Publications by authors named "J David Beatty"

624 Publications

Author Correction: Mapping the genetic basis of diabetes mellitus in the Australian Burmese cat (Felis catus).

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 17;11(1):4375. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Faculty of Science, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83769-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889845PMC
February 2021

A longitudinal observational study in two cats naturally-infected with hepadnavirus.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jan 22;254:108999. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Italy. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of liver disease in humans including chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Domestic cat hepadnavirus (DCH), a novel HBV-like hepadnavirus, was identified in domestic cats in 2018. From 6.5 %-10.8 % of pet cats are viremic for DCH and altered serological markers suggestive of liver damage have been identified in 50 % of DCH-infected cats. DCH DNA has been detected in association with characteristic lesions of chronic hepatitis and with hepatocellular carcinoma in cats, suggesting a possible association. In this study longitudinal molecular screening of cats infected with DCH was performed to determine if DCH can cause chronic infections in cats. Upon re-testing of sera from five DCH-positive animals, 2-10 months after the initial diagnosis, three cats tested negative for DCH on two consecutive occasions using quantitative PCR. Two other cats remained DCH-positive, including an 8-month-old female cat re-tested four months after the initial positive result, and a 9-year-old male cat, which tested positive for DCH on six occasions over an 11-month period. The latter had a history of chronic hepatopathy with jaundice, lethargy and elevated serum alanine transaminase levels (ALT). During the period of observation, DCH titers ranged between 1.64 × 10 and 2.09 × 10 DNA copies/mL and ALT was persistently elevated, suggesting chronic infection. DCH DNA was not detected in oral, conjunctival, preputial and rectal swabs from the two animals collected at several time points. Long-term (chronic) infection would be consistent with the relatively high number of viremic cats identified in epidemiological investigations, with the possible association of DCH with chronic hepatic pathologies and with what described with HBV in human patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.108999DOI Listing
January 2021

A shift towards early-age desexing of cats under veterinary care in Australia.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 18;11(1):811. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Faculty of Science, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

The global problem of unowned domestic cats, driven by their phenomenal reproductive success, carries significant economic, animal welfare and biodiversity costs. Desexing owned cats prior to puberty prevents unwanted litters that contribute to unowned cat populations. The prevalence and predictors of desexing, and the age at which surgery was carried out were investigated using anonymized electronic patient records in the VetCompass Australia database of cats presented to veterinary practices. Of 52,941 cats born between 2010 and 2017, 83.6% were desexed. Among 7463 desexed females, 21.5% had been desexed by 4 months of age, 59.8% by 6 months and 85.4% by 1 year. Sex, breed, location and socioeconomic indices significantly influenced desexing status and age at surgery. Cats born between 2010 and 2017 had greater odds of being desexed than cats born between 1995and 2009 at each age cut-off (≤ 4 months [OR 1.76, CI 1.58-1.97], ≤ 6 months [OR 1.50, CI 1.38-1.62] and ≤ 1 year [OR 2.33, CI 2.11-2.57] p < 0.001). Most cats presented to veterinarians in Australia are desexed. Compared with cats born before 2010, cats born later are significantly younger at desexing but, even so, many cats would have reached sexual maturity before surgery. These findings will inform the design of front-line strategies promoting prepubertal desexing and they demonstrate, for the first time, a shift towards desexing younger cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79513-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813850PMC
January 2021

The CckA-ChpT-CtrA Phosphorelay Controlling Rhodobacter capsulatus Gene Transfer Agent Production Is Bidirectional and Regulated by Cyclic di-GMP.

J Bacteriol 2021 Feb 8;203(5). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Protein phosphorylation is a universal mechanism for transducing cellular signals in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The histidine kinase CckA, the histidine phosphotransferase ChpT, and the response regulator CtrA are conserved throughout the alphaproteobacteria. In , these proteins are key regulators of the gene transfer agent (RcGTA), which is present in several alphaproteobacteria. Using purified recombinant proteins, we show autophosphorylation of CckA protein, and phosphotransfer to ChpT and thence to CtrA, to demonstrate biochemically that they form a phosphorelay. The secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP changed CckA from a kinase to a phosphatase, resulting in reversal of the phosphotransfer flow in the relay. The substitutions of two residues in CckA greatly affected the kinase or phosphatase activity of the protein , and production of mutant CckA proteins confirmed the importance of kinase but not phosphatase activity for the lytic release of RcGTA. However, phosphatase activity was needed to produce functional RcGTA particles. The binding of cyclic di-GMP to the wild-type and mutant CckA proteins was evaluated directly using a pulldown assay based on biotinylated cyclic di-GMP and streptavidin-linked beads. The CckA, ChpT, and CtrA phosphorelay proteins are widespread in the alphaproteobacteria, and there are two groups of organisms that differ in terms of whether this pathway is essential for cell viability. Little is known about the biochemical function of these proteins in organisms where the pathway is not essential, a group that includes This work demonstrates biochemically that CckA, ChpT, and CtrA also form a functional phosphorelay in the latter group and that the direction of phosphotransfer is reversed by cyclic di-GMP. It is important to improve understanding of more representatives of this pathway in order to obtain deeper insight into the function, composition, and evolutionary significance of a wider range of bacterial regulatory networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00525-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890552PMC
February 2021

Identification of Novel Astroviruses in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Domestic Cats.

Viruses 2020 11 12;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Astroviruses, isolated from numerous avian and mammalian species including humans, are commonly associated with enteritis and encephalitis. Two astroviruses have previously been identified in cats, and while definitive evidence is lacking, an association with enteritis is suggested. Using metagenomic next-generation sequencing of viral nucleic acids from faecal samples, we identified two novel feline astroviruses termed Feline astrovirus 3 and 4. These viruses were isolated from healthy shelter-housed kittens (Feline astrovirus 3; 6448 bp) and from a kitten with diarrhoea that was co-infected with Feline parvovirus (Feline astrovirus 4, 6549 bp). Both novel astroviruses shared a genome arrangement of three open reading frames (ORFs) comparable to that of other astroviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated ORFs, ORF1a, ORF1b and capsid protein revealed that both viruses were phylogenetically distinct from other feline astroviruses, although their precise evolutionary history could not be accurately determined due to a lack of resolution at key nodes. Large-scale molecular surveillance studies of healthy and diseased cats are needed to determine the pathogenicity of feline astroviruses as single virus infections or in co-infections with other enteric viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12111301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697530PMC
November 2020

Mapping the genetic basis of diabetes mellitus in the Australian Burmese cat (Felis catus).

Sci Rep 2020 11 5;10(1):19194. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Faculty of Science, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Diabetes mellitus, a common endocrinopathy affecting domestic cats, shares many clinical and pathologic features with type 2 diabetes in humans. In Australia and Europe, diabetes mellitus is almost four times more common among Burmese cats than in other breeds. As a genetically isolated population, the diabetic Australian Burmese cat provides a spontaneous genetic model for studying diabetes mellitus in humans. Studying complex diseases in pedigreed breeds facilitates tighter control of confounding factors including population stratification, allelic frequencies and environmental heterogeneity. We used the feline SNV array and whole genome sequence data to undertake a genome wide-association study and runs of homozygosity analysis, of a case-control cohort of Australian and European Burmese cats. Our results identified diabetes-associated haplotypes across chromosomes A3, B1 and E1 and selective sweeps across the Burmese breed on chromosomes B1, B3, D1 and D4. The locus on chromosome B1, common to both analyses, revealed coding and splice region variants in candidate genes, ANK1, EPHX2 and LOX2, implicated in diabetes mellitus and lipid dysregulation. Mapping this condition in Burmese cats has revealed a polygenic spectrum, implicating loci linked to pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, lipid dysregulation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in the Burmese cat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76166-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644637PMC
November 2020

eV-Scale Sterile Neutrino Search Using Eight Years of Atmospheric Muon Neutrino Data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.

Authors:
M G Aartsen R Abbasi M Ackermann J Adams J A Aguilar M Ahlers M Ahrens C Alispach N M Amin K Andeen T Anderson I Ansseau G Anton C Argüelles J Auffenberg S Axani H Bagherpour X Bai A Balagopal A Barbano S W Barwick B Bastian V Basu V Baum S Baur R Bay J J Beatty K-H Becker J Becker Tjus S BenZvi D Berley E Bernardini D Z Besson G Binder D Bindig E Blaufuss S Blot C Bohm S Böser O Botner J Böttcher E Bourbeau J Bourbeau F Bradascio J Braun S Bron J Brostean-Kaiser A Burgman J Buscher R S Busse T Carver C Chen E Cheung D Chirkin S Choi B A Clark K Clark L Classen A Coleman G H Collin J M Conrad P Coppin P Correa D F Cowen R Cross P Dave C De Clercq J J DeLaunay H Dembinski K Deoskar S De Ridder A Desai P Desiati K D de Vries G de Wasseige M de With T DeYoung S Dharani A Diaz J C Díaz-Vélez H Dujmovic M Dunkman M A DuVernois E Dvorak T Ehrhardt P Eller R Engel P A Evenson S Fahey A R Fazely A Fedynitch J Felde A T Fienberg K Filimonov C Finley D Fox A Franckowiak E Friedman A Fritz T K Gaisser J Gallagher E Ganster S Garrappa L Gerhardt T Glauch T Glüsenkamp A Goldschmidt J G Gonzalez D Grant T Grégoire Z Griffith S Griswold M Günder M Gündüz C Haack A Hallgren R Halliday L Halve F Halzen K Hanson J Hardin A Haungs S Hauser D Hebecker D Heereman P Heix K Helbing R Hellauer F Henningsen S Hickford J Hignight G C Hill K D Hoffman R Hoffmann T Hoinka B Hokanson-Fasig K Hoshina F Huang M Huber T Huber K Hultqvist M Hünnefeld R Hussain S In N Iovine A Ishihara M Jansson G S Japaridze M Jeong B J P Jones F Jonske R Joppe D Kang W Kang A Kappes D Kappesser T Karg M Karl A Karle U Katz M Kauer M Kellermann J L Kelley A Kheirandish J Kim T Kintscher J Kiryluk T Kittler S R Klein R Koirala H Kolanoski L Köpke C Kopper S Kopper D J Koskinen P Koundal M Kowalski K Krings G Krückl N Kulacz N Kurahashi A Kyriacou J L Lanfranchi M J Larson F Lauber J P Lazar K Leonard A Leszczyńska Y Li Q R Liu E Lohfink C J Lozano Mariscal L Lu F Lucarelli A Ludwig J Lünemann W Luszczak Y Lyu W Y Ma J Madsen G Maggi K B M Mahn Y Makino P Mallik S Mancina I C Mariş R Maruyama K Mase R Maunu F McNally K Meagher M Medici A Medina M Meier S Meighen-Berger J Merz T Meures J Micallef D Mockler G Momenté T Montaruli R W Moore R Morse M Moulai P Muth R Nagai U Naumann G Neer L V Nguyen H Niederhausen M U Nisa S C Nowicki D R Nygren A Obertacke Pollmann M Oehler A Olivas A O'Murchadha E O'Sullivan T Palczewski H Pandya D V Pankova N Park G K Parker E N Paudel P Peiffer C Pérez de Los Heros S Philippen D Pieloth S Pieper E Pinat A Pizzuto M Plum Y Popovych A Porcelli M Prado Rodriguez P B Price G T Przybylski C Raab A Raissi M Rameez L Rauch K Rawlins I C Rea A Rehman R Reimann B Relethford M Renschler G Renzi E Resconi W Rhode M Richman B Riedel S Robertson M Rongen C Rott T Ruhe D Ryckbosch D Rysewyk Cantu I Safa S E Sanchez Herrera A Sandrock J Sandroos M Santander S Sarkar S Sarkar K Satalecka M Scharf M Schaufel H Schieler P Schlunder T Schmidt A Schneider J Schneider F G Schröder L Schumacher S Sclafani D Seckel S Seunarine S Shefali M Silva B Smithers R Snihur J Soedingrekso D Soldin M Song G M Spiczak C Spiering J Stachurska M Stamatikos T Stanev R Stein J Stettner A Steuer T Stezelberger R G Stokstad A Stößl N L Strotjohann T Stürwald T Stuttard G W Sullivan I Taboada F Tenholt S Ter-Antonyan A Terliuk S Tilav K Tollefson L Tomankova C Tönnis S Toscano D Tosi A Trettin M Tselengidou C F Tung A Turcati R Turcotte C F Turley B Ty E Unger M A Unland Elorrieta M Usner J Vandenbroucke W Van Driessche D van Eijk N van Eijndhoven D Vannerom J van Santen S Verpoest M Vraeghe C Walck A Wallace M Wallraff T B Watson C Weaver A Weindl M J Weiss J Weldert C Wendt J Werthebach B J Whelan N Whitehorn K Wiebe C H Wiebusch D R Williams L Wills M Wolf T R Wood K Woschnagg G Wrede J Wulff X W Xu Y Xu J P Yanez G Yodh S Yoshida T Yuan Z Zhang M Zöcklein

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Oct;125(14):141801

III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.

The results of a 3+1 sterile neutrino search using eight years of data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory are presented. A total of 305 735 muon neutrino events are analyzed in reconstructed energy-zenith space to test for signatures of a matter-enhanced oscillation that would occur given a sterile neutrino state with a mass-squared differences between 0.01 and 100  eV^{2}. The best-fit point is found to be at sin^{2}(2θ_{24})=0.10 and Δm_{41}^{2}=4.5  eV^{2}, which is consistent with the no sterile neutrino hypothesis with a p value of 8.0%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.141801DOI Listing
October 2020

Characteristics of the Diffuse Astrophysical Electron and Tau Neutrino Flux with Six Years of IceCube High Energy Cascade Data.

Authors:
M G Aartsen M Ackermann J Adams J A Aguilar M Ahlers M Ahrens C Alispach K Andeen T Anderson I Ansseau G Anton C Argüelles J Auffenberg S Axani P Backes H Bagherpour X Bai A Balagopal V A Barbano S W Barwick B Bastian V Baum S Baur R Bay J J Beatty K-H Becker J Becker Tjus S BenZvi D Berley E Bernardini D Z Besson G Binder D Bindig E Blaufuss S Blot C Bohm S Böser O Botner J Böttcher E Bourbeau J Bourbeau F Bradascio J Braun S Bron J Brostean-Kaiser A Burgman J Buscher R S Busse T Carver C Chen E Cheung D Chirkin S Choi K Clark L Classen A Coleman G H Collin J M Conrad P Coppin P Correa D F Cowen R Cross P Dave C De Clercq J J DeLaunay H Dembinski K Deoskar S De Ridder P Desiati K D de Vries G de Wasseige M de With T DeYoung A Diaz J C Díaz-Vélez H Dujmovic M Dunkman E Dvorak B Eberhardt T Ehrhardt P Eller R Engel P A Evenson S Fahey A R Fazely J Felde K Filimonov C Finley D Fox A Franckowiak E Friedman A Fritz T K Gaisser J Gallagher E Ganster S Garrappa L Gerhardt K Ghorbani T Glauch T Glüsenkamp A Goldschmidt J G Gonzalez D Grant T Grégoire Z Griffith S Griswold M Günder M Gündüz C Haack A Hallgren R Halliday L Halve F Halzen K Hanson A Haungs D Hebecker D Heereman P Heix K Helbing R Hellauer F Henningsen S Hickford J Hignight G C Hill K D Hoffman R Hoffmann T Hoinka B Hokanson-Fasig K Hoshina F Huang M Huber T Huber K Hultqvist M Hünnefeld R Hussain S In N Iovine A Ishihara M Jansson G S Japaridze M Jeong K Jero B J P Jones F Jonske R Joppe D Kang W Kang A Kappes D Kappesser T Karg M Karl A Karle U Katz M Kauer J L Kelley A Kheirandish J Kim T Kintscher J Kiryluk T Kittler S R Klein R Koirala H Kolanoski L Köpke C Kopper S Kopper D J Koskinen M Kowalski K Krings G Krückl N Kulacz N Kurahashi A Kyriacou J L Lanfranchi M J Larson F Lauber J P Lazar K Leonard M Lesiak-Bzdak A Leszczyńska M Leuermann Q R Liu E Lohfink C J Lozano Mariscal L Lu F Lucarelli J Lünemann W Luszczak Y Lyu W Y Ma J Madsen G Maggi K B M Mahn Y Makino P Mallik K Mallot S Mancina I C Mariş R Maruyama K Mase R Maunu F McNally K Meagher M Medici A Medina M Meier S Meighen-Berger G Merino T Meures J Micallef D Mockler G Momenté T Montaruli R W Moore R Morse M Moulai P Muth R Nagai U Naumann G Neer H Niederhausen M U Nisa S C Nowicki D R Nygren A Obertacke Pollmann M Oehler A Olivas A O'Murchadha E O'Sullivan T Palczewski H Pandya D V Pankova N Park P Peiffer C Pérez de Los Heros S Philippen D Pieloth S Pieper E Pinat A Pizzuto M Plum A Porcelli P B Price G T Przybylski C Raab A Raissi M Rameez L Rauch K Rawlins I C Rea A Rehman R Reimann B Relethford M Renschler G Renzi E Resconi W Rhode M Richman S Robertson M Rongen C Rott T Ruhe D Ryckbosch D Rysewyk I Safa S E Sanchez Herrera A Sandrock J Sandroos M Santander S Sarkar S Sarkar K Satalecka M Schaufel H Schieler P Schlunder T Schmidt A Schneider J Schneider F G Schröder L Schumacher S Sclafani D Seckel S Seunarine S Shefali M Silva R Snihur J Soedingrekso D Soldin M Song G M Spiczak C Spiering J Stachurska M Stamatikos T Stanev R Stein J Stettner A Steuer T Stezelberger R G Stokstad A Stößl N L Strotjohann T Stürwald T Stuttard G W Sullivan I Taboada F Tenholt S Ter-Antonyan A Terliuk S Tilav K Tollefson L Tomankova C Tönnis S Toscano D Tosi A Trettin M Tselengidou C F Tung A Turcati R Turcotte C F Turley B Ty E Unger M A Unland Elorrieta M Usner J Vandenbroucke W Van Driessche D van Eijk N van Eijndhoven J van Santen S Verpoest M Vraeghe C Walck A Wallace M Wallraff N Wandkowsky T B Watson C Weaver A Weindl M J Weiss J Weldert C Wendt J Werthebach B J Whelan N Whitehorn K Wiebe C H Wiebusch L Wille D R Williams L Wills M Wolf J Wood T R Wood K Woschnagg G Wrede D L Xu X W Xu Y Xu J P Yanez G Yodh S Yoshida T Yuan M Zöcklein

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Sep;125(12):121104

III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.

We report on the first measurement of the astrophysical neutrino flux using particle showers (cascades) in IceCube data from 2010-2015. Assuming standard oscillations, the astrophysical neutrinos in this dedicated cascade sample are dominated (∼90%) by electron and tau flavors. The flux, observed in the sensitive energy range from 16 TeV to 2.6 PeV, is consistent with a single power-law model as expected from Fermi-type acceleration of high energy particles at astrophysical sources. We find the flux spectral index to be γ=2.53±0.07 and a flux normalization for each neutrino flavor of ϕ_{astro}=1.66_{-0.27}^{+0.25} at E_{0}=100  TeV, in agreement with IceCube's complementary muon neutrino results and with all-neutrino flavor fit results. In the measured energy range we reject spectral indices γ≤2.28 at ≥3σ significance level. Because of high neutrino energy resolution and low atmospheric neutrino backgrounds, this analysis provides the most detailed characterization of the neutrino flux at energies below ∼100  TeV compared to previous IceCube results. Results from fits assuming more complex neutrino flux models suggest a flux softening at high energies and a flux hardening at low energies (p value ≥0.06). The sizable and smooth flux measured below ∼100  TeV remains a puzzle. In order to not violate the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope, it suggests the existence of astrophysical neutrino sources characterized by dense environments which are opaque to gamma rays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.121104DOI Listing
September 2020

Correction: Incorporating Breast Cancer Recurrence Events Into Population-Based Cancer Registries Using Medical Claims: Cohort Study.

JMIR Cancer 2020 Sep 24;6(2):e23821. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/18143.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/23821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545323PMC
September 2020

Discovery of Potent and Selective PI3Kγ Inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2020 10 16;63(19):11235-11257. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Arcus Biosciences, Inc., 3928 Point Eden Way, Hayward, California 94545, United States.

The selective inhibition of the lipid signaling enzyme PI3Kγ constitutes an opportunity to mediate immunosuppression and inflammation within the tumor microenvironment but is difficult to achieve due to the high sequence homology across the class I PI3K isoforms. Here, we describe the design of a novel series of potent PI3Kγ inhibitors that attain high isoform selectivity through the divergent projection of substituents into both the "selectivity" and "alkyl-induced" pockets within the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding site of PI3Kγ. These efforts have culminated in the discovery of 5-[2-amino-3-(1-methyl-1-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-]pyrimidin-5-yl]-2-[(1)-1-cyclopropylethyl]-7-(trifluoromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1-isoindol-1-one (, IC = 0.064 μM, THP-1 cells), which displays >600-fold selectivity for PI3Kγ over the other class I isoforms and is a promising step toward the identification of a clinical development candidate. The structure-activity relationships identified throughout this campaign demonstrate that greater γ-selectivity can be achieved by inhibitors that occupy an "alkyl-induced" pocket and possess bicyclic hinge-binding motifs capable of forming more than one hydrogen bond to the hinge region of PI3Kγ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01203DOI Listing
October 2020

Participant Satisfaction with Computer-Delivered Intervention Components and Its Relation to Alcohol Outcomes.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 31;55(14):2332-2340. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Background: Few computer-delivered brief intervention (CDBI) studies have evaluated participant satisfaction with individual elements of the intervention, or whether participant satisfaction impacts intervention outcomes. This factorial trial examined whether subjective reactions to a CDBI for heavy drinking (1) varied depending on the presence versus absence of an animated narrator, a spoken voice, empathic reflections, and motivational interviewing (MI) strategies and (2) were associated with drinking outcomes at 3-month follow-up. Participants were 352 heavy drinking university students. All participants were randomly assigned to one of 16 versions of a CDBI. After finishing the CDBI, participants completed measures of intervention likability and perceived empathy. Alcohol use outcomes were assessed at 3-month follow-up. CDBI characteristics had minimal effects on participant ratings of likeability and perceived empathy. However, higher likeability ratings were associated with decreases in alcohol use outcomes over the 3-month assessment period. Results indicate that subjective reactions to CDBIs can have important effects on alcohol use outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1811343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654716PMC
August 2020

Comparison of surgeon gaze behaviour against objective skill assessment in laparoscopic cholecystectomy-a prospective cohort study.

Int J Surg 2020 Oct 23;82:149-155. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Eye tracking technology may provide the basis of a novel, objective technical skill assessment in surgery. Past research has showed differences in the gaze patterns between expert and novice surgeons. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gaze behaviors and technical skill during laparoscopic cholecystectomy as determined by objective assessment scores.

Methods: Gaze behaviors of surgeons performing laparoscopic cholecystectomies were mapped using wearable eye tracking apparatus. Two impartial surgeons retrospectively analyzed video footage of the procedure to perform Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) assessments. Primary endpoints were correlation between gaze behaviours (dwell time (%) and fixation frequency (count/s)) and OSATS scores. Dwell time was defined as the percentage of time spent fixating on particular visual areas of interest (AOI). Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to estimate the relationship between primary endpoints and AOIs. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: 13 procedures were analyzed. Throughout all operative segments, a negative correlation was present between operating theatre dwell time and OSATS scores (p < 0.05). During dissection of Calot's triangle, there was a strong positive correlation between laparoscopic screen dwell time and OSATS scoring [r = 0.655, p < 0.05]. Scrub nurse dwell time during dissection of Calot's triangle showed a strong negative correlation with OSATS scoring [r = -0.619, p < 0.05]. During dissection of gallbladder fossa, operating theatre fixation frequency negatively correlated against OSATS scores [r = -0.566, p < 0.05].

Conclusion: The results suggest a greater focus on significant visual stimuli alongside a lack of attention to non-essential stimuli during critical stages of the operative period is associated with greater technical skill. This aids the validation of eye tracking as an adjunct high-stakes technical skill assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.08.006DOI Listing
October 2020

Incorporating Breast Cancer Recurrence Events Into Population-Based Cancer Registries Using Medical Claims: Cohort Study.

JMIR Cancer 2020 Aug 17;6(2):e18143. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: There is a need for automated approaches to incorporate information on cancer recurrence events into population-based cancer registries.

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of a novel data mining algorithm to extract information from linked registry and medical claims data on the occurrence and timing of second breast cancer events (SBCE).

Methods: We used supervised data from 3092 stage I and II breast cancer cases (with 394 recurrences), diagnosed between 1993 and 2006 inclusive, of patients at Kaiser Permanente Washington and cases in the Puget Sound Cancer Surveillance System. Our goal was to classify each month after primary treatment as pre- versus post-SBCE. The prediction feature set for a given month consisted of registry variables on disease and patient characteristics related to the primary breast cancer event, as well as features based on monthly counts of diagnosis and procedure codes for the current, prior, and future months. A month was classified as post-SBCE if the predicted probability exceeded a probability threshold (PT); the predicted time of the SBCE was taken to be the month of maximum increase in the predicted probability between adjacent months.

Results: The Kaplan-Meier net probability of SBCE was 0.25 at 14 years. The month-level receiver operating characteristic curve on test data (20% of the data set) had an area under the curve of 0.986. The person-level predictions (at a monthly PT of 0.5) had a sensitivity of 0.89, a specificity of 0.98, a positive predictive value of 0.85, and a negative predictive value of 0.98. The corresponding median difference between the observed and predicted months of recurrence was 0 and the mean difference was 0.04 months.

Conclusions: Data mining of medical claims holds promise for the streamlining of cancer registry operations to feasibly collect information about second breast cancer events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459434PMC
August 2020

Analysis of canine parvoviruses circulating in Australia reveals predominance of variant 2b and identifies feline parvovirus-like mutations in the capsid proteins.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Faculty of Science, Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a major enteric pathogen of dogs worldwide that emerged in the late 1970s from a feline parvovirus (FPV)-like ancestral virus. Shortly after its emergence, variant CPVs acquired amino acid (aa) mutations in key capsid residues, associated with biological and/or antigenic changes. This study aimed to identify and analyse CPV variants and their capsid mutations amongst Australian dogs, to gain insights into the evolution of CPV in Australia and to investigate relationships between the disease and vaccination status of dogs from which viruses were detected. CPV VP2 sequences were amplified from 79 faecal samples collected from dogs with parvoviral enteritis at 20 veterinary practices in five Australian states. The median age at diagnosis was 4 months (range 1-96 months). Only 3.7% of dogs with vaccination histories had completed recommended vaccination schedules, while 49% were incompletely vaccinated and 47.2% were unvaccinated. For the first time, CPV-2b has emerged as the dominant antigenic CPV variant circulating in dogs with parvoviral enteritis in Australia, comprising 54.4% of viruses, while CPV-2a and CPV-2 comprised 43.1% and 2.5%, respectively. The antigenic variant CPV-2c was not identified. Analysis of translated VP2 sequences revealed a vast repertoire of amino acid (aa) mutations. Several Australian CPV strains displayed signatures in the VP2 protein typical of Asian CPVs, suggesting possible introduction of CPV strains from Asia, and/or CPV circulation between Asia and Australia. Canine parvoviruses were identified containing aa residues typical of FPV at key capsid (VP2) positions, representing reverse mutations or residual mutations retained from CPV-2 during adaptation from an FPV-like ancestor, suggesting that evolutionary intermediates between CPV-2 and FPV are circulating in the field. Similarly, intermediates between CPV-2a-like viruses and CPV-2 were also identified. These findings help inform a better understanding of the evolution of CPV in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13727DOI Listing
July 2020

Electrocautery, Diathermy, and Surgical Energy Devices: Are Surgical Teams at Risk During the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Ann Surg 2020 09;272(3):e257-e262

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Objective: The aim of the study was to provide a rapid synthesis of available data to identify the risk posed by utilizing surgical energy devices intraoperatively due to the generation of surgical smoke, an aerosol. Secondarily it aims to summarize methods to minimize potential risk to operating room staff.

Summary Background Data: Continuing operative practice during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic places the health of operating theatre staff at potential risk. SARS-CoV2 is transmitted through inhaled droplets and aerosol particles, thus posing an inhalation threat even at considerable distance. Surgical energy devices generate an aerosol of biological particular matter during use. The risk to healthcare staff through use of surgical energy devices is unknown.

Methods: This review was conducted utilizing a rapid review methodology to enable efficient generation and dissemination of information useful for concurrent clinical practice.

Results: There are conflicting stances on the use of energy devices and laparoscopy by different surgical governing bodies and societies. There is no definitive evidence that aerosol generated by energy devices may carry active SARS-CoV2 virus. However, investigations of other viruses have demonstrated aerosolization through energy devise use. Measures to reduce potential transmission include appropriate personal protective equipment, evacuation and filtration of surgical plume, limiting energy device use if appropriate, and adjusting endoscopic and laparoscopic practice (low CO2 pressures, evacuation through ultrafiltration systems).

Conclusions: The risk of transmission of SARS-CoV2 through aerosolized surgical smoke associated with energy device use is not fully understood, however transmission is biologically plausible. Caution and appropriate measures to reduce risk to healthcare staff should be implemented when considering intraoperative use of energy devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467049PMC
September 2020

Introduction of the Menaquinone Biosynthetic Pathway into and Synthesis of Menaquinone for Incorporation into Heterologously Expressed Integral Membrane Proteins.

ACS Synth Biol 2020 05 21;9(5):1190-1200. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of British Columbia, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Quinones are redox-active molecules that transport electrons and protons in organelles and cell membranes during respiration and photosynthesis. In addition to the fundamental importance of these processes in supporting life, there has been considerable interest in exploiting their mechanisms for diverse applications ranging from medical advances to innovative biotechnologies. Such applications include novel treatments to target pathogenic bacterial infections and fabricating biohybrid solar cells as an alternative renewable energy source. Ubiquinone (UQ) is the predominant charge-transfer mediator in both respiration and photosynthesis. Other quinones, such as menaquinone (MK), are additional or alternative redox mediators, for example in bacterial photosynthesis of species such as and . has been used extensively to study electron transfer processes, and recently as a platform to produce integral membrane proteins from other species. To expand the diversity of redox mediators in , nine genes encoding the synthesis of MK from chorismate and polyprenyl diphosphate were assembled into a synthetic operon in a newly designed expression plasmid. We show that the , and genes are sufficient for MK synthesis when expressed in cells, on the basis of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The and photosynthetic reaction centers produced in were found to contain MK. We also measured charge recombination kinetics of the reaction center to demonstrate that the MK is redox-active and incorporated into the Q pocket of this heterologously expressed reaction center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.0c00066DOI Listing
May 2020

Enhancing the magnetic and inductive heating properties of FeO nanoparticles via morphology control.

Nanotechnology 2020 Apr 30;31(27):275706. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, United States of America.

FeO nanoparticles (NPs) with different shapes have been prepared by a 'solventless' synthesis approach to probe shape anisotropy effects on the magnetic and inductive heating properties. Various shapes including spheres, octahedrons, cubes, rods, wires, and multipods are obtained through alterations in reaction conditions such as the ratio of precursor to surfactant content and heating rate. Magnetic and Mössbauer measurements reveal better stoichiometry in anisotropic-shaped FeO NPs than that in the spherical and multipod NPs. As a result, the magnetization value of the anisotropic-shaped NPs approaches the value for bulk material (∼86 emu g). More surprisingly, the Verwey transition, which is a characteristic phase transition of bulk magnetite structure, is observed near 120 K in the anisotropic-shaped NPs, which further corroborates the fact that these NPs possess better stoichiometry compared to the spherical and multipod-shaped NPs. Other than the improved magnetic properties, these anisotropic-shaped NPs are more effective for hyperthermia applications. For example, compared to the conventional spherical NPs, the nanowires show much higher SAR value up to 846 W g, making them a potential candidate for practical hyperthermia treatment. In particular, the octahedral NPs shows an SAR value higher than the same size spherical NPs, which demonstrates the importance of occurrence of the Verwey transition in FeO NPs for better stoichiometric and higher heating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab84a3DOI Listing
April 2020

Discovery of Potent and Selective Non-Nucleotide Small Molecule Inhibitors of CD73.

J Med Chem 2020 04 8;63(8):3935-3955. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Arcus Biosciences, Inc., 3928 Point Eden Way, Hayward, California 94545, United States.

CD73 is an extracellular mediator of purinergic signaling. When upregulated in the tumor microenvironment, CD73 has been implicated in the inhibition of immune function through overproduction of adenosine. Traditional efforts to inhibit CD73 have involved antibody therapy or the development of small molecules, the most potent of which mimic the acidic and ionizable structure of the enzyme's natural substrate, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP). Here, we report the systematic discovery of a novel class of non-nucleotide CD73 inhibitors that are more potent than all other nonphosphonate inhibitor classes reported to date. These efforts have culminated in the discovery of 4-({5-[4-fluoro-1-(2-indazol-6-yl)-1-1,2,3-benzotriazol-6-yl]-1-pyrazol-1-yl}methyl)benzonitrile (, IC = 12 nM) and 4-({5-[4-chloro-1-(2-indazol-6-yl)-1-1,2,3-benzotriazol-6-yl]-1-pyrazol-1-yl}methyl)benzonitrile (, IC = 19 nM). Cocrystallization of with human CD73 demonstrates a competitive binding mode. These compounds show promise for the improvement of drug-like character via the attenuation of the acidity and low membrane permeability inherent to known nucleoside inhibitors of CD73.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b01713DOI Listing
April 2020

Observation of Radar Echoes from High-Energy Particle Cascades.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Mar;124(9):091101

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California 93407, USA.

We report the observation of radar echoes from the ionization trails of high-energy particle cascades. Data were taken at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, where the full electron beam (∼10^{9}  e^{-} at ∼10  GeV/e^{-}) was directed into a plastic target to simulate an ultrahigh-energy neutrino interaction. The target was interrogated with radio waves, and coherent radio reflections from the cascades were detected with properties consistent with theoretical expectations. This is the first definitive observation of radar echoes from high-energy particle cascades, which may lead to a viable neutrino detection technology for energies ≳10^{16}  eV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.091101DOI Listing
March 2020

Feline Parvovirus Seroprevalence Is High in Domestic Cats from Disease Outbreak and Non-Outbreak Regions in Australia.

Viruses 2020 03 16;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia.

Multiple, epizootic outbreaks of feline panleukopenia (FPL) caused by feline parvovirus(FPV) occurred in eastern Australia between 2014 and 2018. Most affected cats were unvaccinated.We hypothesised that low population immunity was a major driver of re-emergent FPL. The aim ofthis study was to (i) determine the prevalence and predictors of seroprotective titres to FPV amongshelter-housed and owned cats, and (ii) compare the prevalence of seroprotection between a regionaffected and unaffected by FPL outbreaks. FPV antibodies were detected by haemagglutinationinhibition assay on sera from 523 cats and titres ≥1:40 were considered protective. Socioeconomicindices based on postcode and census data were included in the risk factor analysis. The prevalenceof protective FPV antibody titres was high overall (94.3%), even though only 42% of cats wereknown to be vaccinated, and was not significantly different between outbreak and non-outbreakregions. On multivariable logistic regression analysis vaccinated cats were 29.94 times more likelyto have protective FPV titres than cats not known to be vaccinated. Cats from postcodes of relativelyless socioeconomic disadvantage were 5.93 times more likely to have protective FPV titres. Thepredictors identified for FPV seroprotective titres indicate targeted vaccination strategies in regionsof socioeconomic disadvantage would be beneficial to increase population immunity. The criticallevel of vaccine coverage required to halt FPV transmission and prevent FPL outbreaks should bedetermined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12030320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150783PMC
March 2020

Heart failure in single right ventricle congenital heart disease: physiological and molecular considerations.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 04 28;318(4):H947-H965. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado.

Because of remarkable surgical and medical advances over the past several decades, there are growing numbers of infants and children living with single ventricle congenital heart disease (SV), where there is only one functional cardiac pumping chamber. Nevertheless, cardiac dysfunction (and ultimately heart failure) is a common complication in the SV population, and pharmacological heart failure therapies have largely been ineffective in mitigating the need for heart transplantation. Given that there are several inherent risk factors for ventricular dysfunction in the setting of SV in addition to probable differences in molecular adaptations to heart failure between children and adults, it is perhaps not surprising that extrapolated adult heart failure medications have had limited benefit in children with SV heart failure. Further investigations into the molecular mechanisms involved in pediatric SV heart failure may assist with risk stratification as well as development of targeted, efficacious therapies specific to this patient population. In this review, we present a brief overview of SV anatomy and physiology, with a focus on patients with a single morphological right ventricle requiring staged surgical palliation. Additionally, we discuss outcomes in the current era, risk factors associated with the progression to heart failure, present state of knowledge regarding molecular alterations in end-stage SV heart failure, and current therapeutic interventions. Potential avenues for improving SV outcomes, including identification of biomarkers of heart failure progression, implications of personalized medicine and stem cell-derived therapies, and applications of novel models of SV disease, are proposed as future directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00518.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191494PMC
April 2020

Time-Integrated Neutrino Source Searches with 10 Years of IceCube Data.

Authors:
M G Aartsen M Ackermann J Adams J A Aguilar M Ahlers M Ahrens C Alispach K Andeen T Anderson I Ansseau G Anton C Argüelles J Auffenberg S Axani P Backes H Bagherpour X Bai A Balagopal A Barbano S W Barwick B Bastian V Baum S Baur R Bay J J Beatty K-H Becker J Becker Tjus S BenZvi D Berley E Bernardini D Z Besson G Binder D Bindig E Blaufuss S Blot C Bohm M Börner S Böser O Botner J Böttcher E Bourbeau J Bourbeau F Bradascio J Braun S Bron J Brostean-Kaiser A Burgman J Buscher R S Busse T Carver C Chen E Cheung D Chirkin S Choi K Clark L Classen A Coleman G H Collin J M Conrad P Coppin P Correa D F Cowen R Cross P Dave C De Clercq J J DeLaunay H Dembinski K Deoskar S De Ridder P Desiati K D de Vries G de Wasseige M de With T DeYoung A Diaz J C Díaz-Vélez H Dujmovic M Dunkman E Dvorak B Eberhardt T Ehrhardt P Eller R Engel P A Evenson S Fahey A R Fazely J Felde K Filimonov C Finley D Fox A Franckowiak E Friedman A Fritz T K Gaisser J Gallagher E Ganster S Garrappa L Gerhardt K Ghorbani T Glauch T Glüsenkamp A Goldschmidt J G Gonzalez D Grant Z Griffith S Griswold M Günder M Gündüz C Haack A Hallgren R Halliday L Halve F Halzen K Hanson A Haungs D Hebecker D Heereman P Heix K Helbing R Hellauer F Henningsen S Hickford J Hignight G C Hill K D Hoffman R Hoffmann T Hoinka B Hokanson-Fasig K Hoshina F Huang M Huber T Huber K Hultqvist M Hünnefeld R Hussain S In N Iovine A Ishihara G S Japaridze M Jeong K Jero B J P Jones F Jonske R Joppe D Kang W Kang A Kappes D Kappesser T Karg M Karl A Karle U Katz M Kauer J L Kelley A Kheirandish J Kim T Kintscher J Kiryluk T Kittler S R Klein R Koirala H Kolanoski L Köpke C Kopper S Kopper D J Koskinen M Kowalski K Krings G Krückl N Kulacz N Kurahashi A Kyriacou M Labare J L Lanfranchi M J Larson F Lauber J P Lazar K Leonard A Leszczyńska M Leuermann Q R Liu E Lohfink C J Lozano Mariscal L Lu F Lucarelli J Lünemann W Luszczak Y Lyu W Y Ma J Madsen G Maggi K B M Mahn Y Makino P Mallik K Mallot S Mancina I C Mariş R Maruyama K Mase H S Matis R Maunu F McNally K Meagher M Medici A Medina M Meier S Meighen-Berger T Menne G Merino T Meures J Micallef D Mockler G Momenté T Montaruli R W Moore R Morse M Moulai P Muth R Nagai U Naumann G Neer H Niederhausen M U Nisa S C Nowicki D R Nygren A Obertacke Pollmann M Oehler A Olivas A O'Murchadha E O'Sullivan T Palczewski H Pandya D V Pankova N Park P Peiffer C Pérez de Los Heros S Philippen D Pieloth E Pinat A Pizzuto M Plum A Porcelli P B Price G T Przybylski C Raab A Raissi M Rameez L Rauch K Rawlins I C Rea R Reimann B Relethford M Renschler G Renzi E Resconi W Rhode M Richman S Robertson M Rongen C Rott T Ruhe D Ryckbosch D Rysewyk I Safa S E Sanchez Herrera A Sandrock J Sandroos M Santander S Sarkar S Sarkar K Satalecka M Schaufel H Schieler P Schlunder T Schmidt A Schneider J Schneider F G Schröder L Schumacher S Sclafani D Seckel S Seunarine S Shefali M Silva R Snihur J Soedingrekso D Soldin M Song G M Spiczak C Spiering J Stachurska M Stamatikos T Stanev R Stein P Steinmüller J Stettner A Steuer T Stezelberger R G Stokstad A Stößl N L Strotjohann T Stürwald T Stuttard G W Sullivan I Taboada F Tenholt S Ter-Antonyan A Terliuk S Tilav K Tollefson L Tomankova C Tönnis S Toscano D Tosi A Trettin M Tselengidou C F Tung A Turcati R Turcotte C F Turley B Ty E Unger M A Unland Elorrieta M Usner J Vandenbroucke W Van Driessche D van Eijk N van Eijndhoven S Vanheule J van Santen M Vraeghe C Walck A Wallace M Wallraff N Wandkowsky T B Watson C Weaver A Weindl M J Weiss J Weldert C Wendt J Werthebach B J Whelan N Whitehorn K Wiebe C H Wiebusch L Wille D R Williams L Wills M Wolf J Wood T R Wood K Woschnagg G Wrede D L Xu X W Xu Y Xu J P Yanez G Yodh S Yoshida T Yuan M Zöcklein

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Feb;124(5):051103

III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.

This Letter presents the results from pointlike neutrino source searches using ten years of IceCube data collected between April 6, 2008 and July 10, 2018. We evaluate the significance of an astrophysical signal from a pointlike source looking for an excess of clustered neutrino events with energies typically above ∼1  TeV among the background of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We perform a full-sky scan, a search within a selected source catalog, a catalog population study, and three stacked Galactic catalog searches. The most significant point in the northern hemisphere from scanning the sky is coincident with the Seyfert II galaxy NGC 1068, which was included in the source catalog search. The excess at the coordinates of NGC 1068 is inconsistent with background expectations at the level of 2.9σ after accounting for statistical trials from the entire catalog. The combination of this result along with excesses observed at the coordinates of three other sources, including TXS 0506+056, suggests that, collectively, correlations with sources in the northern catalog are inconsistent with background at 3.3σ significance. The southern catalog is consistent with background. These results, all based on searches for a cumulative neutrino signal integrated over the 10 years of available data, motivate further study of these and similar sources, including time-dependent analyses, multimessenger correlations, and the possibility of stronger evidence with coming upgrades to the detector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.051103DOI Listing
February 2020

Injury patterns of less lethal kinetic impact projectiles used by law enforcement officers.

J Forensic Leg Med 2020 01 19;69:101892. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Dept. of Emergency Medicine, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2019.101892DOI Listing
January 2020

Identification of A Novel Papillomavirus Associated with Squamous Cell Carcinoma in A Domestic Cat.

Viruses 2020 01 20;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia.

Papillomaviruses infect the skin and mucosal surfaces of diverse animal hosts with consequences ranging from asymptomatic colonization to highly malignant epithelial cancers. Increasing evidence suggests a role for papillomaviruses in the most common cutaneous malignancy of domestic cats, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Using total DNA sequencing we identified a novel feline papillomavirus in a nasal biopsy taken from a cat presenting with both nasal cavity lymphoma and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma affecting the nasal planum. We designate this novel virus as Felis catus papillomavirus 6 (FcaPV6). The complete FcaPV6 7453 bp genome was similar to those of other feline papillomaviruses and phylogenetic analysis revealed that it was most closely related to FcaPV3, although was distinct enough to represent a new viral type. Classification of FcaPV6 in a new genus alongside FcaPVs 3, 4 and 5 is supported. Archived excisional biopsy of the SCC, taken 20 months prior to presentation, was intensely positive on p16 immunostaining. FcaPV6, amplified using virus-specific, but not consensus, PCR, was the only papillomavirus detected in DNA extracted from the SCC. Conversely, renal lymphoma, sampled at necropsy two months after presentation, tested negative on FcaPV6-specific PCR. In sum, using metagenomics we demonstrate the presence of a novel feline papillomavirus in association with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12010124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019393PMC
January 2020

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Infection in Owned Domestic Cats in Australia.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 04 30;20(4):275-280. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

Ongoing surveillance of seroprevalence and exposure risks in owned cats is important to identify effective mechanisms to decrease the prevalence of this global zoonotic parasite. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence of and risk factors for seropositivity in owned domestic cats in Australia. Sera, signalment data, postcode, and completed owner-questionnaires surveying diet composition and lifestyle factors were collected for cats presenting to 18 veterinary clinics across Australia. -specific IgG was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression to evaluate risk factors associated with positive IgG serology. Among 417 cats, seroprevalence was 39%. More than two-thirds of cats tested (69%) had outdoor access and 59% were fed a diet containing raw meat. Univariable analyses identified, age (>1 year,  < 0.001), a diet containing any raw meat ( = 0.001), raw kangaroo ( = 0.008), raw chicken ( = 0.012), or raw beef ( = 0.017), and hunting ( = 0.049) as risk factors for infection. Age (>1 year, odds ratio [OR]: 7.15) and feeding of raw meat (OR: 2.23) remained significant risk factors ( < 0.001) in multivariable analyses. seroprevalence did not differ between cats domiciled in urban and semiurban or rural areas. Pet cats in Australia are commonly infected with . Feeding raw meat to cats, a common practice in Australia, is associated with infection, highlighting the need for education about the health implications for cats from feeding a diet containing raw meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2520DOI Listing
April 2020

Distinct Lineages of Feline Parvovirus Associated with Epizootic Outbreaks in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates.

Viruses 2019 12 13;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Camperdown NSW 2050, Australia.

Feline panleukopenia (FPL), a frequently fatal disease of cats, is caused by feline parvovirus (FPV) or canine parvovirus (CPV). We investigated simultaneous outbreaks of FPL between 2014 and 2018 in Australia, New Zealand and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) where FPL outbreaks had not been reported for several decades. Case data from 989 cats and clinical samples from additional 113 cats were obtained to determine the cause of the outbreaks and epidemiological factors involved. Most cats with FPL were shelter-housed, 9 to 10 weeks old at diagnosis, unvaccinated, had not completed a primary vaccination series or had received vaccinations noncompliant with current guidelines. Analysis of parvoviral VP2 sequence data confirmed that all FPL cases were caused by FPV and not CPV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that each of these outbreaks was caused by a distinct FPV, with two virus lineages present in eastern Australia and virus movement between different geographical locations. Viruses from the UAE outbreak formed a lineage of unknown origin. FPV vaccine virus was detected in the New Zealand cases, highlighting the difficulty of distinguishing the co-incidental shedding of vaccine virus in vaccinated cats. Inadequate vaccination coverage in shelter-housed cats was a common factor in all outbreaks, likely precipitating the multiple re-emergence of infection events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11121155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950618PMC
December 2019

Population Characteristics of Cats Adopted from an Urban Cat Shelter and the Influence of Physical Traits and Reason for Surrender on Length of Stay.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Nov 8;9(11). Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Measures aimed at reducing the length of stay (LOS) of cats in shelters can promote animal welfare and more efficient use of resources. The extent to which variables shown to impact LOS are broadly applicable is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe a population of cats adopted from an urban shelter, and to analyze the association between potential predictor variables and LOS. A study cohort was identified retrospectively from shelter records ( = 2584), 48.8% of which were < 12 weeks old at admission, and 80.7% were stray. Among 445 cats relinquished by owners, reasons for surrender were primarily owner-related (87.2%). Overall, reason for surrender and coat color were significantly associated with LOS. Hazard ratios showed that all reasons for surrender for owner-relinquished cats were associated with a shorter LOS than stray cats and this association was significant ( < 0.05) for all except cat behavioral or medical reasons. In contrast to previous reports, white cats had a significantly ( < 0.05) longer LOS than black cats. This study highlights an important role for shelter-specific baseline data to inform and measure the effect of interventional studies aimed at improving animal welfare by reducing LOS in shelter-housed cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9110940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912321PMC
November 2019

Prevalence and risk factors for Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 detection in domestic cats in Italy.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Nov 22;238:108426. Epub 2019 Sep 22.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), a novel gammaherpesvirus of domestic cats identified in 2014, has been detected in different countries demonstrating a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of FcaGHV1 in Italy using a molecular epidemiological approach. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected with virus-specific real-time PCR in ≃1% of 2659 feline blood samples tested. Analysis of risk factors showed that being male and coinfection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) increase the likelihood of FcaGHV1 detection. One-third of FcaGHV1-positive cats also tested positive for FIV provirus, whereas coinfections with feline panleukopenia virus were not demonstrated. Further studies are necessary to confirm the risk factors for FcaGHV1 detection and the pathobiology of the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108426DOI Listing
November 2019

Effects of a novel bites, steps and eating rate-focused weight loss randomised controlled trial intervention on body weight and eating behaviours.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2020 06 23;33(3):330-341. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, The University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.

Background: Eating rate (ER), comprising the amount of food consumed per unit of time, is associated with obesity and energy intake (EI).

Methods: The present study tested whether adding a self-monitoring wearable device to a multifaceted 8-week weight loss intervention increased weight loss. In addition, the device's effect on secondary change outcomes in EI, ER and estimated energy expenditure was explored. Tertiary outcomes included examining eating behaviours measured by the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire (WREQ). Seventy-two adults who were overweight or obese [mean (SD) age, 37.7 (15.3) years; body mass index, 31.3 (3.2) kg m ] were randomised into two groups: intervention workbook plus device (WD) or intervention workbook only (WO). Three 24-h dietary recalls were obtained before weeks 0 and 8. Participants were weighed, consumed a test meal and completed 7-day Physical Activity Recall and WREQ at weeks 0 and 8.

Results: There was no significant difference between WD and WO groups with respect to weight change [-0.46 (1.11) vs. 0.26 (0.82) kg, respectively], ER, EI, energy expenditure or WREQ scores, although there were significant changes over time, and within-group changes on all of these variables. At week 8, participants were dichotomised into weight loss or weight stable/gainers groups. A significant time by group change was seen in susceptibility to external cues scores, with significant time effects for susceptibility and restraint.

Conclusions: An intervention focused on reducing ER, energy density and increasing steps was effective for weight loss, although the wearable device provided no additional benefit. Participants with higher susceptibility to external eating may be more responsive to this intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12704DOI Listing
June 2020