Publications by authors named "J Gaida"

59 Publications

Chronic hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and metabolic syndrome are associated with risk of tendon injury.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg and Center for Healthy Aging, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Tendon injury is a considerable problem affecting both physically active and sedentary people. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between markers for metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and metabolic syndrome) and the risk of developing tendon injuries requiring referral to a hospital. The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective study of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals from the Danish general population with different physical activity levels. The cohort was followed for 3 years via national registers with respect to tendon injuries. Data from 5856 individuals (median age 62 years) were included. The overall incidence of tendon injury in both upper and lower extremities that required an out-patient or in-house visit to a hospital was ~5.7/1000 person years. Individuals with elevated HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) even in the prediabetic range (HbA1c>5.7%) had a ~3 times higher risk of tendon injury in the lower extremities only, as compared to individuals with normal HbA1C levels. Hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol>5 mmol/L) increased risk of tendon injury in the upper extremities by ~1.5 times, and individuals with metabolic syndrome had ~2.5 times higher risk of tendon injury in both upper and lower extremities. In conclusion, these data demonstrate for the first time in a large cohort with different physical activity levels that the indicators for metabolic syndrome are a powerful systemic determinant of tendon injury, and two of its components, hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia, each independently make tendons susceptible for damage and injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13984DOI Listing
May 2021

Does isometric exercise result in exercise induced hypoalgesia in people with local musculoskeletal pain? A systematic review.

Phys Ther Sport 2021 May 19;49:51-61. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

La Trobe Sports and Exercise Medicine Research Centre, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this review was to investigate if exercise induced hypoalgesia (EIH) occurs following isometric muscle contraction in people with local musculoskeletal symptoms.

Design: Systematic review.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL & SportDiscus electronic databases were searched (inception to April 2020).

Eligibility Criteria: Two authors independently evaluated eligibility. Randomised controlled and crossover (repeated measures) trials that measured the effects of isometric exercise in participants with localised musculoskeletal pain during, and up to 2 hours after isometric exercise were included. Other inclusion criteria included comparison to another intervention, or comparison to healthy controls. Primary outcomes were experimentally induced pain thresholds and secondary outcomes included measures of pain sensitivity from clinical testing.

Results: 13 studies with data from 346 participants were included for narrative synthesis. EIH was reported in some upper and lower limb studies but there were no consistent data to show isometric exercises were superior to comparison interventions.

Conclusion: There was no consistent evidence for EIH following isometric exercise in people with musculoskeletal pain. These findings are different to those reported in asymptomatic populations (where EIH is consistently demonstrated) as well as conditions associated with widespread symptoms such as fibromyalgia (where isometric exercise may induce hyperalgesia). Although well tolerated when prescribed, isometric exercise did not induce EIH consistently for people seeking care for local musculoskeletal symptoms. The variance in the dose, location of contraction and intensity of protocols included in this review may explain the inconsistent findings. Further work is required to better understand endogenous analgesia in musculoskeletal pain conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2020.09.008DOI Listing
May 2021

Observation of fluctuation-mediated picosecond nucleation of a topological phase.

Nat Mater 2021 Jan 5;20(1):30-37. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

European XFEL, Schenefeld, Germany.

Topological states of matter exhibit fascinating physics combined with an intrinsic stability. A key challenge is the fast creation of topological phases, which requires massive reorientation of charge or spin degrees of freedom. Here we report the picosecond emergence of an extended topological phase that comprises many magnetic skyrmions. The nucleation of this phase, followed in real time via single-shot soft X-ray scattering after infrared laser excitation, is mediated by a transient topological fluctuation state. This state is enabled by the presence of a time-reversal symmetry-breaking perpendicular magnetic field and exists for less than 300 ps. Atomistic simulations indicate that the fluctuation state largely reduces the topological energy barrier and thereby enables the observed rapid and homogeneous nucleation of the skyrmion phase. These observations provide fundamental insights into the nature of topological phase transitions, and suggest a path towards ultrafast topological switching in a wide variety of materials through intermediate fluctuating states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-00807-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Does moxonidine reduce Achilles tendon or musculoskeletal pain in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome? A secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

BMC Endocr Disord 2020 Aug 26;20(1):131. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Background: Sympathetic activity and insulin resistance have recently been linked with chronic tendon and musculoskeletal pain. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is linked with insulin resistance and increased sympathetic drive and was therefore an appropriate condition to study the effects of modulating sympathetic activity on Achilles tendon and musculoskeletal symptoms.

Methods: A secondary analysis of a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial on women with polycystic ovarian syndrome was conducted. Participants received 12 weeks of moxonidine (n = 14) or placebo (n = 18). Musculoskeletal symptom and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaires were distributed, and ultrasound tissue characterisation quantified tendon structure at 0 and 12 weeks. 2-way ANOVA was used for multiple comparisons.

Results: There was no difference in mean change in musculoskeletal symptoms (- 0.6 ± 1.7 vs - 0.4 ± 1.8, p = 0.69) or VISA-A (moxonidine - 0.2 ± 8.8 vs placebo + 4.2 ± 14.6, p = 0.24) attributable to the intervention. There was no difference in any measures of Achilles structure. Moxonidine did not reduce sympathetic drive when compared to placebo.

Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the effects of blocking sympathetic drive on musculoskeletal and Achilles tendon symptoms in a metabolically diverse population. While the study was limited by small sample size and lack of sympathetic modulation, moxonidine did not change tendon pain/structure or musculoskeletal symptoms.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01504321 . Registered 5 January 2012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-020-00610-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449016PMC
August 2020

Compression Therapy to Prevent Recurrent Cellulitis of the Leg.

N Engl J Med 2020 08;383(7):630-639

From the Physiotherapy Department, Calvary Public Hospital Bruce, Bruce, ACT (E.W.), the Biological Data Science Institute, the Australian National University Joint Colleges of Science, Health, and Medicine (T.N.), and the Medical School (F.J.B.), Australian National University, the University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (J.G.), and the Discipline of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra (E.W., B.B.), Canberra, ACT, and the Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney (V.M.) - all in Australia.

Background: Chronic edema of the leg is a risk factor for cellulitis. Daily use of compression garments on the leg has been recommended to prevent the recurrence of cellulitis, but there is limited evidence from trials regarding its effectiveness.

Methods: In this single-center, randomized, nonblinded trial, we assigned participants with chronic edema of the leg and recurrent cellulitis, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive leg compression therapy plus education on cellulitis prevention (compression group) or education alone (control group). Follow-up occurred every 6 months for up to 3 years or until 45 episodes of cellulitis had occurred in the trial. The primary outcome was the recurrence of cellulitis. Participants in the control group who had an episode of cellulitis crossed over to the compression group. Secondary outcomes included cellulitis-related hospital admission and quality-of-life assessments.

Results: A total of 183 patients were screened, and 84 were enrolled; 41 participants were assigned to the compression group, and 43 to the control group. At the time of a planned interim analysis, when 23 episodes of cellulitis had occurred, 6 participants (15%) in the compression group and 17 (40%) in the control group had had an episode of cellulitis (hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.59; P = 0.002; relative risk [post hoc analysis], 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.84; P = 0.02), and the trial was stopped for efficacy. A total of 3 participants (7%) in the compression group and 6 (14%) in the control group were hospitalized for cellulitis (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.59). Most quality-of-life outcomes did not differ between the two groups. No adverse events occurred during the trial.

Conclusions: In this small, single-center, nonblinded trial involving patients with chronic edema of the leg and cellulitis, compression therapy resulted in a lower incidence of recurrence of cellulitis than conservative treatment. (Funded by Calvary Public Hospital Bruce; Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12617000412336.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1917197DOI Listing
August 2020