A recently developed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker, SNP_208, was used to genotype allelic Rlm1/rlm1 on chromosome A07, and 87 AvrLm1-resistant materials. Combined with the above-mentioned seed quality data, we identified 11 AvrLm1-resistant double-low rapeseed accessions, including nine parental materials and two hybrids. This study lays the foundation of specific R gene-oriented breeding, in the case that the aggressive Leptosphaeria maculans invades and establishes in China in the future and a robust and less labor consuming method to identify resistance in canola germplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.10.2020.0204DOI Listing
April 2021

Development of a sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for high-throughput detection and risk assessment of aflatoxin B in animal-derived medicines.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Animal-derived medicine is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Studies have shown that many animal-derived medicinal products are susceptible to contaminate of aflatoxins, nevertheless, the rapid detection for animal-derived medicine is prone to be ignored. Here we developed a sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) for rapid screening of aflatoxin B (AFB) in ground beetle, cockroach, silkworm and earthworm. The sensitivity of the icELISA method was significantly enhanced. The IC for the four animal-derived medicinal samples ranged from 0.092 to 0.135 ng·mL; the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.008 - 0.020 ng·mL. To obtain high accuracy, the extraction solution and time were evaluated. By using this method, a total of 138 samples were investigated, and the detection rates of AFB in ground beetle and earthworm samples were 26.6% and 16.7%, respectively. The result was validated by liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry, and an excellent correlation was observed between the two datasets, with a R value of 0.999. Our results indicate that the proposed method can be used for the rapid detection of AFB in animal-derived medicine. Furthermore, the quantitative risk assessment was conducted for ground beetle and earthworm based on the results, demonstrating that the intake of AFB in ground beetle had a slight threat to the risk of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2021.04.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Berberine attenuates choline-induced atherosclerosis by inhibiting trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide production via manipulating the gut microbiome.

NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes 2021 Apr 16;7(1):36. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

NHC Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Antibiotics, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a derivative from the gut microbiota metabolite trimethylamine (TMA), has been identified to be an independent risk factor for promoting atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that berberine (BBR) could be used to treat obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis, however, its mechanism is not clear mainly because of its poor oral bioavailability. Here, we show that BBR attenuated TMA/TMAO production in the C57BL/6J and ApoE KO mice fed with choline-supplemented chow diet, and mitigated atherosclerotic lesion areas in ApoE KO mice. Inhibition of TMA/TMAO production by BBR-modulated gut microbiota was proved by a single-dose administration of d9-choline in vivo. Metagenomic analysis of cecal contents demonstrated that BBR altered gut microbiota composition, microbiome functionality, and cutC/cntA gene abundance. Furthermore, BBR was shown to inhibit choline-to-TMA conversion in TMA-producing bacteria in vitro and in gut microbial consortium from fecal samples of choline-fed mice and human volunteers, and the result was confirmed by transplantation of TMA-producing bacteria in mice. These results offer new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the anti-atherosclerosis effects of BBR, which inhibits commensal microbial TMA production via gut microbiota remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41522-021-00205-8DOI Listing
April 2021

CRISPR base editor treats premature-aging syndrome.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Apr 16;6(1):158. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00576-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050807PMC
April 2021

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Food Allergy.

Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2021 May 24;41(2):189-203. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Center for Food Allergy and Asthma Research, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 750 North Lake Shore Drive, Rubloff 6th Floor, Suite 680, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital, 225 E Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, 225 E. Chicago Avenue, Box 86, Chicago, IL 60611, USA; Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 420 E Superior St, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy is an increasingly prevalent public health concern globally. In North America, particularly in the United States, racial and ethnic differences in food allergy prevalence and rates of sensitization have become apparent. Black and Hispanic children in the United States have been estimated to have the highest rates of food allergy. Beyond rates of prevalence, food allergy outcomes, such as health care utilization, psychosocial outcomes, and economic burden, also vary considerably by race and ethnicity. It is important to consider socioeconomic status in conjunction with race and ethnicity in studying differences in food allergy outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2021.01.007DOI Listing
May 2021

Peripheral Administration of a Cell-Penetrating MOTS-c Analogue Enhances Memory and Attenuates Aβ- or LPS-Induced Memory Impairment through Inhibiting Neuroinflammation.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, 222 Tianshui South Road, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China.

MOTS-c is a 16-amino acid mitochondrial derivative peptide reported to be involved in regulating insulin and metabolic homeostasis via the AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK agonist AICAR has been reported to improve cognition. Previous reports also pointed out that MOTS-c may be effective as a therapeutic option toward the prevention of the aging processes. Therefore, we investigated the roles of MOTS-c in the memory recognition process. The results showed that central MOTS-c not only enhanced object and location recognition memory formation and consolidation but also ameliorated the memory deficit induced by Aβ or LPS. The memory-ameliorating effects of MOTS-c could be blocked by AMPK inhibitor dorsomorphin. Moreover, MOTS-c treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK but not ERK, JNK, and p38 in the hippocampus. The underlying mechanism of MOTS-c neuroprotection may involve inhibiting the activation of astrocytes and microglia and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we found that peripheral administration of MOTS-c does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and plays an effect. In order to improve the brain intake of MOTS-c, we screen out (PRR), a cell penetrating peptides, as a carrier for MOTS-c into the brain. Then in the NOR task, intranasal or intravenous MP (cell-penetrating MOTS-c analogue) showed good memory performance on memory formation, memory consolidation, and memory impairment. Near-infrared fluorescent experiments showed the real-time biodistribution in brain after intranasal or intravenous infusion of MP. These results suggested that MOTS-c might be a new potential target for treatment of cognitive decline in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00782DOI Listing
April 2021

Beyond Smiles: Static Expressions in Maxillary Protrusion and Associated Positivity.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:514016. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Smiles play an important role in social perception. However, it is unclear whether a similar role is played by static facial features associated with smiles (e.g., stretched mouth and visible teeth). In dental science, maxillary dental protrusions increase the baring of the teeth and thus produce partial facial features of a smile even when the individual is not choosing to smile, whereas mandibular dental protrusions do not. We conducted three experiments to assess whether individuals ascribe positive evaluations to these facial features, which are not genuine emotional expressions. In Experiment 1, participants viewed facial photographs of maxillary and mandibular protrusions and indicated the smiling and emotional status of the faces. The results showed that, while no difference was observed in participants' perception of the presence of a smile across both types of dental protrusion, participants felt more positive to faces with maxillary than mandibular protrusions. In Experiment 2, participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) test measuring implicit attitudes toward faces with maxillary vs. mandibular protrusions. The results showed that participants had more positive attitude toward faces with maxillary than mandibular protrusions. In Experiment 3, individuals with either maxillary or mandibular protrusions completed the same IAT test to assess whether any preference would be affected by in-group/out-group preferences. The results showed both groups had more positive attitudes toward faces with maxillary protrusion, indicating that this preference is independent of the group effect. These findings suggest that facial features associated with smiles are viewed positively in social situations. We discuss this in terms of the social-function account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.514016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042222PMC
March 2021

Observation of a phononic higher-order Weyl semimetal.

Nat Mater 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Physical Science and Technology, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Weyl semimetals (WSMs) exhibit phenomena such as Fermi arc surface states, pseudo-gauge fields and quantum anomalies that arise from topological band degeneracy in crystalline solids for electrons and metamaterials for photons and phonons. Here we report a higher-order Weyl semimetal (HOWSM) in a phononic system that exhibits topologically protected boundary states in multiple dimensions. We created the physical realization of the HOWSM in a chiral phononic crystal with uniaxial screw symmetry. Using acoustic pump-probe spectroscopies, we observed coexisting chiral Fermi arc states on two-dimensional surfaces and dispersive hinge arc states on one-dimensional hinge boundaries. These topological boundary states link the projections of the Weyl points (WPs) in different dimensions and directions, and hence demonstrate the higher-order topological physics in WSMs. Our study further establishes the fundamental connection between higher-order topology and Weyl physics in crystalline materials and should stimulate further work on other potential materials, such as higher-order topological nodal-line semimetals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-021-00985-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Subpalpebral Antibiotic Lavage as Safe, Emergent, and Cost-Effective Management of Acute Infectious Keratitis Related to Contact Lens Overwear: Case Report and Literature Review.

Cornea 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia; and Department of Ophthalmology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to describe the technique of subpalpebral antibiotic lavage (SAL), which is a highly therapeutic, efficient, and cost-effective method for managing severe bacterial keratitis.

Methods: This case report describes a 26-year-old woman with severe bacterial keratitis in the right eye due to contact lens overwear, with progressive corneal thinning, a hypopyon, impending perforation, and marked visual loss to perception of light despite treatment with intensive topical antibiotics. This was managed with SAL that involves the insertion of a cannula transcutaneously into the upper conjunctival fornix to provide continuous antibiotic irrigation of the ocular surface.

Results: By 11 weeks after presentation, the cornea and anterior chamber appeared clinically quiescent, and visual acuity improved to 20/40 corrected in the right eye.

Conclusions: Bacterial keratitis is a potentially blinding condition for which contact lens wear is an important risk factor. Most cases are successfully managed with topical medications; however, in cases of treatment failure, a second-line approach such as SAL can be sight-saving. SAL uses readily available equipment for the delivery of high concentrations of antibiotics to the ocular surface, thus increasing therapeutic efficacy and reducing nursing staff workload. Despite its advantages, the literature reveals apparent underutilization of this technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000002745DOI Listing
April 2021

Multi-PLI: interpretable multi-task deep learning model for unifying protein-ligand interaction datasets.

J Cheminform 2021 Apr 15;13(1):30. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory of Human-Machine Intelligence-Synergy Systems, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

The assessment of protein-ligand interactions is critical at early stage of drug discovery. Computational approaches for efficiently predicting such interactions facilitate drug development. Recently, methods based on deep learning, including structure- and sequence-based models, have achieved impressive performance on several different datasets. However, their application still suffers from a generalizability issue because of insufficient data, especially for structure based models, as well as a heterogeneity problem because of different label measurements and varying proteins across datasets. Here, we present an interpretable multi-task model to evaluate protein-ligand interaction (Multi-PLI). The model can run classification (binding or not) and regression (binding affinity) tasks concurrently by unifying different datasets. The model outperforms traditional docking and machine learning on both binary classification and regression tasks and achieves competitive results compared with some structure-based deep learning methods, even with the same training set size. Furthermore, combined with the proposed occlusion algorithm, the model can predict the important amino acids of proteins that are crucial for binding, thus providing a biological interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13321-021-00510-6DOI Listing
April 2021

The effect of ion pairs on coacervate-driven self-assembly of block polyelectrolytes.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(14):144903

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

The incorporation of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes into a block copolymer system can lead to formation of microphase separated nanostructures driven by the electrostatic complex between two oppositely charged blocks. It is a theoretical challenge to build an appropriate model to handle such coacervate-driven self-assembly, which should capture the strong electrostatic correlations for highly charged polymers. In this paper, we develop the self-consistent field theory considering the ion paring effect to predict the phase behavior of block polyelectrolytes. In our model, two types of ion pairs, the binding between two oppositely charged monomers and the binding between charged monomers and counterions, are included. Their strength of formation is controlled by two parameters K and K, respectively. We give a detailed analysis about how the binding strength K and K and salt concentration affect the self-assembled nanostructure of diblock polyelectrolyte systems. The results show that the binding between two oppositely charged blocks provides driven force for microphase separation, while the binding between charged monomers and counterions competes with the polyion pairing and thus suppresses the microphase separation. The addition of salt has a shielding effect on the charges of polymers, which is a disadvantage to microphase separation. The phase diagrams as a function of polymer concentration and salt concentration at different situations are constructed, and the influence of K, K, and charged block composition f is analyzed in depth. The obtained phase diagrams are in good agreement with currently existing experimental and theoretical results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0044845DOI Listing
April 2021

Investigation of MOF-derived humidity-proof hierarchical porous carbon frameworks as highly-selective toluene absorbents and sensing materials.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 13;411:125034. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China. Electronic address:

Carbon frameworks (CFs) derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been produced as adsorbents of toluene. To further obtain optimum hierarchical porous carbon structure of CFs, different treatment temperatures were applied to a typical kind of MOFs (ZIF-8). The adsorption capacity of the toluene of hierarchical porous CFs obtained from ZIF-8 under 1100 °C (CF-1100, adsorption capacity of 208.5 mg/g) was higher than that of other carbonization temperature and MOFs. Impressively, the adsorbent CF-1100 also exhibited strong hydrophobicity, low desorption temperature, and good selectivity to toluene. The adsorption capacity decreased by only 10.4% under wet condition compared with the dry condition, standing on the top of the recently reported adsorbents. The impressive adsorption performance of CF-1100 is attributed to the larger specific surface area (1024 m/g) and pore volume (0.497 cm/g), newly generated micropores (pore width is 0.6-0.8 nm) and mesopores (pore width above 10 nm), and carbonaceous structure with higher degree of graphitization. Based on the adequate adsorption performance, CF-1100 coated quartz crystal microbalances as sensor also showed a high sensitivity of 0.4004 Hz/ppm and small relative standard deviations of 1.0745% for toluene sensing. This contribution provides a foundation for optimizing potential adsorbents and sensing materials for air pollution abatement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.125034DOI Listing
June 2021

COVID-19 Quarantine Reveals Behavioral Changes Effect on Myopia Progression.

Ophthalmology 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Ophthalmology & Optometry and Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, China; Institute of Biomedical Big Data, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, China.

COVID-19 quarantine provides the largest intervention data of myopia progression in schoolchildren. We found grade is an important risk factor, and COVID-19-induced modifications of student's online time and outdoor activity time sufficiently change myopia progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.04.001DOI Listing
April 2021

High-power narrow spectrum GaSb-based DBR lasers emitting near 2.1  µm.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1967-1970

Stable high-power narrow-linewidth operation of the 2.05-2.1 µm GaSb-based diode lasers was achieved by utilizing the sixth-order surface-etched distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors. The DBR multimode devices with 100 µm wide ridge waveguides generated ∼850 in the continuous wave (CW) regime at 20°C. The device CW output power was limited by thermal rollover. The laser emission spectrum was defined by Bragg reflector reflectivity at all operating currents in a wide temperature range. The devices operated at DBR line with detuning from gain peak exceeding 10 meV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.422536DOI Listing
April 2021

Bridged Azobenzene Enables Dynamic Control of Through-Space Charge Transfer for Photochemical Conversion.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 15:3868-3874. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

Through-space charge transfer (TSCT) has become a thriving strategy of modulating photogenerated charges in organic photoresponsive molecular systems for potential applications in luminescence, optoelectronics, and photochemical conversion. Yet fixed configuration between electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) is disadvantageous to mitigate charge recombination undermining their performances. By carrying out first-principle simulations, we proposed a protocol enabling dynamic control of TSCT within a D-A system by use of a bridged azobenzene (BAB), whose configuration is self-adaptive upon photoexcitation. While the Z-isomer of BAB facilitates π-π stacking of D-A pair with designated frontier orbital alignment to ensure TSCT, the E-isomer of BAB breaks that stacking and restrains charge recombination. Further, as a CO molecule is weakly bound to the anionic acceptor, the former goes bent as a result of charge transfer from the latter, suggesting a path for photodriven CO reduction aided by such a donor-switch-acceptor system. Our proof-of-concept study shows the potential of using specific photoswitch to adaptively steer spatial electron transfer within stacked π systems toward photochemical conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00772DOI Listing
April 2021

Bacterial and Microfauna Mechanisms for Sludge Reduction in Carrier-Enhanced Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactors Revealed by Metagenomic Sequencing Analysis.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China.

Packing carriers into the anaerobic side-stream reactor (ASSR) can enhance sludge reduction and save footprint by investigating ASSR-coupled membrane bioreactors (AP-MBRs) under different hydraulic residence times of the ASSR (HRT). Three AP-MBRs and an anoxic-aerobic MBR (AO-MBR) showed efficient chemical oxygen demand (>94.2%) and ammonium nitrogen removal (>99.3%). AP-MBRs have higher ( < 0.05) total nitrogen (61.4-67.7%) and total phosphorus (57.5-63.8%) removal than AO-MBRs (47.8 and 47.7%). AP-MBRs achieved sludge reduction efficiencies of 11.8, 31.8, and 36.2% at HRT values of 2.5, 5.0, and 6.7 h. Packing carriers greatly improved sludge reduction under low HRT and is promising for accelerating sludge reduction in compact space. Metagenomic sequencing analysis showed that genes responsible for metabolism were enriched in AO-MBRs, while genes related to cellular motility and cell signaling were more abundant in the AP-MBRs. A longevity-regulating pathway showed that long lifespan provided more opportunities for worms to prey bacteria. Microscopic examination revealed that some specific protozoa (, , , , and ) and metazoa ( and ) were enriched in ASSRs. was only detected in ASSRs, and unique appeared on carriers. These results contribute to growing understanding of micrometabolic mechanisms including functional genes and microfauna-driving sludge reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07880DOI Listing
April 2021

A The complete chloroplast genome and phylogenetic analysis of Bupleurum yinchowense Shan & Yin Li.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 30;6(3):1233-1235. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Shan & Yin Li was first described as a new species in 1974, but its classification status has always been disputed. Here, its complete chloroplast genome was provided to resolve this issue. The length of the chloroplast genome is 155,851 bp and composed of two inverted repeats (IR: 26,307 bp), a large single-copy region (LSC: 85,625 bp), and a small single-copy region (SSC: 17,612 bp). The overall GC content is 37.6%. The chloroplast genome consists of 113 genes, including 79 protein-coding genes, four rRNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that holds a distinct phylogenetic position and can be considered as an accepted species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1866465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018508PMC
March 2021

The Role of Oxidative Stress in Hyperuricemia and Xanthine Oxidoreductase (XOR) Inhibitors.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 26;2021:1470380. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Basic Medical College, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China.

Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans. Hyperuricemia is a metabolic disease caused by the increased formation or reduced excretion of serum uric acid (SUA). Alterations in SUA homeostasis have been linked to a number of diseases, and hyperuricemia is the major etiologic factor of gout and has been correlated with metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and renal disease. Oxidative stress is usually defined as an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in our body and is considered to be one of the main causes of cell damage and the development of disease. Studies have demonstrated that hyperuricemia is closely related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the human body, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, with the accompanying production of ROS. Therefore, XOR is considered a drug target for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of uric acid transport and the development of hyperuricemia, emphasizing the role of oxidative stress in the occurrence and development of hyperuricemia. We also summarize recent advances and new discoveries in XOR inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1470380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019370PMC
March 2021

CD8 T Lymphocyte Coexpression Genes Correlate with Immune Microenvironment and Overall Survival in Breast Cancer.

J Oncol 2021 27;2021:5533923. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Oncology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China.

Purpose: To identify CD8+ T lymphocyte-related coexpressed genes that increase CD8+ T lymphocyte proportions in breast cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms among relevant genes in the tumor microenvironment.

Method: We obtained breast cancer expression matrix data and patient phenotype following information from TCGA-BRCA FPKM. Tumor purity, immune score, stromal score, and estimate score were calculated using the estimate package in R. The CD8 T lymphocyte proportions in each breast carcinoma sample were estimated using the CIBERSORT algorithm. The samples with < 0.05 were considered to be significant and were taken into the weighted gene coexpression network analysis. Based on the CD8 T lymphocyte proportion and tumor purity, we generated CD8 T lymphocyte coexpression networks and selected the most CD8 T lymphocyte-related module as our interested coexpression modules. We constructed a CD8+ T cell model based on the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method (LASSO) regression model and robust model and evaluate the prediction ability in different subgroups.

Results: A breast carcinoma CD8+ T lymphocyte proportion coexpression yellow module was determined. The coexpression genes in the yellow module were determined to increase the CD8+ T lymphocyte proportion levels in breast cancer patients. The yellow module was significantly enriched in the antigen presentation process, cellular response to interferon-gamma, and leukocyte proliferation. Subsequently, we generated CD8+ T cell-related genes lasso regression risk model and robust model, and eight genes were taken into the risk model. The risk score showed significant prognostic ability in various subgroups. Expression levels of proteins, encoded by CD74, were lower in the breast carcinoma samples than in normal tissue, suggesting expression differences at both the mRNA and the protein levels.

Conclusion: These eight CD8+ T lymphocyte proportion coexpression genes increase CD8 T lymphocyte in breast cancer by an antigen presentation process. The mechanism might suggest new pathways to improve outcomes in patients who do not benefit from immune therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5533923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019641PMC
March 2021

Non-Classical 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: Analysis of a Mutant Gene in a Uyghur Family and Literature Review.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 7;14:409-416. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

People' s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, 830001, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The gene mutation and clinical characteristics of a patient with non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency and his family were analyzed.

Methods: A patient was diagnosed with non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency in the Department of Endocrinology of People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in December 2016. The clinical data and related gene-sequencing results were analyzed. The detected mutations were verified in nine members of the family.

Results: Gene-sequencing results revealed that the proband and the other three members of the family (proband, proband's mother's younger brother and the proband's mother's younger brother's younger daughter, and proband's second elder sister) shared the following mutations: Ile173Asn, Ile237Asn, Val238Glu, Met240Lys, Val282Leu, Leu308Phefs*6, Gln319Ter, Arg357Trp, and Arg484Profs. The Val282Leu mutation was heterozygous in the proband's mother's younger brother's younger daughter, but homozygous in the other three individuals. The father of the proband, the elder brother of the father of the proband, the third younger brother of the father of the proband, and the elder sister of the proband all carried only the Val282Leu mutation.

Conclusion: Val282Leu is the gene responsible for non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Screening for this gene in the offspring of patients with non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency may help to identify cases early.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PGPM.S297607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039199PMC
April 2021

Addressing widespread misidentifications of traditional medicinal mushrooms in Sanghuangporus (Basidiomycota) through ITS barcoding and designation of reference sequences.

IMA Fungus 2021 Apr 15;12(1):10. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

"Sanghuang" refers to a group of important traditionally-used medicinal mushrooms belonging to the genus Sanghuangporus. In practice, species of Sanghuangporus referred to in medicinal studies and industry are now differentiated mainly by a BLAST search of GenBank with the ITS barcoding region as a query. However, inappropriately labeled ITS sequences of "Sanghuang" in GenBank restrict accurate species identification and, to some extent, the utilization of these species as medicinal resources. We examined all available 271 ITS sequences related to "Sanghuang" in GenBank including 31 newly submitted sequences from this study. Of these sequences, more than half were mislabeled so we have now corrected the corresponding species names. The mislabeled sequences mainly came from strains utilized by non-taxonomists. Based on the analyses of ITS sequences submitted by taxonomists as well as morphological characters, we separate the newly described Sanghuangporus subbaumii from S. baumii and treat S. toxicodendri as a later synonym of S. quercicola. Fourteen species of Sanghuangporus are accepted, with intraspecific distances up to 1.30% (except in S. vaninii, S. weirianus and S. zonatus) and interspecific distances above 1.30% (except between S. alpinus and S. lonicerinus, and S. baumii and S. subbaumii). To stabilize the concept of these 14 species of Sanghuangporus, their taxonomic information and reliable ITS reference sequences are provided. Moreover, ten potential diagnostic sequences are provided for Hyperbranched Rolling Circle Amplification to rapidly confirm three common commercial species, viz. S. baumii, S. sanghuang, and S. vaninii. Our results provide a practical method for ITS barcoding-based species identification of Sanghuangporus and will promote medicinal studies and commercial development from taxonomically correct material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00059-xDOI Listing
April 2021

Temporal variability of free-living microbial culturability and community composition after an Akashiwo sanguinea bloom in Shenzhen, China.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Guangdong Technology Research Center for Marine Algal Bioengineering, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Epigenetics, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518055, People's Republic of China.

Dinoflagellate blooms currently caused serious environmental problems in different areas of the world. Recent studies revealed close relationship between dinoflagellate blooms and microbial community dynamics, while less attention has been paid on the bacterial culturability change associated with the bloom. Here, we investigated the temporal variation of microbial community composition and culturability during the decline stage of an Akashiwo sanguinea bloom occurred in Shenzhen, China. The daily microbial community phylogenetic structures in water samples collected during a four-day period after the bloom peak were assessed through 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing on the MiSeq (Illumina) platform. The environmental parameters, Chlorophyll a concentrations, and total viable and culturable bacterial densities were also measured. Our results showed that Gamma-proteobacteria comprising mostly of Pseudoalteromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae was the predominant microbial class in the post-bloom samples, except for the second day. During that day, the represented groups switched to Alpha-proteobacteria (Rhizobiales) and Beta-proteobacteria (Comamonadaceae), with the microbial culturability decreased. Total viable bacterial densities reached the maximum value on the third day, with Gamma-proteobacteria regained the dominance till the fourth day. The dramatic microbial community succession and culturability variation observed in this study indicated the complication of algae-bacteria interactions during dinoflagellate bloom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02407-4DOI Listing
April 2021