Publications by authors named "J J Emerson"

476 Publications

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Outcome Expectancy Construct in Physical Activity Research.

Ann Behav Med 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Brown University School of Public Health, Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, 121 S Main St., Providence, RI 02906, USA.

Background: Cognition-based theories dominate physical activity (PA) research, and many include a construct broadly defined as "beliefs about the consequences of behavior" (e.g., outcome expectancies, perceived benefits) hereafter referred to as perceived consequences.

Purpose: With the quantity of available research on this topic, it is important to examine whether the literature supports perceived consequences as a predictor of PA.

Methods: A meta-analysis examining longitudinal associations between perceived consequences and PA in adults was conducted. Studies were eligible if (a) perceived consequences were measured at a time point prior to PA, and (b) the target behavior was a form of PA. An omnibus meta-analysis estimating the mean effect of all included studies, and separate meta-analyses for perceived consequences content categories were conducted.

Results: This search yielded 6,979 articles, of these, 110 studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were published between 1989 and 2020, with sample sizes ranging from 16 to 2,824. All studies were evaluated as moderate to high quality. A small positive bivariate association was identified (r = 0.11; 95% CI [0.09, 0.13]) between perceived consequences and PA. Significant associations were identified for time, health, self-evaluative, psychological, and affective consequences. There was no association between perceived weight-related consequences and PA.

Conclusions: The findings emphasize the variability with which existing studies have examined perceived consequences in the PA literature. Future research might examine whether these are important distinctions for understanding PA. Overall, the results suggest utility in examining perceived consequences as a predictor of PA, but constructs with more robust associations may require priority.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abm/kaab083DOI Listing
September 2021

DNase Treatment Improves Viral Enrichment in Agricultural Soil Viromes.

mSystems 2021 Sep 7:e0061421. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA.

The small genomes of most viruses make it difficult to fully capture viral diversity in metagenomes dominated by DNA from cellular organisms. Viral size fraction metagenomics (viromics) protocols facilitate the enrichment of viral DNA from environmental samples, and these protocols typically include DNase treatment of the post-0.2-μm-filtered viromic fraction to remove contaminating free DNA prior to virion lysis. However, DNase may also remove desirable viral genomic DNA (e.g., contained in virions compromised due to frozen storage or laboratory processing), suggesting that DNase-untreated viromes might be useful in some cases. In order to understand how virome preparation with and without DNase treatment influences the resultant data, here, we compared 15 soil viromes (7 DNase treated and 8 untreated) from 8 samples collected from agricultural fields prior to tomato planting. DNase-treated viromes yielded significantly more assembled viral contigs, contained significantly less nonviral microbial DNA, and recovered more viral populations (viral operational taxonomic units [vOTUs]) through read mapping. However, DNase-treated and untreated viromes were statistically indistinguishable in terms of ecological patterns across viral communities. Although the results suggest that DNase treatment is preferable where possible, in comparison to previously reported total metagenomes from the same samples, both DNase-treated and untreated viromes were significantly enriched in viral signatures by all metrics compared, including a 225-times-higher proportion of viral reads in untreated viromes compared to total metagenomes. Thus, even without DNase treatment, viromics was preferable to total metagenomics for capturing viral diversity in these soils, suggesting that preparation of DNase-untreated viromes can be worthwhile when DNase treatment is not possible. Viromics is becoming an increasingly popular method for characterizing soil viral communities. DNase treatment of the viral size fraction prior to DNA extraction is meant to reduce contaminating free DNA and is a common step within viromics protocols to ensure that sequences are of viral origin. However, some samples may not be amenable to DNase treatment due to viral particles being compromised either in storage (i.e., frozen) or during other sample processing steps. To date, the effect of DNase treatment on the recovery of viruses and downstream ecological interpretations of soil viral communities is not thoroughly understood. This work sheds light on these questions and indicates that while DNase treatment of soil viromes improves the recovery of viral populations, this improvement is modest in comparison to the gains made by viromics over total soil metagenomics. Furthermore, DNase treatment may not be necessary to observe the ecological patterns structuring soil viral communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00614-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Medical and nursing home costs: From cognitively unimpaired through dementia.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Introduction: Efforts to model the cost-effectiveness of managing/modifying cognitive impairment lack reliable, objective, baseline medical, and nursing-home (NH) costs.

Methods: A stratified-random sample of Olmsted County, MN, residents ages 70-89 years (N = 3545), well-characterized as cognitively unimpaired, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or dementia, were followed forward ≤1 year in provider-linked billing data and the Centers for Medicare &-Medicaid Services NH assessments. Direct medical/nursing home/medical + NH costs were estimated. Costs were stratified by vital status and NH-use intensity (NH days/follow-up days [0%, 1% to 24%, 25% to 99%, and 100%]). Between-category mean-annual cost differences were adjusted for patient characteristics and follow-up days.

Results: Costs/follow-up day distributions differed significantly across cognitive categories. Mean costs/follow-up days were 2.5 to 18 times higher for decedents versus survivors. Among all persons with MCI, <9% with any NH use accounted for 18% of all total annual medical + NH costs. Adjusted-between-category comparisons revealed significantly higher medical and medical + NH costs for MCI versus cognitively unimpaired.

Discussion: Cost-effectiveness for managing/modifying both MCI and dementia should consider end-of-life costs and NH-use intensity. Results can help inform cost-effectiveness models, predict future-care needs, and aid decision-making by individuals/providers/payers/policymakers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12400DOI Listing
September 2021

Solutions in microbiome engineering: prioritizing barriers to organism establishment.

ISME J 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.

Microbiome engineering is increasingly being employed as a solution to challenges in health, agriculture, and climate. Often manipulation involves inoculation of new microbes designed to improve function into a preexisting microbial community. Despite, increased efforts in microbiome engineering inoculants frequently fail to establish and/or confer long-lasting modifications on ecosystem function. We posit that one underlying cause of these shortfalls is the failure to consider barriers to organism establishment. This is a key challenge and focus of macroecology research, specifically invasion biology and restoration ecology. We adopt a framework from invasion biology that summarizes establishment barriers in three categories: (1) propagule pressure, (2) environmental filtering, and (3) biotic interactions factors. We suggest that biotic interactions is the most neglected factor in microbiome engineering research, and we recommend a number of actions to accelerate engineering solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-021-01088-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Socioeconomic Disparities and Risk Factors in Patients Presenting With Ischemic Priapism: A Multi-Institutional Study.

Urology 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate contemporary clinical presentations of priapism, their association with socioeconomic characteristics, and the role of prescribing providers in priapism episodes in a large cohort of patients managed at 3 major academic health systems.

Methods: We identified all consecutive patients presenting with ischemic priapism to the emergency departments of three major academic health systems (2014 -2019). Demographic characteristics, priapism etiologies, and clinical management were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the contribution of socioeconomic characteristics and the role of prescribing providers in priapism episodes.

Results: We identified 102 individuals with a total of 181 priapism encounters. Hispanic race, lower income quartile, sickle-cell disease, and illicit drug use were associated with increased risk of recurrent episodes. Of ICI users, 57% received their prescriptions from non-urological medical professionals (NUMPs); the proportion with recurrent episodes was higher for NUMPs compared to urologists (24% vs 0%, P = 0.06) with no demographic differences identified between patients treated by either group.

Conclusion: Socioeconomic disparities exist among patients presenting with recurrent episodes of priapism, potentially highlighting systemic issues with access to care and patient education. With most patients who developed ischemic priapism from ICI being prescribed these medications by NUMPs, further investigation is required to elucidate the prescribing and counseling patterns of these providers. Increased awareness of disparities and complications may improve patient safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.03.063DOI Listing
July 2021
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