Publications by authors named "J G Taylor"

12,364 Publications

Development of a VRC01-class germline targeting immunogen derived from anti-idiotypic antibodies.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(5):109084

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Division, Seattle, WA 98109, USA; University of Washington, Department of Global Health, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address:

An effective HIV-1 vaccine will likely need to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Broad and potent VRC01-class bNAbs have been isolated from multiple infected individuals, suggesting that they could be reproducibly elicited by vaccination. Several HIV-1 envelope-derived germline-targeting immunogens have been designed to engage naive VRC01-class precursor B cells. However, they also present off-target epitopes that could hinder development of VRC01-class bNAbs. We characterize a panel of anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies (ai-mAbs) raised against inferred-germline (iGL) VRC01-class antibodies. By leveraging binding, structural, and B cell sorting data, we engineered a bispecific molecule derived from two ai-mAbs; one specific for VRC01-class heavy chains and one specific for VRC01-class light chains. The bispecific molecule preferentially activates iGL-VRC01 B cells in vitro and induces specific antibody responses in a murine adoptive transfer model with a diverse polyclonal B cell repertoire. This molecule represents an alternative non-envelope-derived germline-targeting immunogen that can selectively activate VRC01-class precursors in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109084DOI Listing
May 2021

Sensitivity of Uni- vs Bilateral Spike-Wave Discharges to Ethosuximide and Carbamazepine in the Fluid Percussion Injury Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurophysiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, United Statesgrid.266190.a.

Unilateral-onset spike-wave discharges (SWDs) following fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats have been used for nearly two decades as a model for complex partial seizures in human post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). This study determined if SWDs with a unilateral versus bilateral cortical onset differed. In this experiment, 2-month old rats received severe FPI (3 atm) or sham surgery, and were instrumented for chronic video-electrocorticography (ECoG) recording (up to 9 months). The anti-seizure drug, carbamazepine (CBZ), and the anti-absence drug, ethosuximide (ETX), were administered separately to determine if they selectively suppressed unilateral- versus bilateral-onset SWDs, respectively. SWDs did not significantly differ between FPI and sham rats on any measured parameter (wave-shape, frequency spectrum, duration, or age-related progression), including unilateral (~17%) versus bilateral (~83%) onsets. SWDs with a unilateral onset preferentially originated ipsilateral to the craniotomy in both FPI and sham rats, suggesting that the unilateral-onset SWDs were related to surgical injury and not specifically to FPI. ETX profoundly suppressed SWDs with either unilateral or bilateral onsets, and CBZ had no effect on either type of SWD. These results suggest that SWDs with either a unilateral or bilateral onset have a pharmacosensitivity similar to absence seizures and are very different from the complex partial seizures of PTE. Therefore, SWDs with a unilateral onset after FPI are not a model of the complex partial seizures that occur in PTE, and their use for finding new treatments for PTE could be counterproductive, particularly if their close similarity to normal brain oscillations is not acknowledged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00098.2021DOI Listing
May 2021

Hospitalisation without delirium is not associated with cognitive decline in a population-based sample of older people-results from a nested, longitudinal cohort study.

Age Ageing 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Research in Ageing and Cognitive Health, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK.

Background: Acute hospitalisation and delirium have individually been shown to adversely affect trajectories of cognitive decline but have not previously been considered together. This work aimed to explore the impact on cognition of hospital admission with and without delirium, compared to a control group with no hospital admissions.

Methods: The Delirium and Cognitive Impact in Dementia (DECIDE) study was nested within the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II (CFAS II)-Newcastle cohort. CFAS II participants completed two baseline interviews, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). During 2016, surviving participants from CFAS II-Newcastle were recruited to DECIDE on admission to hospital. Participants were reviewed daily to determine delirium status.During 2017, all DECIDE participants and age, sex and years of education matched controls without hospital admissions during 2016 were invited to repeat the CFAS II interview. Delirium was excluded in the control group using the Informant Assessment of Geriatric Delirium Scale (i-AGeD). Linear mixed effects modelling determined predictors of cognitive decline.

Results: During 2016, 82 of 205 (40%) DECIDE participants had at least one episode of delirium. At 1 year, 135 of 205 hospitalised participants completed an interview along with 100 controls. No controls experienced delirium (i-AGeD>4). Delirium was associated with a faster rate of cognitive decline compared to those without delirium (β = -2.2, P < 0.001), but number of hospital admissions was not (P = 0.447).

Conclusions: These results suggest that delirium during hospitalisation rather than hospitalisation per se is a risk factor for future cognitive decline, emphasising the need for dementia prevention studies that focus on delirium intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afab068DOI Listing
May 2021

Montaigne and Medicine.

Authors:
J S Taylor

Ann Med Hist 1921 ;3(4):327-348

Washington, D. C.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946132PMC
January 1921

Montaigne and Medicine.

Authors:
J S Taylor

Ann Med Hist 1921 ;3(2):97-121

Washington, D. C.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946123PMC
January 1921