Publications by authors named "J G Castro Rios"

966 Publications

Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation: predictors, fertility outcomes, and assays among infertile males.

F S Rep 2021 Sep 19;2(3):282-288. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Objective: To examine the factors associated with increased deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation index (DFI), evaluate the pregnancy outcomes of men with increased DFI, and compare three independent DFI assays.

Design: Secondary analysis.

Setting: Nine US-based fertility centers.

Patients: Infertile men (N = 147) with sperm concentration ≤15 × 10/mL, motility ≤40%, or normal morphology ≤4% were enrolled. The female partners were ovulatory, ≤40 years old, and had documented tubal patency.

Interventions: At a baseline visit, the men provided a semen sample. The couples attempted conception without assistance for 3 months and with ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination in the subsequent 3 months.

Main Outcome Measures: The DFI was analyzed using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) with increased DFI defined as >30%. The predictors of increased DFI were determined by a multivariable linear regression model. The pregnancy outcomes were compared using the χ test. The independent DFI assays (SCSA, deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and Comet) were compared with Pearson and Spearman correlations.

Results: The 19% of men with increased DFI were older (36.0 vs. 33.0 years) and had lower total sperm motility (38.2% ± 20.5% vs. 45.2% ± 15.6%). Increased male age was found to be a significant predictor of DFI (0.75, 95% confidence interval [0.06, 1.45]). Increased DFI was not associated with conception or live birth. There was a modest correlation of the deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay with the SCSA (r = 0.34) and Comet assay (r = 0.19).

Conclusions: Older age was associated with increased DFI among infertile men. The DFI assays were only weakly correlated, indicating a standard definition of DFI is needed to truly interrogate how sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation impacts male fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xfre.2021.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441563PMC
September 2021

Applying the Ottawa Ankle Rules in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

From the Pediatric Department, Hospital Beatriz Ângelo, Loures, Portugal.

Objectives: Ankle and midfoot injuries constitute one of the most frequent reasons to visit the pediatric emergency department (ED). The aims of the study were (1) to determine the feasibility of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OARs) in a pediatric ED and its reliability to safely manage ankle and midfoot injuries and (2) to verify the impact in reducing the number of radiographs, healthcare costs, and time spent in the ED.

Methods: The prospective study enrolled 90 patients for the control group and 94 for the case group. For the control group, the standard of practice was registered. In the case group, before beginning enrolment, an instruction of how to apply the OARs were given to all clinicians. After that, OARs were applied according to patient complaints. A follow-up call was made for both groups.

Results: The mean age of the control group was 11.9 years (standard deviation, 3.267 years), whereas in the case group was 11.3 years (standard deviation, 3.533 years). Demographic and injury characteristics were similar in both groups. A significant statistical difference was verified in the number of radiographs (P = 0.001) with a reduction of 16.7% in the case group. Patients who did not perform radiography, in the case group, spent at least 1 hour less than the ones who did. The OARs have shown a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval, 39.76-100.00) and specificity of 23.33% (95% CI, 15.06-33.43) with a negative predictive value of 100%.

Conclusions: The OARs are an important clinical instrument with a high sensitivity and negative predictive value, which allows clinicians to avoid unnecessary exposure to radiation without missing clinically relevant fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002528DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of CAX1a TILLING mutations on photosynthesis performance in salt-stressed Brassica rapa plants.

Plant Sci 2021 Oct 4;311:111013. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

Salinity is an important environmental factor that reduces plant productivity in many world regions. It affects negatively photosynthesis causing a growth reduction. Likewise, calcium (Ca) is crucial in plant stress response. Therefore, the modification of Ca cation exchangers (CAX) transporters could be a potential strategy to increase plant tolerance to salinity. Using Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING), researchers generated three mutants of Brassica rapa CAX1a transporter: BraA.cax1a-7, BraA.cax1a-4, and BraA.cax1a-12. The aim of this study was to test the effect of those mutations on salt tolerance focusing on the response to the photosynthesis process. Thus, the three BraA.cax1a mutants and the parental line (R-o-18) were grown under salinity conditions, and parameters related to biomass, photosynthesis performance, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49), and soluble carbohydrates were measured. BraA.cax1a-4 provided higher biomass and a better photosynthetic performance manifested by higher water use efficiency (WUE), Fv/Fm, electron fluxes, and Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) values. In addition, BraA.cax1a-4 presented increased osmotic protection through myo-inositol accumulation. On the other hand, BraA.cax1a-7 produced some negative effects on photosynthesis performance and lower G6PDH and Rubisco accumulations. Therefore, this study points out BraA.cax1a-4 as a useful mutation to improve photosynthetic performance in plants grown under saline conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.111013DOI Listing
October 2021

Situation of the tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity in adults in Peru: 2016-2018.

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2021 Apr-Jun;38(2):254-260. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú.

Objective: To describe the characteristics of adult patients with tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Peru, and to explore the association of DM and mortality in people with TB.

Materials And Methods: We carried out a secondary analysis of the database of the Management Information System of Tuberculosis of the Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Directorate of the Ministry of Health of Peru. Adult patients who started treatment with the scheme for drug-sensitive TB in 2016, 2017 and 2018 were included. We carried out a descriptive analysis of patients with TB and DM, and an exploratory analysis to assess the association of DM with mortality using a Poisson regression to determine the relative risk (RR).

Results: We registered 67,524 adults with drug-sensitive TB, of which 6,529 (9.7%) people were reported as having TB and DM; and 4,048 (6.0%) had HIV infection. Of the patients reported with TB and DM, most were men (60.2%) with a median age of 53 years. Regarding mortality, people with TB and DM had a higher frequency of death compared to those with TB without DM (7.2% vs 5.4%). In the exploratory analysis of factors associated with mortality, DM had a crude RR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.20-1.50); however, this association varied in the adjusted model with a RR of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.84-1.04).

Conclusions: DM is the most frequent comorbidity in patients with TB in Peru, although no association with higher mortality was found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17843/rpmesp.2021.382.6764DOI Listing
September 2021

Intraparenchymal Meningioma.

J Med Cases 2021 Jan 18;12(1):32-36. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, USS Tunal, Bogota, Colombia.

Meningiomas have been described as the most frequent extra-axial tumor in the brain. Most are benign and correspond to World Health Organization (WHO) grade I; however, there are some reports of cases that shows atypical locations, like subcortical intra-axial meningiomas. This represents a challenge in radiological diagnosis because it could be taken as a metastasis tumor or vascular malformations. The authors bring a case report of a previously healthy patient who presents a traumatic brain injury with no traumatic lesions. A computed tomography (CT) evidenced a left frontal rounded subcortical lesion surrounded by large vasogenic edema. The first diagnostic impression was a metastasis tumor. During surgery, a total resection was completed, and the appearance of the tumor was meningioma. This was later confirmed by histological analysis. The literature was reviewed in order to determine the importance of including intraparenchymal meningiomas in the differential diagnosis of intracranial lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jmc3592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383642PMC
January 2021
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