Publications by authors named "J E Gruener"

10 Publications

Development of an Index to Measure West Nile Virus Transmission Risk in New Jersey Counties.

J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2021 12;37(4):216-223

We developed an index for use by New Jersey counties to measure West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk to the human population. We used a latent profile analysis to develop the index, identifying categories of environmental conditions associated with WNV transmission risk to humans. The final model included 4 indicators of transmission risk: mosquito abundance and minimum field infection rate, temperature, and human case count. We used data from 2004 to 2018 from all 21 New Jersey counties aggregated into 11 2-wk units per county per year (N = 3,465). Three WNV risk classes were identified. The Low Risk class had low levels of all variables. The Moderate Risk class had high abundance, average temperature levels, and low levels of the other variables. The High Risk class had substantially above average human case likelihood, average temperature, and high mosquito infection rates. These results suggest the presence of 3 distinct WNV risk profiles, which can be used to guide the development of public health actions intended to mitigate WNV transmission risk to the human population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2987/21-7029DOI Listing
December 2021

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) suture vs fiberwire and polypropylene in flexor tendon repair.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Sep 19;141(9):1609-1614. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg FAU, University of Erlangen Medical Center, Krankenhausstr. 12, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: In this study, we evaluate the value of novel suture material based on monofilamentous-extruded polyfluoroethylene (PTFE) compared to polypropylene (PPL) and Fiberwire (FW).

Materials And Methods: 60 flexor tendons were harvested from fresh cadaveric upper extremities. 4-0 sutures strands were used in the PPL, FW and PTFE group. Knotting properties and mechanical characteristics of the suture materials were evaluated. A 4-strand locked cruciate (Adelaide) or a 6-strand (M-Tang) suture technique was applied as core sutures for a tendon repair. Two-way ANOVA tests were performed with the Bonferroni correction.

Results: Stable knotting was achieved with 5 throws with the PPL material, 7 throws for FW and 9 throws for PTFE. In the PPL group, linear tensile strength was 45.92 ± 12.53 N, in the FW group 80.11 ± 18.34 N and in the PTFE group 76.16 ± 29.10 N. FW and PTFE are significantly stronger than PPL but show no significant difference among each other. Similar results were obtained in the subgroup comparisons for different repair techniques. The Adelaide and the M-Tang knotting technique showed no significant difference.

Conclusion: Fiberwire showed superior handling and knotting properties in comparison to PTFE. However, PTFE allows easier approximation of the stumps. In both, M-Tang and Adelaide repairs, PTFE was equal to FW in terms of repair strength. Both PTFE and FW provide for a robust tendon repair so that early active motion regimens for rehabilitation can be applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-03899-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354926PMC
September 2021

Long-term studies on the integration of acellular porcine dermis as an implant shell and the effect on capsular fibrosis around silicone implants in a rat model.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2019 09 14;72(9):1555-1563. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Krankenhausstraße 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

Acellular dermal matrices have recently increasingly been used in alloplastic breast reconstruction with silicone breast implants. Among these matrices, acellular porcine dermis (APD) is frequently applied, but long-term data on tissue integration and capsular fibrosis formation are still missing. Silicone prostheses with (group A) and without (group B) APD as an implant-covering shell were implanted in male Lewis rats. At 3, 12, and 52 weeks after implantation, the constructs were explanted. Molecular biological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed afterwards. On comparing the collagenous layer and the newly formed myofibroblast-rich layer around the implants of both groups, it became apparent that in group A, these layers were thinner, followed by a lower expression of TGFβ1 after 12 and 52 weeks. Further, in this group, at the endpoint of 52 weeks, a lower amount of CD68-positive cells in the collagenous and myofibroblast-rich layers were observed and the expression of TNFα was reduced, while the number of Ki67-positive cells was significantly higher with time. Furthermore, MMP1 expression in group A was lower than that in group B, and the calculated ratio of MMP1:TIMP1 expression was higher. The long-term results clearly show a reduction in inflammatory and fibrotic tissue reaction when APD is used to cover silicone prostheses. These experimental data will be of considerable importance for implant-based breast surgery, as they indicate a potential benefit in the reduction of capsular fibrosis formation of an interposition of APD between the recipient and the silicone implant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2019.04.015DOI Listing
September 2019

Radio Frequency Heating of Carbon Nanotube Composite Materials.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Aug 2;10(32):27252-27259. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering , Texas Tech University , Lubbock , Texas 79409 , United States.

Here, we give the first-ever report of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic heating of polymer nanocomposite materials via direct-contact and capacitively coupled electric field applicators. Notably, RF heating allows nanocomposite materials to be resistively heated with electric fields. We highlight our novel RF heating technique for multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) thermoplastic composites and measure their broadband dielectric properties. We also demonstrate three different electric field applicator configurations and discuss their practical use in an industrial setting. We demonstrate the use of RF heating to cure an automotive-grade epoxy loaded with MWCNTs. Our results show that lap shear joints cured faster with the RF method compared with control samples cured in an oven because of the heat-transfer advantages of directly heating the epoxy composite. Finally, we implement our RF curing technique to assemble an automotive structure by locally curing an epoxy adhesive applied to a truck chassis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b06268DOI Listing
August 2018

Interpreter training for medical students: pilot implementation and assessment in a student-run clinic.

BMC Med Educ 2016 Sep 29;16(1):256. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Department of Medical Education, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Trained medical interpreters are instrumental to patient satisfaction and quality of care. They are especially important in student-run clinics, where many patients have limited English proficiency. Because student-run clinics have ties to their medical schools, they have access to bilingual students who may volunteer to interpret, but are not necessarily formally trained.

Methods: To study the feasibility and efficacy of leveraging medical student volunteers to improve interpretation services, we performed a pilot study at the student-run clinic at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. In each fall semester in 2012-2015, we implemented a 6-h course providing didactic and interactive training on medical Spanish interpreting techniques and language skills to bilingual students. We then assessed the impact of the course on interpreter abilities.

Results: Participants' comfort levels, understanding of their roles, and understanding of terminology significantly increased after the course (p < 0.05), and these gains remained several months later (p < 0.05) and were repeated in an independent cohort. Patients and student clinicians also rated participants highly (averages above 4.5 out of 5) on these measures in real clinical encounters.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that a formal interpreter training course tailored for medical students in the setting of a student-run clinic is feasible and effective. This program for training qualified student interpreters can serve as a model for other settings where medical students serve as interpreters.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5043630PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-016-0760-8DOI Listing
September 2016
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