Publications by authors named "J Furmaniak"

141 Publications

Blocking the Thyrotropin Receptor with K1-70 in a Patient with Follicular Thyroid Cancer, Graves' Disease, and Graves' Ophthalmopathy.

Thyroid 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

AV7 Limited, FIRS Laboratories, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

We report the therapeutic use of K1-70™, a thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) antagonist monoclonal antibody, in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), Graves' disease (GD), and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). A 51-year-old female patient, who smoked, presented in October 2014 with FTC complicated by GD, high levels of TSHR autoantibodies with high thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) activity, and severe GO. K1-70 was administered at 3 weekly intervals with the dose adjusted to block TSAb activity. Her cancer was managed with lenvatinib and radioiodine therapy. Following initiation of K1-70 therapy, TSAb activity measured in serum decreased and GO (proptosis and inflammation) improved. On K1-70 monotherapy during the pause in lenvatinib, several metastatic lesions stabilized while others showed progression attenuation compared with that before lenvatinib therapy. These observations suggest that blocking TSHR stimulation with K1-70 can be an effective treatment for GO and may also benefit select patients with FTC and GD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2021.0053DOI Listing
July 2021

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1: an Italian survey on 158 patients.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

FIRS Laboratories RSR Ltd, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare recessive inherited disease, caused by AutoImmune Regulator (AIRE) gene mutations and characterized by three major manifestations: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), chronic hypoparathyroidism (CH) and Addison's disease (AD).

Methods: Autoimmune conditions and associated autoantibodies (Abs) were analyzed in 158 Italian patients (103 females and 55 males; F/M 1.9/1) at the onset and during a follow-up of 23.7 ± 15.1 years. AIRE mutations were determined.

Results: The prevalence of APS-1 was 2.6 cases/million (range 0.5-17 in different regions). At the onset 93% of patients presented with one or more components of the classical triad and 7% with other components. At the end of follow-up, 86.1% had CH, 77.2% AD, 74.7% CMC, 49.5% premature menopause, 29.7% autoimmune intestinal dysfunction, 27.8% autoimmune thyroid diseases, 25.9% autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia, 25.3% ectodermal dystrophy, 24% alopecia, 21.5% autoimmune hepatitis, 17% vitiligo, 13.3% cholelithiasis, 5.7% connective diseases, 4.4% asplenia, 2.5% celiac disease and 13.9% cancer. Overall, 991 diseases (6.3 diseases/patient) were found. Interferon-ω Abs (IFNωAbs) were positive in 91.1% of patients. Overall mortality was 14.6%. The AIRE mutation R139X was found in 21.3% of tested alleles, R257X in 11.8%, W78R in 11.4%, C322fsX372 in 8.8%, T16M in 6.2%, R203X in 4%, and A21V in 2.9%. Less frequent mutations were present in 12.9%, very rare in 9.6% while no mutations in 11% of the cases.

Conclusions: In Italy, APS-1 is a rare disorder presenting with the three major manifestations and associated with different AIRE gene mutations. IFNωAbs are markers of APS-1 and other organ-specific autoantibodies are markers of clinical, subclinical or potential autoimmune conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40618-021-01585-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Practical applications of studies on the TSH receptor and TSH receptor autoantibodies.

Endocrine 2020 05 29;68(2):261-264. Epub 2020 May 29.

FIRS Laboratories, RSR Ltd, Cardiff, UK.

Studies on the TSH receptor (TSHR) have numerous practical applications in vitro and in vivo. For example human monoclonal autoantibodies (MAbs) to the TSHR are useful reagents for in vitro diagnostics. Measurement of TSHR autoantibodies (TRAbs) is helpful in diagnosis and management of autoimmune thyroid disease. Currently available highly sensitive and specific assays to measure TRAbs use the human TSHR MAb M22 instead of the TSH. Furthermore, preparations of the human TSHR MAb M22 are useful as the World Health Organisation International Standard for thyroid stimulating antibody and for calibration of the assays for measuring TRAbs. Preparations of thermostabilised TSHR extracellular domain have recently become available and this is likely to have an impact on improvements in specificity testing for TRAb assays. In addition the stable TSHR preparations have practical application for specific immunoadsorption of patient serum TRAbs. Human TSHR MAbs also have promising prospects as new therapeutics. Autoantibodies with TSHR antagonistic activities are "natural" inhibitors of TSHR stimulation and are expected to be helpful in controlling TSHR activity in patients with Graves' disease, Graves' ophthalmopathy and thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-019-02180-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266850PMC
May 2020

Preclinical studies on the toxicology, pharmacokinetics and safety of K1-70 a human monoclonal autoantibody to the TSH receptor with TSH antagonist activity.

Auto Immun Highlights 2019 Dec 7;10(1):11. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

AV7 Limited, FIRS Laboratories, Parc Ty Glas, Llanishen, Cardiff, CF14 5DU UK.

Background: The human monoclonal autoantibody K1-70™ binds to the TSH receptor (TSHR) with high affinity and blocks TSHR cyclic AMP stimulation by TSH and thyroid stimulating autoantibodies.

Methods: The preclinical toxicology assessment following weekly intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration of K1-70™ in rats and cynomolgus monkeys for 29 days was carried out. An assessment of delayed onset toxicity and/or reversibility of toxicity was made during a further 4 week treatment free period. The pharmacokinetic parameters of K1-70™ and the effects of different doses of K1-70™ on serum thyroid hormone levels in the study animals were determined in rats and primates after IV and IM administration.

Results: Low serum levels of T3 and T4 associated with markedly elevated levels of TSH were observed in the study animals following IV and IM administration of K1-70™. The toxicological findings were attributed to the pharmacology of K1-70™ and were consistent with the hypothyroid state. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) could not be established in the rat study while in the primate study it was 100 mg/kg/dose for both males and females.

Conclusions: The toxicology, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data in this preclinical study were helpful in designing the first in human study with K1-70™ administered to subjects with Graves' disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13317-019-0121-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065368PMC
December 2019

Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of Addison's disease in adults.

J Endocrinol Invest 2019 Dec 18;42(12):1407-1433. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

FIRS Laboratories, Llanishen, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Addison's disease (AD) is a rare disorder and among adult population in developed countries is most commonly caused by autoimmunity. In contrast, in children genetic causes are responsible for AD in the majority of patients.

Purpose: This review describes epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetics, natural history, clinical manifestations, immunological markers and diagnostic strategies in patients with AD. Standard care treatments including the management of patients during pregnancy and adrenal crises consistent with the recent consensus statement of the European Consortium and the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline are described. In addition, emerging therapies designed to improve the quality of life and new strategies to modify the natural history of autoimmune AD are discussed.

Conclusions: Progress in optimizing replacement therapy for patients with AD has allowed the patients to lead a normal life. However, continuous education of patients and health care professionals of ever-present danger of adrenal crisis is essential to save lives of patients with AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40618-019-01079-6DOI Listing
December 2019
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