Publications by authors named "J Graham Thomas"

12,138 Publications

Pregnancy, Birth, Infant, and Early Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among a Cohort of Women with Symptoms of Zika Virus Disease during Pregnancy in Three Surveillance Sites, Project (VEZ), Colombia, 2016-2018.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Oct 12;6(4). Epub 2021 Oct 12.

National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Project (VEZ), an intensified surveillance of pregnant women with symptoms of the Zika virus disease (ZVD) in Colombia, aimed to evaluate the relationship between symptoms of ZVD during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. During May-November 2016, pregnant women in three Colombian cities who were reported with symptoms of ZVD to the national surveillance system, or with symptoms of ZVD visiting participating clinics, were enrolled in Project VEZ. Data from maternal and pediatric (up to two years of age) medical records were abstracted. Available maternal specimens were tested for the presence of the Zika virus ribonucleic acid and/or anti-Zika virus immunoglobulin antibodies. Of 1213 enrolled pregnant women with symptoms of ZVD, 1180 had a known pregnancy outcome. Results of the Zika virus laboratory testing were available for 569 (48.2%) pregnancies with a known pregnancy outcome though testing timing varied and was often distal to the timing of symptoms; 254 (21.5% of the whole cohort; 44.6% of those with testing results) were confirmed or presumptive positive for the Zika virus infection. Of pregnancies with a known outcome, 50 (4.2%) fetuses/infants had Zika-associated brain or eye defects, which included microcephaly at birth. Early childhood adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes were more common among those with Zika-associated birth defects than among those without and more common among those with laboratory evidence of a Zika virus infection compared with the full cohort. The proportion of fetuses/infants with any Zika-associated brain or eye defect was consistent with the proportion seen in other studies. Enhancements to Colombia's existing national surveillance enabled the assessment of adverse outcomes associated with ZVD in pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6040183DOI Listing
October 2021

Infrequent Placental and Fetal Involvement in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Pathology Data from a Large Medical Center.

J Dev Biol 2021 Oct 16;9(4). Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University-Irving Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

In order to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 placental and fetal involvements, we analyzed placentas of 197 women positive for infection at delivery and fetal tissues in cases of pregnancy loss in women positive by SARS-CoV-2 PCR ( = 2) and COVID-19 serology ( = 4), using in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and, in selected cases, RT-PCR of tissue homogenates. The virus was identified in situ, accompanied by intervillositis, in 2 of 197 placentas (1.02%). In three more cases, SARS-CoV-2 was detected by tissue PCR without in situ localization and placental inflammation. There were no maternal mortality or association of placental infection with the clinical severity of COVID-19. All tested neonates born to SARS-CoV-2-positive women ( = 172) were negative for the virus. There were three pregnancy losses among 197 infected women and in two cases available fetal tissues were negative for SARS-CoV-2. In one of four fetal autopsies performed in women with positive COVID-19 serology, the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) could be inferred based on positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IHC in fetal pulmonary endothelium. Placental involvement by SARS-CoV-2 is rare, but may be underestimated due to its transient nature. MTCT is even rarer, supporting the protective role of placenta in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jdb9040045DOI Listing
October 2021

Fifteen-minute consultation: An approach to the management of PIMS-TS in a district general hospital.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2021 Oct 25. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

General Paediatrics, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, London, UK.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disease across the globe but children seem to be much less affected than adults. Coincidentally with the first wave of the pandemic, a cluster of children with fever, hyperinflammation and shock were identified, and this was first described as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. Patients with this novel condition were transferred to tertiary centres for management, increasing the pressure in these hospitals that were already extremely busy. There are multiple challenges related to the identification of patients presenting with PIMS-TS given that they mimic multiple other well-known paediatric conditions, like Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome. Investigations and admission criteria to a district general hospital (DGH) need to be well established, and clear guidance should be available for easy decision making in a busy paediatric emergency department. Furthermore, these children can deteriorate suddenly and rapidly; close monitoring is vital, and any deterioration must be taken seriously and addressed immediately. All children who present severely ill, with shock and multiorgan failure, should be retrieved to a paediatric intensive care unit. As our knowledge of the condition has developed, more patients are now managed in a DGH, with virtual multidisciplinary team involvement. This paper outlines a structured approach to management of children presenting with suspected PIMS-TS in a DGH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2021-321921DOI Listing
October 2021

Structural Studies of the Phage G Tail Demonstrate an Atypical Tail Contraction.

Viruses 2021 Oct 18;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, Hockmeyer Hall of Structural Biology, Purdue University, 240 South Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1971, USA.

Phage G is recognized as having a remarkably large genome and capsid size among isolated, propagated phages. Negative stain electron microscopy of the host-phage G interaction reveals tail sheaths that are contracted towards the distal tip and decoupled from the head-neck region. This is different from the typical myophage tail contraction, where the sheath contracts upward, while being linked to the head-neck region. Our cryo-EM structures of the non-contracted and contracted tail sheath show that: (1) The protein fold of the sheath protein is very similar to its counterpart in smaller, contractile phages such as T4 and phi812; (2) Phage G's sheath structure in the non-contracted and contracted states are similar to phage T4's sheath structure. Similarity to other myophages is confirmed by a comparison-based study of the tail sheath's helical symmetry, the sheath protein's evolutionary timetree, and the organization of genes involved in tail morphogenesis. Atypical phase G tail contraction could be due to a missing anchor point at the upper end of the tail sheath that allows the decoupling of the sheath from the head-neck region. Explaining the atypical tail contraction requires further investigation of the phage G sheath anchor points.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13102094DOI Listing
October 2021

The effect of head movement restriction on the kinematics of the spine during lifting and lowering tasks.

Ergonomics 2021 Oct 25:1-28. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Physical Therapy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond VA, Virginia, USA.

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of head movement restriction on relative angles and its derivatives using the stepwise segmentation approach during lifting and lowering tasks. Ten healthy men lifted and lowered a box using two styles (stoop and squat), with two loads (i.e. 10 and 20% of body weight); they performed these tasks with two instructed head postures (1. Flexing the neck to keep contact between chin and chest over the task cycle; 2. No instruction, free head posture). The neck flexion significantly affected flexion angle of all segments of the spine and specifically lumbar part. Additionally, this posture significantly affected the derivatives of the relative angles and manifested latency in spine segments movement, i.e. cephalad-to-caudad or caudad-to-cephalad patterns. Conclusively, the neck flexion as an awkward posture could increase risk of low back pain during lifting and lowering tasks in occupational environments. Little information is available about the effects of neck flexion on other spine segments kinematics and movement patterns, specifically about lumbar spine. The result of this experimental study shows that the neck flexion can increase the risk of low back pain by increasing lumbar flexion angle and spine awkward posture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2021.1998646DOI Listing
October 2021
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