Publications by authors named "J Hardin"

901 Publications

Understanding Dermatologic Concerns Among Persons Experiencing Homelessness: A Scoping Review and Discussion for Improved Delivery of Care.

J Cutan Med Surg 2021 Apr 4:12034754211004558. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Dermatology, Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, AB, Canada.

There is a paucity of information surrounding dermatologic care for persons experiencing homelessness (PEH). This scoping review aims to map existing literature and provide a summary of the most common cutaneous manifestations among PEH, risk factors for dermatologic disease, describe any reported interventions, as well as identify research gaps for future studies. Search strategies developed for MEDLINE and hand searching yielded 486 articles. Out of the 486 articles screened, 93 articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority were cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and case-control studies concentrated in North America and Europe. Excluding the pediatric population, the prevalence of dermatologic conditions ranged from 16.6% to 53.5%. Common skin conditions described in PEH were: acne, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and lichen simplex chronicus. There were no studies comparing the extent or severity of these cutaneous diseases in PEH and the general population. PEH have a higher prevalence of skin infections and non-melanoma skin cancers. This scoping review has direct implications on public health interventions for PEH and highlights the need for evidence-based interventions to provide optimum and safe dermatologic healthcare for PEH. We propose several recommendations for improved care delivery, including addressing upstream factors and comorbidities impacting skin health, providing trauma informed care, reducing barriers to care, preventing and managing skin conditions, as well as including PEH in the planning and implementation of any proposed intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/12034754211004558DOI Listing
April 2021

Understanding patient journey in ulcerative colitis prior to biologic initiation: a 5-year exploration.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 17;21(1):121. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Janssen Global Services, LLC, Raritan, 08869, NJ, USA.

Background: There has been a more pronounced shift toward earlier, more aggressive therapies in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to describe the pre-biologic treatment and health care experience, including co-morbidities and overall health care utilization, for UC patients who initiated biologic therapies, in the 5 years prior to the initiation of the first biologic agent.

Methods: UC patients who initiated a biologic agent approved for UC between 9/15/2005 and 1/30/2018 were identified from the IBM® MarketScan® Commercial Database, a large US database. The date of the first recorded UC biologic exposure was defined as the index date, and ≥ 5 years of pre-index records were required to evaluate patients' treatment, disease progression and overall health care utilization prior to initiating biologic agents.

Results: Among the 1891 eligible patients, treatment with oral corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates, and other non-biologic immunomodulators, all increased progressively across the 5 years prior to the index. From within year-five to within year-one prior to the index, the median duration of oral corticosteroid treatment increased from 34 to 88 days per year and the proportion of patients who experienced more extensive/pancolitis disease increased from 16 to 59%. Overall, the frequency of all-cause health care visits also increased.

Conclusions: Patients with UC experienced increasing morbidity and treatment burden in the 5 years prior to initiating biologic therapy. To achieve reduced corticosteroids in UC management, better risk stratification is needed to help identify patients for more timely biologic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01708-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967955PMC
March 2021

A 'novel' multi-component approach to promote physical activity among older cancer survivors: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Acta Oncol 2021 Mar 10:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA.

Background: Physical activity (PA) provides many benefits for recovery from cancer treatments. Many older (65+ years) cancer survivors which comprise the majority of the cancer survivor population, do not meet recommended PA guidelines. This study explored the feasibility and acceptability of using audiobooks as part of a 12-week multi-component intervention to increase steps/day, light and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA among older survivors.

Methods: Twenty older cancer survivors (95% female, mean age = 71.55 years, 90% White, 85% overweight/obese, 75% breast cancer survivors, mean 1.96 years since treatment completion) were randomized into one of the two study groups (Audiobook Group,  = 12, Comparison Group,  = 8). Both study groups were provided a tailored step goal program over the 12-week intervention; weekly step increases were based on a percent increase from baseline. Participant self-monitored their steps using a Fitbit Charge 2. In addition, the Audiobook group were encouraged to listen to audiobooks (downloaded onto a smartphone device an app available at no cost from the local library) during PA to add enjoyment and increase PA. Regression analyses on steps/day, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA/week and sedentary time/week as assessed by the Actigraph were conducted, after adjusting for Actigraph wear time. Data from the post-intervention questionnaire were summarized.

Results: Overall, majority of participants (89%) stated they were very satisfied with their participation and 100% reported that they were able to maintain their activity upon study completion. Retention rates were high. At post-intervention, there were significant differences favoring the Audiobook group for steps/day and moderate-to-vigorous PA/week. No significant group differences were found for minutes of light intensity PA/week and sedentary time/week.

Conclusion: Piloting the implementation of a sustainable, innovative intervention among older survivors to increase their PA has significance for this group of survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2021.1896032DOI Listing
March 2021

Horizons and Group Motivational Enhancement Therapy: HIV Prevention for Alcohol-Using Young Black Women, a Randomized Experiment.

Am J Prev Med 2021 05 5;60(5):629-638. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island.

Introduction: Black women are at disproportionately greater risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections than women of other ethnic/racial backgrounds. Alcohol use may further elevate the risk of HIV/sexually transmitted infection acquisition and transmission.

Study Design: A random-assignment parallel-group comparative treatment efficacy trial was conducted with random assignment to 1 of 3 conditions.

Setting/participants: The sample comprised 560 Black or African American women aged 18-24 years who reported recent unprotected vaginal or anal sex and recent alcohol use. Participants were recruited from community settings in Atlanta, Georgia, from January 2012 to February 2014.

Intervention: A Group Motivational Enhancement Therapy module was designed to complement a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-designated evidence-based intervention (Horizons) to reduce sexual risk behaviors, alcohol use, and sexually transmitted infections, with 3 comparison groups: (1) Horizons + Group Motivational Enhancement Therapy intervention, (2) Horizons + General Health Promotion intervention, and (3) enhanced standard of care.

Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included safe sex (abstinence or 100% condom use); condom nonuse; proportion of condom use during sexual episodes; incident chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas infections; and problematic alcohol use measured by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score. Treatment effects were estimated using an intention-to-treat protocol‒generalized estimating equations with logistic regression for binomial outcomes and Poisson regression for count outcomes. Analyses were conducted between October 2018 and October 2019.

Results: Participants assigned to Horizons + Group Motivational Enhancement Therapy had greater odds of safe sex (AOR=1.45, 95% CI=1.04, 2.02, p=0.03), greater proportion of condom use (AOR=1.68, 95% CI=1.18, 2.41, p=0.004), and lower odds of condom nonuse (AOR=0.57, 95% CI=0.38, 0.83, p=0.004). Both interventions had lower odds of problematic alcohol use (Horizons: AOR=0.57, 95% CI=0.39, 0.85, p=0.006; Horizons + Group Motivational Enhancement Therapy: AOR=0.61, 95% CI=0.41, 0.90, p=0.01).

Conclusions: Complementing an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention with Group Motivational Enhancement Therapy may increase safer sexual behaviors and concomitantly reduce alcohol use among young Black women who consume alcohol.

Trial Registration: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01553682.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.11.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Predicting Infection in Very Preterm Infants: A Study Protocol.

Nurs Res 2021 Mar-Apr 01;70(2):142-149

Background: Neonatal sepsis causes morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Clinicians need a predictive tool for the onset of neonatal infection to expedite treatment and prevent morbidity. Abnormal thermal gradients, a central-peripheral temperature difference (CPtd) of >2°C or <0°C, and elevated heart rate characteristic (HRC) scores are associated with infection.

Objective: This article presents the protocol for the Predictive Analysis Using Temperature and Heart Rate Study.

Methods: This observational trial will enroll 440 very preterm infants to measure abdominal temperature and foot temperature every minute and HRC scores hourly for 28 days to compare infection data. Time with abnormal thermal gradients (Model 1) and elevated HRC scores (Model 2) will be compared to the onset of infections. For data analysis, CPtd (abdominal temperature - foot temperature) will be investigated as two derived variables, high CPtd (number/percentage of minutes with CPtd of >2°C) and low CPtd (number/percentage of minutes with CPtd of <0°C). In the infant-level model, the outcome yi will be an indicator of whether the infant was diagnosed with an infection in the first 28 days of life, and the high CPtd and low CPtd variables will be the average over the entire observation period, logit(yi) = β0 + xiβ1 + ziγ. For the day-level model, the outcome yit will be an indicator of whether the ith infant was diagnosed with an infection on the tth day from t = 4 through t = 28 or the day that infection is diagnosed (25 possible repeated measures), logit(yit) = β0 + xitβ1 + zitγ. It will be determined whether a model with only high CPtd or only low CPtd is superior in predicting infection. Also, the correlation of abnormal HRC scores with high CPtd and low CPtd values will be assessed.

Discussion: Study results will inform the design of an interventional study using temperatures and/or heart rate as a predictive tool to alert clinicians of cardiac and autonomic instability present with infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNR.0000000000000483DOI Listing
March 2021