Publications by authors named "J Carlos Vallejo Llamas"

73 Publications

Psychological interventions to prevent the onset of depressive disorders: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 02 3;83:101955. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Institute for International Internet Interventions for Health (i4Health), Palo Alto University, United States.

Purpose: Depressive disorders are common and have a considerable impact on patients and societies. Several treatments are available, but their effects are modest and reduce the burden only to a limited extent. Preventing the onset of depressive disorders may be one option to further reduce the global disease burden.

Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in participants without a diagnosis of depression at baseline, who were assigned to a preventive psychological intervention, or a care-as-usual, or comparable control group and in which incident cases of depression at follow-up were ascertained with a diagnostic interview.

Results: Our systematic searches resulted in 50 trials (14,665 participants) with relatively high quality, in high risk groups of all ages. The psychological interventions were mostly based on cognitive behavioral interventions. One year after the preventive interventions, the relative risk of developing a depressive disorder was RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72-0.91), indicating that those who had received the intervention had 19% less chance to develop a depressive disorder. Given the average control event rate of 30%, twenty-one people had to participate in the intervention to prevent one depressive disorder compared to people in the control conditions.

Conclusions: Prevention is a promising approach to reduce the global disease burden of depression in addition to treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2020.101955DOI Listing
February 2021

Generation of inner ear hair cells by direct lineage conversion of primary somatic cells.

Elife 2020 06 30;9. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States.

The mechanoreceptive sensory hair cells in the inner ear are selectively vulnerable to numerous genetic and environmental insults. In mammals, hair cells lack regenerative capacity, and their death leads to permanent hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Their paucity and inaccessibility has limited the search for otoprotective and regenerative strategies. Growing hair cells in vitro would provide a route to overcome this experimental bottleneck. We report a combination of four transcription factors (, and ) that can convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts, adult tail-tip fibroblasts and postnatal supporting cells into induced hair cell-like cells (iHCs). iHCs exhibit hair cell-like morphology, transcriptomic and epigenetic profiles, electrophysiological properties, mechanosensory channel expression, and vulnerability to ototoxin in a high-content phenotypic screening system. Thus, direct reprogramming provides a platform to identify causes and treatments for hair cell loss, and may help identify future gene therapy approaches for restoring hearing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326493PMC
June 2020

Multi-pathway human exposure risk assessment using Bayesian modeling at the historically largest mercury mining district.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Sep 12;201:110833. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Geology and Mining Engineering, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica de Almadén, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Plaza Manuel Meca, 13400, Almadén, Ciudad Real, Spain.

The largest mercury (Hg) mining district in the world is located in Almadén (Spain), with well-known environmental impacts in the surrounding ecosystem. However, the impact of mercury on the health of the inhabitants of this area has not been documented accordingly. This study aims to carry out a probabilistic human health risk assessment using Bayesian modeling to estimate the non-carcinogenic risk related to Hg through multiple exposure pathways. Samples of vegetables, wild mushrooms, fish, soil, water, and air were analyzed, and adult residents were randomly surveyed to adjust the risk models to the specific population data. On the one hand, the results for the non-carcinogenic risk based on Hazard Quotient (HQ) showed unacceptable risk levels through ingestion of Hg-contaminated vegetables and fish, with HQ values 20 and 3 times higher, respectively, than the safe exposure threshold of 1 for the 97.5th percentile. On the other hand, ingestion of mushrooms, dermal contact with soil, ingestion of water, dermal contact with water and inhalation of air, were below the safety limit for the 97.5th percentile, and did not represent a risk to the health of residents. In addition, the probabilistic approach was compared with the conservative deterministic approach, and similar results were obtained. This is the first study conducted in Almadén, which clearly reveals the high levels of human health risk to which the population is exposed due to the legacy of two millennia of Hg mining.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110833DOI Listing
September 2020

Organ of Corti size is governed by Yap/Tead-mediated progenitor self-renewal.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 06 1;117(24):13552-13561. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Keck Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033;

Precise control of organ growth and patterning is executed through a balanced regulation of progenitor self-renewal and differentiation. In the auditory sensory epithelium-the organ of Corti-progenitor cells exit the cell cycle in a coordinated wave between E12.5 and E14.5 before the initiation of sensory receptor cell differentiation, making it a unique system for studying the molecular mechanisms controlling the switch between proliferation and differentiation. Here we identify the Yap/Tead complex as a key regulator of the self-renewal gene network in organ of Corti progenitor cells. We show that Tead transcription factors bind directly to the putative regulatory elements of many stemness- and cell cycle-related genes. We also show that the Tead coactivator protein, Yap, is degraded specifically in the Sox2-positive domain of the cochlear duct, resulting in down-regulation of Tead gene targets. Further, conditional loss of the gene in the inner ear results in the formation of significantly smaller auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia, while conditional overexpression of a constitutively active version of , , is sufficient to prevent cell cycle exit and to prolong sensory tissue growth. We also show that viral gene delivery of in the postnatal inner ear sensory epithelia in vivo drives cell cycle reentry after hair cell loss. Taken together, these data highlight the key role of the Yap/Tead transcription factor complex in maintaining inner ear progenitors during development, and suggest new strategies to induce sensory cell regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2000175117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306825PMC
June 2020

Indigeneity, diversity, and equity in Internet interventions: Could ISRII contribute to making health care a universal human right?

Internet Interv 2019 Dec 22;18:100269. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Institute for International Internet Interventions for Health (i4Health), Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

This article is a partially revised version of a keynote address presented at the 10th Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Research on Internet Interventions (ISRII) in Auckland, New Zealand. It addresses six points: 1) the meanings of indigeneity, diversity, and equity, 2) the strong emotional reactions elicited by the inequities experienced by indigenous groups throughout the world, 3) the aspirations of members of ISRII in terms of what we would like our field to accomplish to address these inequities, 4) the United Nations goal of making health care a universal human right, 5) the difficulties encountered by other health sciences in attempting to include diverse populations into major studies, and 6) ways in which the Internet interventions and digital health field could include indigeneity, diversity, and equity in our work, and by doing so, contribute to the United Nations goal of making health care a universal human right. The authors suggest that providing to health care to all people, no matter where they are on the socioeconomic continuum, is a key strategy to pursue. The field of Internet interventions could contribute by creating digital apothecaries that would develop, evaluate, and disseminate evidence-based Massive Open Online Interventions to anyone in the world who needs them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2019.100269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6926266PMC
December 2019