Publications by authors named "J Gert van Dijk"

1,561 Publications

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Evaluating and Optimizing Dentato-Rubro-Thalamic-Tract Deterministic Tractography in Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRT) deep brain stimulation (DBS) suppresses tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients. However, DRT depiction through tractography can vary depending on the included brain regions. Moreover, it is unclear which section of the DRT is optimal for DBS.

Objective: To evaluate deterministic DRT tractography and tremor control in DBS for ET.

Methods: After DBS surgery, DRT tractography was conducted in 37 trajectories (20 ET patients). Per trajectory, 5 different DRT depictions with various regions of interest (ROI) were constructed. Comparison resulted in a DRT depiction with highest correspondence to intraoperative tremor control. This DRT depiction was subsequently used for evaluation of short-term postoperative adverse and beneficial effects.

Results: Postoperative optimized DRT tractography employing the ROI motor cortex, posterior subthalamic area (PSA), and ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle and dentate nucleus best corresponded with intraoperative trajectories (92%) and active DBS contacts (93%) showing optimal tremor control. DRT tractography employing a red nucleus or ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM) ROI often resulted in a more medial course. Optimal stimulation was located in the section between VIM and PSA.

Conclusion: This optimized deterministic DRT tractography strongly correlates with optimal tremor control. This technique is readily implementable for prospective evaluation in DBS target planning for ET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opab324DOI Listing
September 2021

Timing of syncope in ictal asystole as a guide when considering pacemaker implantation.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland (SEIN), Zwolle, The Netherlands.

Introduction: In patients with ictal asystole (IA) both cardioinhibition and vasodepression may contribute to syncopal loss of consciousness. We investigated the temporal relationship between onset of asystole and development of syncope in IA, to estimate the frequency with which pacemaker therapy, by preventing severe bradycardia, may diminish syncope risk.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we searched video-EEG databases for individuals with focal seizures and IA (asystole ≥ 3 s preceded by heart rate deceleration) and assessed the durations of asystole and syncope and their temporal relationship. Syncope was evaluated using both video observations (loss of muscle tone) and EEG (generalized slowing/flattening). We assumed that asystole starting ≤3 s before syncope onset, or after syncope began, could not have been the dominant cause.

Results: We identified 38 seizures with IA from 29 individuals (17 males; median age: 41 years). Syncope occurred in 22/38 seizures with IA and was more frequent in those with longer IA duration (median duration: 20 [range: 5-32] vs. 5 [range: 3-9] s; p < .001) and those with the patient seated vs. supine (79% vs. 46%; p = .049). IA onset always preceded syncope. In 20/22 seizures (91%), IA preceded syncope by >3 s. Thus, in only two instances was vasodepression rather than cardioinhibition the dominant presumptive syncope triggering mechanism.

Conclusions: In IA, cardioinhibition played an important role in most seizure-induced syncopal events, thereby favoring the potential utility of pacemaker implantation in patients with difficult to suppress IA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.15239DOI Listing
September 2021

Assessing the rate, natural history, and treatment trends of intracranial aneurysms in patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: a Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) investigation.

J Neurosurg 2021 Sep 10:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Departments of18Neurological Surgery.

Objective: There is a reported elevated risk of cerebral aneurysms in patients with intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). However, the natural history, rate of spontaneous regression, and ideal treatment regimen are not well characterized. In this study, the authors aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with dAVFs and intracranial aneurysms and propose a classification system.

Methods: The Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database from 12 centers was retrospectively reviewed. Analysis was performed to compare dAVF patients with (dAVF+ cohort) and without (dAVF-only cohort) concomitant aneurysm. Aneurysms were categorized based on location as a dAVF flow-related aneurysm (FRA) or a dAVF non-flow-related aneurysm (NFRA), with further classification as extra- or intradural. Patients with traumatic pseudoaneurysms or aneurysms with associated arteriovenous malformations were excluded from the analysis. Patient demographics, dAVF anatomical information, aneurysm information, and follow-up data were collected.

Results: Of the 1077 patients, 1043 were eligible for inclusion, comprising 978 (93.8%) and 65 (6.2%) in the dAVF-only and dAVF+ cohorts, respectively. There were 96 aneurysms in the dAVF+ cohort; 10 patients (1%) harbored 12 FRAs, and 55 patients (5.3%) harbored 84 NFRAs. Dural AVF+ patients had higher rates of smoking (59.3% vs 35.2%, p < 0.001) and illicit drug use (5.8% vs 1.5%, p = 0.02). Sixteen dAVF+ patients (24.6%) presented with aneurysm rupture, which represented 16.7% of the total aneurysms. One patient (1.5%) had aneurysm rupture during follow-up. Patients with dAVF+ were more likely to have a dAVF located in nonconventional locations, less likely to have arterial supply to the dAVF from external carotid artery branches, and more likely to have supply from pial branches. Rates of cortical venous drainage and Borden type distributions were comparable between cohorts. A minority (12.5%) of aneurysms were FRAs. The majority of the aneurysms underwent treatment via either endovascular (36.5%) or microsurgical (15.6%) technique. A small proportion of aneurysms managed conservatively either with or without dAVF treatment spontaneously regressed (6.2%).

Conclusions: Patients with dAVF have a similar risk of harboring a concomitant intracranial aneurysm unrelated to the dAVF (5.3%) compared with the general population (approximately 2%-5%) and a rare risk (0.9%) of harboring an FRA. Only 50% of FRAs are intradural. Dural AVF+ patients have differences in dAVF angioarchitecture. A subset of dAVF+ patients harbor FRAs that may regress after dAVF treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.1.JNS202861DOI Listing
September 2021

Recurrence after cure in cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: a collaborative effort by the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR).

J Neurosurg 2021 Sep 10:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Departments of18Neurological Surgery.

Objective: Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are often treated with endovascular therapy, but occasionally a multimodality approach including surgery and/or radiosurgery is utilized. Recurrence after an initial angiographic cure has been reported, with estimated rates ranging from 2% to 14.3%, but few risk factors have been identified. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with recurrence of dAVF after putative cure.

Methods: The Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) data were retrospectively reviewed. All patients with angiographic cure after treatment and subsequent angiographic follow-up were included. The primary outcome was recurrence, with risk factor analysis. Secondary outcomes included clinical outcomes, morbidity, and mortality associated with recurrence. Risk factor analysis was performed comparing the group of patients who experienced recurrence with those with durable cure (regardless of multiple recurrences). Time-to-event analysis was performed using all collective recurrence events (multiple per patients in some cases).

Results: Of the 1077 patients included in the primary CONDOR data set, 457 met inclusion criteria. A total of 32 patients (7%) experienced 34 events of recurrence at a mean of 368.7 days (median 192 days). The recurrence rate was 4.5% overall. Kaplan-Meier analysis predicted long-term recurrence rates approaching 11% at 3 years. Grade III dAVFs treated with endovascular therapy were statistically significantly more likely to experience recurrence than those treated surgically (13.3% vs 0%, p = 0.0001). Tentorial location, cortical venous drainage, and deep cerebral venous drainage were all risk factors for recurrence. Endovascular intervention and radiosurgery were associated with recurrence. Six recurrences were symptomatic, including 2 with hemorrhage, 3 with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit, and 1 with progressive flow-related symptoms (decreased vision).

Conclusions: Recurrence of dAVFs after putative cure can occur after endovascular treatment. Risk factors include tentorial location, cortical venous drainage, and deep cerebral drainage. Multimodality therapy can be used to achieve cure after recurrence. A delayed long-term angiographic evaluation (at least 1 year from cure) may be warranted, especially in cases with risk factors for recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.1.JNS202033DOI Listing
September 2021

Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR): rationale, design, and initial characterization of patient cohort.

J Neurosurg 2021 Sep 10:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

6Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are rare lesions, hampering efforts to understand them and improve their care. To address this challenge, investigators with an established record of dAVF investigation formed an international, multicenter consortium aimed at better elucidating dAVF pathophysiology, imaging characteristics, natural history, and patient outcomes. This report describes the design of the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) and includes characterization of the 1077-patient cohort.

Methods: Potential collaborators with established interest in the field were identified via systematic review of the literature. To ensure uniformity of data collection, a quality control process was instituted. Data were retrospectively obtained.

Results: CONDOR comprises 14 centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Japan that have pooled their data from 1077 dAVF patients seen between 1990 and 2017. The cohort includes 359 patients (33%) with Borden type I dAVFs, 175 (16%) with Borden type II fistulas, and 529 (49%) with Borden type III fistulas. Overall, 852 patients (79%) presented with fistula-related symptoms: 427 (40%) presented with nonaggressive symptoms such as tinnitus or orbital phenomena, 258 (24%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage, and 167 (16%) presented with nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits. A smaller proportion (224 patients, 21%), whose dAVFs were discovered incidentally, were asymptomatic. Many patients (85%, 911/1077) underwent treatment via endovascular embolization (55%, 587/1077), surgery (10%, 103/1077), radiosurgery (3%, 36/1077), or multimodal therapy (17%, 184/1077). The overall angiographic cure rate was 83% (758/911 treated), and treatment-related permanent neurological morbidity was 2% (27/1467 total procedures). The median time from diagnosis to follow-up was 380 days (IQR 120-1038.5 days).

Conclusions: With more than 1000 patients, the CONDOR registry represents the largest registry of cranial dAVF patient data in the world. These unique, well-annotated data will enable multiple future analyses to be performed to better understand dAVFs and their management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.1.JNS202790DOI Listing
September 2021
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