Publications by authors named "J Donaldson"

790 Publications

The Immunomodulatory Effects of Opioids and Implications for Intensive Care Unit Populations.

Pharmacotherapy 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Analgesia within the intensive care unit (ICU) is often achieved via the utilization of opioids in alignment with current guidelines. Recent evidence has not only demonstrated the potential impact of opioids in suppression of immune function, but also the potential harm of immunosuppression of patients within the ICU. Despite the potential immunosuppression seen with opioids in this at-risk population, their use remains frequent. In this review, we highlight the potential immunomodulatory impact of opioids within the critically ill and considerations for their use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2602DOI Listing
June 2021

Cycloaddition Cascades of Strained Alkynes and Oxadiazinones.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

University of California, LA, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Synthetic Organic Chemistry, 607 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951569, 90095-1569, Los Angeles, UNITED STATES.

We report a computational and experimental study of the reaction of oxadiazinones and strained alkynes to give polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The reaction proceeds by way of a pericyclic reaction cascade and leads to the formation of four new carbon-carbon bonds. Using M06-2X DFT calculations, we interrogate several mechanistic aspects of the reaction, such as why the use of non-aromatic strained alkynes can be used to access unsymmetrical PAHs, whereas the use of arynes in the methodology leads to symmetrical PAHs. In addition, experimental studies enable the rapid synthesis of new PAHs, including tetracene and pentacene scaffolds. These studies not only provide fundamental insight regarding the aforementioned cycloaddition cascades and synthetic access to PAH scaffolds, but are also expected to enable the synthesis of new materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202105244DOI Listing
June 2021

Changes in the Intestinal Histomorphometry, the Expression of Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins, and the Bone Structure and Liver of Pre-Laying Hens Following Oral Administration of Fumonisins for 21 Days.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 05 25;13(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

State Scientific Research Control Institute of Veterinary Medicinal Products and Feed Additives, Donetska St. 11, 79000 Lviv, Ukraine.

Fumonisins (FB) are metabolites found in cereal grains (including maize), crop products, and pelleted feed. There is a dearth of information concerning the effects of FB intoxication on the intestinal histomorphometry, the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, and the bone structure and liver in pre-laying hens. The current experiment was carried out on hens from the 11th to the 14th week of age. The hens were orally administered an extract containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) at doses of 0.0 mg/kg b.w. (body weight), 1.0 mg/kg b.w., 4.0 mg/kg b.w., and 10.9 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days. Following FB intoxication, the epithelial integrity of the duodenum and jejunum was disrupted, and dose-dependent degenerative changes were observed in liver. An increased content of immature collagen was observed in the bone tissue of FB-intoxicated birds, indicating intensified bone turnover. A similar effect was observed with regards to the articular cartilage, where enhanced fibrillogenesis was observed mainly in the group of birds that received the FB extract at a dose of 10.9 mg/kg b.w. In conclusion, FB intoxication resulted in negative structural changes in the bone tissue of the hens, which could result in worsened bone mechanics and an increase in the risk of bone fractures. Fumonisin administration, even at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg b.w., can lead to degradation of the intestinal barrier and predispose hens to intestinal disturbances later in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060375DOI Listing
May 2021

Modern Hybrid Rye, as an Alternative Energy Source for Broiler Chickens, Improves the Absorption Surface of the Small Intestine Depending on the Intestinal Part and Xylanase Supplementation.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 10;11(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Functional Anatomy and Cytobiology, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 19 Akademicka St., 20-033 Lublin, Poland.

The current study investigated the effects of the inclusion of modern hybrid rye (Brasetto variety) to a corn-wheat-based diet, with or without xylanase, on the absorptive surface of the small intestine of broilers. A total of 224 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into four experimental groups with seven replicate cages of eight birds/replicate. A 2 × 2 factorial study design was used, with rye inclusion (0% or 20%) and xylanase supplementation (0 or 200 mg/kg of feed) as factors. Inclusion of rye increased duodenal and ileal crypt depth, villi height, the villus-to-crypt ratio and absorption surface area ( < 0.05), and ileal mucosa thickness and crypt width ( < 0.05). Xylanase supplementation attenuated the effects of rye in the duodenum and ileum and decreased the villi height and villus-to-crypt ratio in the jejunum ( < 0.05). Rye and xylanase had no effect on the spatial distribution of claudin 3 and ZO-1 protein, but xylanase supplementation reduced the amount of claudin 3 in the duodenum and jejunum ( < 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that 20% inclusion of modern hybrid rye to the diets of broilers improved the structure of the duodenum and ileum, but these effects were attenuated by xylanase supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11051349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151840PMC
May 2021

The Effects of Prenatal Supplementation with β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate and/or Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid on the Development and Maturation of Mink Intestines Are Dependent on the Number of Pregnancies and the Sex of the Offspring.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 20;11(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka St. 12, 20-950 Lublin, Poland.

Prenatal and postnatal supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) affects the development and maturation of offspring. Both substances have the potential to stimulate cell metabolism via different routes. However, parity affects development and may alter the effects of dietary supplementation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gestational supplementation with HMB and/or AKG to primiparous and multiparous minks on the structure and maturation of the offspring's small intestine. Primiparous and multiparous American minks (), of the standard dark brown type, were supplemented daily with HMB (0.02 g/kg b.w.) and/or AKG (0.4 g/kg b.w.) during gestation ( = 7 for each treatment). Supplementation stopped when the minks gave birth. Intestine samples were collected from 8-month-old male and female offspring during autopsy and histology and histomorphometry analysis was conducted (LAEC approval no 64/2015). Gestational supplementation had a long-term effect, improving the structure of the offspring's intestine toward facilitating absorption and passage of intestinal contents. AKG supplementation affected intestinal absorption (enterocytes, villi and absorptive surface), and HMB affected intestinal peristalsis and secretion (crypts and Goblet cells). These effects were strongly dependent on parity and offspring gender. Present findings have important nutritional implications and should be considered in feeding practices and supplementation plans in animal reproduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11051468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160670PMC
May 2021