Publications by authors named "J C Siqueira"

680 Publications

Systematic review of interventions to increase the use of arteriovenous fistulae and grafts in incident haemodialysis patients.

J Vasc Access 2021 Apr 12:11297298211006994. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Background: Patients who commence haemodialysis (HD) through arteriovenous fistulae and grafts (AVF/G) have improved survival compared to those who do so by venous lines.

Objectives: This systematic review aims to assimilate the evidence for any strategy which increases the proportion of HD patients starting dialysis through AVF/G.

Data Sources: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central and Scopus.

Study Eligibility, Participants And Interventions: English language studies comparing any educational, clinical or service organisation intervention for adult patients with end stage renal failure and reporting incident AVF/G use.

Study Appraisal And Synthesis: Two reviewers assessed studies for eligibility independently. Outcome data was extracted and reported as relative risk. Reporting was performed with reference to the PRISMA statement.

Results: Of 1272 studies, 6 were eligible for inclusion. Studies varied in design and intervention. Formal meta-analysis was not appropriate. One randomised controlled trial and two cohort studies assessed the role of a renal access coordinator. Two cohort studies assessed the implementation of qualitive initiative programmes and one cohort study assessed a national, structured education programme. Results between studies were contradictory with some reporting improvements in incident AVF/G use and some no significant difference. Quality was generally low.

Conclusions: It is not possible to reach firm conclusions nor make strategic recommendations. A comprehensive package of care which educates and identifies patients approaching dialysis in a timely manner may improve incident AVF/G use. An unbiased, robust comparison of different strategies for timing AVF/G referral is required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11297298211006994DOI Listing
April 2021

SARS-CoV-2 genomic analyses in cancer patients reveal elevated intrahost genetic diversity.

Virus Evol 2021 Jan 16;7(1):veab013. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Programa de Oncovirologia, Instituto Nacional de Câncer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20.231-050, Brazil.

Numerous factors have been identified to influence susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and disease severity. Cancer patients are more prone to clinically evolve to more severe COVID-19 conditions, but the determinants of such a more severe outcome remain largely unknown. We have determined the full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences of cancer patients and healthcare workers (non-cancer controls) by deep sequencing and investigated the within-host viral population of each infection, quantifying intrahost genetic diversity. Naso- and oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 swabs from 57 cancer patients and 14 healthcare workers from the Brazilian National Cancer Institute were collected in April to May 2020. Complete genome amplification using ARTIC network V3 multiplex primers was performed followed by next-generation sequencing. Assemblies were conducted in Geneious R11, where consensus sequences were extracted and intrahost single nucleotide variants were identified. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis was performed using PhyMLv.3.0 and lineages were classified using Pangolin and CoV-GLUE. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all but one strain belonged to clade B1.1. Four genetically linked mutations known as the globally dominant SARS-CoV-2 haplotype (C241T, C3037T, C14408T and A23403G) were found in the majority of consensus sequences. SNV signatures of previously characterized Brazilian genomes were also observed in most samples. Another 85 SNVs were found at a lower frequency (1.4%-19.7%) among the consensus sequences. Cancer patients displayed a significantly higher intrahost viral genetic diversity compared to healthcare workers. This difference was independent of SARS-CoV-2 Ct values obtained at the diagnostic tests, which did not differ between the two groups. The most common nucleotide changes of intrahost SNVs in both groups were consistent with APOBEC and ADAR activities. Intrahost genetic diversity in cancer patients was not associated with disease severity, use of corticosteroids, or use of antivirals, characteristics that could influence viral diversity. Moreover, the presence of metastasis, either in general or specifically in the lung, was not associated with intrahost diversity among cancer patients. Cancer patients carried significantly higher numbers of minor variants compared to non-cancer counterparts. Further studies on SARS-CoV-2 diversity in especially vulnerable patients will shed light onto the understanding of the basis of COVID-19 different outcomes in humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/veab013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928633PMC
January 2021

Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing meat quail.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 23;100(4):101012. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Center of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, Campus Chapadinha, Chapadinha, Maranhão, Brazil.

The objective of present study was to estimate the efficiency of lysine utilization by meat quail of 21 to 35 d of age. A total of 500 meat quails were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement, with 2 sexes (male and female) and 5 digestible lysine levels (0.714, 0.816, 0.918, 1.020, and 1.122%) and 5 replications of 10 birds each. The variables studied were feather-free body weight (FFBW), feed intake (FI), lysine intake (LysI), feather-free body protein deposition (FFBPD), feather-free body lysine deposition (FFBLysD), feather-free body fat deposition (FFBFatD), feather weight (FW), feather protein deposition, feather lysine deposition, and feather fat deposition. The FFBW, FFBPD, FFBLysD, and FFBFatD were regressed as a function of LysI for each sex to estimate the efficiency of lysine utilization in the feather-free body (ELysFFB), and the individual equations were compared. In addition, a multiple regression without intercept was also used to estimate the ELysFFB and in feathers (ELysF) individually. To compare the ELysFFB obtained by the different methods, the t-statistic was used. There was no effect on sex × lysine level interactions for any variable. The females showed higher FFBW (5.07%) and FFBFatD (26.23%) than males. All variables increased with the level of dietary lysine, with the exception of FI, FW, and the deposition of nutrients within them. The ELysFFB values obtained by simple linear regression and multiple linear regression were 48.0 and 44.6%, respectively. As there was no difference in the efficiencies estimated by the different methodologies, the best estimate of ELysFFB was 46.3%, that is, the average. The best estimate of ELysF was 18.1%, obtained by multiple linear regression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.01.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921006PMC
April 2021

Pulp Response to Periodontal Disease: Novel Observations Help Clarify the Processes of Tissue Breakdown and Infection.

J Endod 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Grande Rio University, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Department of Endodontics and Dental Research, Iguaçu University, Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Introduction: This study evaluated the pulp response to periodontal disease of increasing severity.

Methods: The material comprised human teeth affected by moderate (n = 16) to severe (n = 48) periodontal disease and no clinically identified caries lesions. Specimens were obtained by extraction and were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic methods.

Results: In 13 of 16 teeth with moderate periodontal disease and vital pulp, no frank accumulations of inflammatory cells were observed. In 22 of 32 teeth with severe periodontal disease and vital pulps, no distinct inflammatory cell accumulations were observed in any portion of the pulp when there was an intact or minimally damaged cementum layer in the corresponding areas. Intravascular bacterial aggregations were detected in pulp blood vessels in 6 teeth with symptomatic pulpitis and severe periodontal disease, which had not reached the root apex in 4 of them. Focal areas of infection and varying accumulations of acute and chronic inflammatory cells were observed throughout the pulp tissue and surrounding these infected blood vessels. When the periodontal pocket reached the apex of single-rooted teeth, the entire canal space was necrotic and colonized by bacteria, often forming biofilms. In multirooted teeth, the pulp response varied according to the root(s) affected. Intrapulpal calcifications were observed in 91% of the teeth. The pulp and cementum of the control teeth showed no pathologic changes or bacteria.

Conclusions: The pulp showed a significantly detectable response when the cementum coverage was lost or when the periodontal pocket reached the root apex. In the former condition, the pulp response was usually discrete, whereas in the latter, severe reactions usually developed. In some teeth, vessels with a compromised blood flow may serve as avenues for bacteria to invade the pulp via apical or lateral foramina. This indicates that in some teeth the pulp may undergo severe inflammation and necrosis even before the periodontal disease reaches the apical root segment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2021.02.005DOI Listing
February 2021

Distinguishing SARS-CoV-2 bonafide re-infection from pre-existing minor variant reactivation.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 06 14;90:104772. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Programa de Oncovirologia, Instituto Nacional de Câncer, Rua Andre Cavalcanti, 37, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20231-050, Brazil; Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-402, Brazil. Electronic address:

Different groups have recently reported events of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, where patients had a sequence of positive-negative-positive RT-PCR tests. However, such events could be explained by different scenarios such as intermittent viral shedding, bonafide re-infection or multiple infection with alternating predominance of different viruses. Analysis of minor variants is an important tool to distinguish between these scenarios. Using ARTIC network PCR amplification and next-generation sequencing, we obtained SARS-CoV-2 sequences from two timepoints (with a time span of 102 days) of a patient followed at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute. Within-host variant analysis evidenced three single nucleotide variants (SNVs) at the consensus viral sequence in the second timepoint that were already present in the first timepoint as minor variants. Another five SNVs found in the second timepoint were not detected in the first sample sequenced, suggesting an additional infection by a yet another new virus. Our observation shed light into the existence of different viral populations that are present in dynamic frequencies and fluctuate during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The detection of these variants in distinct disease events of an individual highlights a complex interplay between viral reactivation from a pre-existing minority variant and reinfection by a different virus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882217PMC
June 2021

Boron: More Than an Essential Element for Land Plants?

Front Plant Sci 2020 14;11:610307. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil.

Although boron (B) is an element that has long been assumed to be an essential plant micronutrient, this assumption has been recently questioned. Cumulative evidence has demonstrated that the players associated with B uptake and translocation by plant roots include a sophisticated set of proteins used to cope with B levels in the soil solution. Here, we summarize compelling evidence supporting the essential role of B in mediating plant developmental programs. Overall, most plant species studied to date have exhibited specific B transporters with tight genetic coordination in response to B levels in the soil. These transporters can uptake B from the soil, which is a highly uncommon occurrence for toxic elements. Moreover, the current tools available to determine B levels cannot precisely determine B translocation dynamics. We posit that B plays a key role in plant metabolic activities. Its importance in the regulation of development of the root and shoot meristem is associated with plant developmental phase transitions, which are crucial processes in the completion of their life cycle. We provide further evidence that plants need to acquire sufficient amounts of B while protecting themselves from its toxic effects. Thus, the development of and approaches is required to accurately determine B levels, and subsequently, to define unambiguously the function of B in terrestrial plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.610307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840898PMC
January 2021

Structural and viscoelastic properties of floating monolayers of a pectinolytic enzyme and their influence on the catalytic properties.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 14;589:568-577. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Institute of Environmental, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), 09913-030 Diadema, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: The catalytic activity of enzymes immobilized in self-assembly systems as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films is influenced by molecular interactions dictated by the composition and viscoelasticity of the previous floating monolayers. We believe that the insertion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in mixed polygalacturonase/lipid monolayers may influence intermolecular interactions and viscoelastic properties, being then possible to tune system stability and rheological properties, driving catalytic properties of the films for biosensing.

Experiments: The physicochemical properties of the monolayers were investigated by tensiometry, surface potential, Brewster angle microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and dilatational rheology. The monolayers were transferred to solid supports LB films and characterized by atomic force microscopy, quartz crystal microbalance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the LB films was verified by colorimetric assay.

Findings: The enzyme-CNT-lipid film had a catalytic activity at least twice as high as the pure enzyme owing to the synergy between the components, with the lipid acting as a protector matrix for the enzyme and the CNTs acting as an energy transfer facilitator. These results point to a proof-of-concept system, through which we can propose an alternative to achieve enhanced bio-inspired films with high control of the molecular architecture by using the LB approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.01.024DOI Listing
May 2021

Rice bran modulates renal disease risk factors in animals submitted to high sugar-fat diet.

J Bras Nefrol 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina, Botucatu, SP, Brasil.

Introduction: Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are common risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD arises due to many pathological insults, including inflammation and oxidative stress, which affect renal function and destroy nephrons. Rice bran (RB) is rich in vitamins and minerals, and contains significant amount of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of RB on renal disease risk factors.

Methods: Male Wistar rats (±325 g) were divided into two experimental groups to received a high sugar-fat diet (HSF, n = 8) or high sugar-fat diet with rice bran (HSF + RB, n = 8) for 20 weeks. At the end, renal function, body composition, metabolic parameters, renal inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were analyzed.

Results: RB prevented obesity [AI (HSF= 9.92 ± 1.19 vs HSF + RB= 6.62 ± 0.78)ENT#093;, insulin resistance [HOMA (HSF= 83 ± 8 vs. HSF + RB= 42 ± 11)ENT#093;, dyslipidemia [TG (HSF= 167 ± 41 vs. HSF + RB=92 ± 40)ENT#093;, inflammation [TNF-α (HSF= 80 ± 12 vs. HSF + RB=57 ± 14), IL-6 (903 ± 274 vs. HSF + RB=535 ± 277)], oxidative stress [protein carbonylation (HSF= 3.38 ± 0.18 vs. HSF + RB=2.68 ± 0.29), RAGE (HSF=702 ± 36 vs. RSF + RB=570 ± 190)], and renal disease [protein/creatinine ratio (HSF=1.10 ± 0.38 vs. HSF + RB=0.49 ± 0.16)].

Conclusion: In conclusion, rice bran prevented renal disease by modulating risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-8239-JBN-2020-0169DOI Listing
January 2021

Centrally acting antihypertensives change the psychogenic cardiovascular reactivity.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Goias, Goiania, Brazil.

Clonidine (CL) and Rilmenidine (RI) are among the most frequently prescribed centrally acting antihypertensives. Here, we compared CL and RI effects on psychogenic cardiovascular reactivity to sonant, luminous, motosensory, and vibrotactile stimuli during neurogenic hypertension. The femoral artery and vein of Wistar (WT - normotensive) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were catheterized before (24 h interval) i.p. injection of vehicle (NaCl 0.9%, control - CT group), CL (10 µg/kg), or RI (10 µg/kg) and acute exposure to luminous (5000 lm), sonant (75 dB sudden tap), motor (180° cage twist), and air-jet (10 L/min - restraint and vibrotactile). Findings showed that: (i) CL or RI reduced the arterial pressure of SHR, without affecting basal heart rate in WT and SHR; (ii) different stimuli evoked pressor and tachycardic responses; (iii) CL and RI reduced pressor response to sound; (iv) CL or RI reduced pressor responses to luminous stimulus without a change in peak tachycardia in SHR; (v) cage twist increased blood pressure in SHR, which was attenuated by CL or RI; (vi) air-jet increased pressure and heart rate; (vii) CL or RI attenuated the pressor responses to air-jet in SHR while RI reduced the chronotropic reactivity in both strains. Altogether, both antihypertensives relieved the psychogenic cardiovascular responses to different stimuli. The RI elicited higher cardioprotective effects through a reduction in air-jet-induced tachycardia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12648DOI Listing
January 2021

Validation of a HPLC method for quantification of midazolam in rat plasma: Application during a Maytenus ilicifolia-drug interaction study.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Mar 27;35(3):e4999. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Federal University of São João del-Rei, Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Midazolam (MDZ) is routinely employed as a marker compound of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Despite the many HPLC-UV methods described to quantify MDZ in plasma, all of them use acetonitrile (ACN) or a mixture of methanol-isopropanol as organic solvent of the mobile phase. Since the ACN shortage in 2008, efforts have been made to replace this solvent during HPLC analysis. A simple, sensitive, accurate and repeatable HPLC-UV method (220 nm) was developed and validated to quantify MDZ in rat plasma using methanol instead. The method was applied during a herb-drug interaction study involving Maytenus ilicifolia, a Brazilian folk medicine used to treat gastric disorders. Plasma samples were alkalinized and MDZ plus alprazolam (internal standard) were extracted with diethyl ether. After solvent removal, the residue was reconstituted with methanol-water (1:1). The analyte was eluted throughout a C column using sodium acetate buffer (10 mm, pH 7.4)-methanol (40:60, v/v). The precision at the lower limit of quantification never exceeded 19.40%, and 13.86% at the higher levels of quality control standards, whereas the accuracy ranged from -19.81 to 14.33%. The analytical curve was linear from 50 to 2,000 ng/ml. The activity of the hepatic CYP3A enzymes was not affected by the extract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4999DOI Listing
March 2021

Consensus on evidence-based medicine curriculum contents for healthcare schools in Brazil.

BMJ Evid Based Med 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Physical Therapy, Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Objectives: Healthcare professionals need to take into account their knowledge, skills and attitudes to develop a focused clinical question, perform an effective search of the literature, critically appraise the evidence, and apply to the clinical context and evaluate the effectiveness of the process. To date, there is a lack of consensus on evidence-based medicine (EBM) curriculum for undergraduate healthcare students in Brazil. The aim of this study was to develop a consensus on EBM curriculum contents for healthcare schools in Brazil considering expert opinion.

Design: Modified three-round Delphi methodology.

Setting: Online survey.

Participants: The expert panel was composed of 40 healthcare professionals from different specialties. Most of the participants (n=24; 60%) were female with the age between 30 and 44 years. Participants were also experts in the field of epidemiology, biostatistics or public health. The mean experience of experts in teaching EBM was 9.5 years.

Main Outcome Measures: An online questionnaire consisting of 89 items related to EBM was sent to the experts. The experts ranked each item of EBM curriculum considering the importance of each item as omitted, mentioned, explained or practised. The last section of the questionnaire was composed of 'additional content' where the experts evaluated only if an item should be included or not, the form of offering the EBM contents and the total workload (in hours/semester). Open-ended questions were present in each section to give the opportunity to experts to insert suggestions. Items that reached values greater than or equal to 70% of agreement among experts was considered definitive for the curriculum. Items between 51% and 69% of agreement were included for the next round and those items with less than or equal to 50% of agreement were considered unnecessary and were excluded. In the third round, the EBM contents were classified according to the degree of consensus as follow: strong (≥70% of agreement), moderate (51%-69% of agreement) and weak (50% of agreement) based on the maximum consensus reached.

Results: Of the 89 initial contents, 32 (35.9%) reached a strong degree of consensus, 23 (25.8%) moderate degree of consensus, two (2.2%) weak degree of consensus and 35 items were not recommended (≤50% of agreement). The workload suggested by experts should be between 61 and 90 hour/semester and an EBM curriculum should be offered with epidemiology and biostatistics as prerequisites. Regarding the importance of each item, 29 (72.5%) should be explained and 25 (27.5%) should be practised with exercises.

Conclusions: The consensus on an EBM curriculum for Brazilian healthcare schools consists of 54 items. This EBM curriculum also presents the degree of consensus (strong, moderate and weak), the importance of each item (mentioned, explained and practised with exercises). A total workload of between 60 and 90 hours per semester was suggested and the EBM curriculum should be offered with epidemiology and biostatistics as prerequisites, but also EBM contents should be included within other disciplines throughout the entire undergraduate course.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111397DOI Listing
January 2021

Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior in the Acute Phase of a Preclinical Model of Periodontal Disease.

Front Neurol 2020 22;11:598851. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Dental Team, and Dental Research Group on Pain and Mental Health of Institute of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Periodontal disease (PD) is an infectious-inflammatory oral disease that is highly prevalent among adolescence and adulthood and can lead to chronic orofacial pain and be associated with anxiety, stress and depression. This study aimed to identify anxiety-like behaviors in the ligature-induced murine preclinical model of PD in different phases of the disease (i.e., acute vs. chronic). Also, we investigated orofacial mechanical allodynia thresholds and superficial cortical plasticity along the orofacial motor cortex in both disease phases. To this aim, 25 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated in acute (14 days) or chronic (28 days) ligature-induced-PD groups and further divided into active-PD or sham-PD. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated using the elevated plus maze, mechanical allodynia assessed using the von Frey filaments test and superficial motor cortex mapping was performed with electrical transdural stimulation. We observed increased anxiety-like behavior in active-PD animals in the acute phase, characterized by decreased number of entries into the open arm extremities [ = 2.42, = 0.04], and reduced time spent in the open arms [ = 3.56, = 0.01] and in the open arm extremities [ = 2.75, = 0.03]. There was also a reduction in the mechanical allodynia threshold in all active-PD animals [Acute: = 8.81, < 0.001; Chronic: = 60.0, < 0.001], that was positively correlated with anxiety-like behaviors in the acute group. No differences were observed in motor cortex mapping. Thus, our findings show the presence of anxiety-like behaviors in the acute phase of PD making this a suitable model to study the impact of anxiety in treatment response and treatment efficacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.598851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782965PMC
December 2020

Influence of a High-fat Diet in the Progression of Apical Periodontitis.

J Endod 2021 Apr 30;47(4):600-605. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Estácio de Sá University, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study evaluated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on the progression of apical periodontitis (AP) in rats.

Methods: Eight-week old Wistar rats (N = 24) were included in this study. Half of the animals received an HFD and the other half a control diet (CD). AP lesions were induced 8 weeks later by creating pulp exposure of the mandibular left first molars. The animal's body mass was verified on a weekly basis. After 21 and 40 days, the animals were sacrificed. Blood was collected for biochemical tests, and the liver was removed for hepatic triglycerides analysis. The left hemimandibles were removed, radiographed, and then prepared for histologic evaluation. The right hemimandibles (region near molars) were removed for bone mineral density analysis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Results: Radiographs showed that AP lesions were significantly larger in the HFD group compared with the CD group (P < .05). Histologic analysis confirmed that the AP lesions were larger and revealed a more severe inflammatory infiltrate in the HFD group. Bone mineral density was reduced in the HFD group compared with the CD groups (P < .05). The HFD resulted in a significant increase in body mass (P < .05), liver mass (P < .05), relative liver mass (P < .05), and hepatic triglycerides (P < .05). The levels of triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein were significantly higher in the 40-day HFD group compared with the 21-day HFD and 21- and 40-day CD groups (P < .05).

Conclusions: Findings suggest that an HFD can influence the progression and severity of AP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2020.12.015DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between craniofacial pain complaints, somatoform symptoms and chronic diseases.

Arch Oral Biol 2021 Feb 29;122:104892. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Chairman of Neurosurgery, Neurology Department, Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: This case-control study aimed to investigate associations between craniofacial pain complaints, somatoform symptoms and chronic diseases.

Design: 306 subjects were included in this study (174 patients and 132 healthy subjects). The evaluation consisted of demographic data, number of functional and nonfunctional chronic diseases, medications, somatoform symptoms (xerostomia, dry mucosa, numbness, gastrointestinal complaints), and pain complaints with associated characteristics (number of pain areas, sensation of tired face, bruxism, sleep disturbances, masticatory musculoskeletal evaluation). Statistical analysis included descriptive data, tested with chi-square, Fisher's exact, nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnoff, Student's t-test, Pearson's coefficient, two-steps cluster classification, multivariate linear and LASSO regressions.

Results: Functional disorders were prevalent in 111 (63.8 %) patients with facial pain. They were taking more medication (p < 0.001) and had more sleep disturbances (p < 0.001), higher xerostomia scores (p < 0.001) and more gastrointestinal complaints (p < 0.001) than controls. There was a positive correlation between the functional score and the number of cranial areas with headache (R = 0.266, <0.001). The regression models for facial pain (R = 0.632), craniofacial pain (R = 0.623) and headache (R = 0.252) showed significant dependency of functional disorders (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: craniofacial pain was associated with functional diseases and somatoform symptoms. This association needs further investigation to understand the role of those disorders in craniofacial pain, considering that pain complaints are common somatoform and functional symptoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2020.104892DOI Listing
February 2021

Insights Into Behavior on Zinc Deprivation.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 30;10:573097. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences II, Federal University of Goias (UFG), Goiania, Brazil.

is a thermodimorphic fungus that causes histoplasmosis, a mycosis of global incidence. The disease is prevalent in temperate and tropical regions such as North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. It is known that during infection macrophages restrict Zn availability to as a microbicidal mechanism. In this way the present work aimed to study the response of to zinc deprivation. analyses showed that has eight genes related to zinc homeostasis ranging from transcription factors to CDF and ZIP family transporters. The transcriptional levels of , , and were induced under zinc-limiting conditions. The decrease in Zn availability increases fungicidal macrophage activity. Proteomics analysis during zinc deprivation at 24 and 48 h showed 265 proteins differentially expressed at 24 h and 68 at 48 h. Proteins related to energy production pathways, oxidative stress, and cell wall remodeling were regulated. The data also suggested that low metal availability increases the chitin and glycan content in fungal cell wall that results in smoother cell surface. Metal restriction also induces oxidative stress triggered, at least in part, by reduction in pyridoxin synthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.573097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734293PMC
November 2020

Occurrence and anatomical distribution of myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in swine.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2020 12 11;22:100481. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Federal University of Agreste of Pernambuco, Garanhuns, PE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has been considered the most important cause of myiasis in animals in the South America with most cases being recorded in cattle. In Brazil, the risk of myiasis in swine population is underestimated, leading to difficulties in the implementation of preventive measures. The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of myiasis infesting a swine population over a one-year period and to evaluate the anatomical distribution of these larvae on the animal's body. From May 2019 to April 2020, a total of 2038 inspections were carried out on pigs reared in two farms located in the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Fly larvae retrieved were morphologically identified and the anatomical distribution of myiasis was graphically represented by a heat map indicating its frequency in swine based on the interpolation of data. Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae (n = 78) of second (n = 29) and third (n = 49) developmental stages were recovered in 13 animals (0.64%) out of 2038 inspections performed. The occurrence of myiasis was detected in eight anatomical sites, with higher concentration on the forehead region and on ears. Data herein obtained provide valuable information on the epidemiology and biological aspects of C. hominivorax affecting pigs. In addition, it indicates that the forehead and ears are important sites of parasitism most likely due the high frequency of skin lesions in these areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vprsr.2020.100481DOI Listing
December 2020

Gamma-oryzanol as a potential modulator of oxidative stress and inflammation via PPAR-y in adipose tissue: a hypothetical therapeutic for cytokine storm in COVID-19?

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 01 28;520:111095. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

São Paulo State University (Unesp), Medical School, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

The literature has reported a higher prevalence of negative clinical outcomes due to Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in obese individuals. This can be explained by the cytokine storm, result from the cytokine production from both obesity and viral infection. Gamma-oryzanol (γOz) is a compound with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about the γOz action as a possible agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that γOz attenuates the cytokine storm by stimulating PPAR-γ in the adipose tissue.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups and fed ad libitum for 30 weeks with control diet (C, n = 6), high sugar-fat diet (HSF, n = 6) or high sugar-fat diet + γOz (HSF + γOz, n = 6). HSF groups also received water + sucrose (25%). The γOz dose was 0.5% in the chow. Evaluation in animals included caloric intake, body weight, adiposity index, plasma triglycerides, and HOMA-IR. In adipose tissue was evaluated: PPAR-γ gene and protein expression, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters, and histological analysis.

Results: Adipose tissue dysfunction was observed in HSF group, which presented remarkable PPAR-γ underexpression and increased levels of cytokines, other inflammatory markers and oxidative stress. The γOz treatment prevented adipose tissue dysfunction and promoted PPAR-γ overexpression.

Conclusion: Natural compounds as γOz can be considered a coadjutant therapy to prevent the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients with obesity conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2020.111095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695949PMC
January 2021

Acceptance of mobile commerce in low-income consumers: evidence from an emerging economy.

Heliyon 2020 Nov 11;6(11):e05451. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Economics and Management, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.

This paper examines the intention to use m-commerce in low-income consumers in Ecuador by expanding the original unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) model to include the trust and perceived security constructs. A total of 344 Ecuadorians were surveyed according to the following criteria: 1) had made at least one purchase through their mobile device in the last month and, 2) belonged to the low and medium-low socioeconomic segment of the selected country. The results showed that facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, habit, and perceived trust significantly and positively predict the intention to use m-commerce. The best predictor was facilitating conditions followed by perceived trust. Contrary to expectations, performance expectancy, social influence, and perceived security did not significantly affect low-income consumers' intention to use m-commerce. This study produced diverging results in significant constructs used to validate the UTAUT2, highlighting the need to examine this model in different countries further. The relationships of the core constructs of UTAUT2 vary according to the country studied, possibly due to differences in national culture and economic development that could moderate the impact of explanatory constructs of technology adoption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670222PMC
November 2020

Disinfecting and Shaping Type I C-shaped Root Canals: A Correlative Micro-computed Tomographic and Molecular Microbiology Study.

J Endod 2021 Apr 18;47(4):621-630. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, University of Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Iguaçu University, Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Introduction: This ex vivo study compared the disinfection and shaping abilities of 2 preparation protocols in C-shaped canals.

Methods: Mandibular second molars with type I C-shaped canals were pair matched based on micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) analysis and distributed into 2 groups. The canals were contaminated with a mixed bacterial culture and prepared using 2 protocols, both with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation: XP-endo Shaper (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) supplemented with XP-endo Finisher (FKG Dentaire) (XP-E) and BioRaCe (FKG Dentaire) supplemented with a Hedström file (Dentsply/Sirona, Tulsa, OK) (BR-Hed). Micro-CT scans and intracanal bacteriologic samples were taken before (scan #1 and sample 1) and after preparation (scan #2 and sample 2) and after the supplementary step (scan #3 and sample 3). Canal shaping was evaluated by micro-CT imaging, and disinfection was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Micro-CT data from the XP-E (n = 21) and BR-Hed (n = 23) protocols revealed no significant differences between groups regarding shaping parameters (canal volume, surface area, structure model index, and prepared walls) after preparation and after the supplementary step (P > .05). All these parameters significantly increased after each preparation step (P < .05), except for structure model index changes after the XP-endo Finisher (P > .05). Bacteriologic data from the XP-E (n = 21) and BR-Hed (n = 22) groups showed that 14 (66.7%) and 10 (45.5%) S2 samples still had detectable bacteria, respectively. The corresponding figures for supplementary steps with the XP-endo Finisher and Hedström file were 11 (52.4%) and 10 (45.5%), respectively. Bacterial counts in sample 1 significantly decreased in samples 2 and 3 in both groups (P < .01). Intragroup comparison between sample 2 and sample 3 showed a 66% reduction in counts after using the Hedström file and 18% after using the XP-endo Finisher (P > .05 for both groups). The quantitative bacterial reduction was not different between groups (P > .05).

Conclusions: The XP-endo Shaper and BioRaCe systems have similar disinfecting and shaping abilities in C-shaped canals. Supplementary steps with the Hedström file and the XP-endo Finisher were similarly effective in improving shaping, but this was not sufficient to enhance disinfection. About half of the cases, in both groups, still harbored detectable amounts of bacteria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2020.11.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of a phenylpropanoid-enriched fraction of Duguetia furfuracea.

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Apr 6;29(2):409-422. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Laboratório de Farmacognosia/Química de Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Divinópolis, Brazil.

A previous study reported the in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of essential oil of the underground stem bark of Duguetia furfuracea, termed EODf. This study aimed to obtain a phenylpropanoid-enriched fraction from the D. furfuracea (EFDf) essential oil and to investigate its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. The chemical composition of the EFDf was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced paw oedema model. The effects of the EFDf on the polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression were evaluated in mice footpads. Moreover, the in vivo antinociceptive effect was assayed using the formalin test and the LPS-induced thermal hyperalgesia model. In the EFDf, 8 major compounds were identified, with α-asarone (36.4%) and 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene (27.8%) the main constituents. A higher concentration of phenylpropanoid derivatives was found in the EFDf, 64.2% compared to the EODf (38%). The oral (p.o.) treatment with the EFDf at a dose of 3 mg/kg significantly attenuated the paw oedema, polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration, iNOS expression, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production. The EFDf (10 and 30 mg/kg) also inhibited both phases of the formalin test and caused a significant increase in the reaction time in the LPS-induced thermal hyperalgesia model. Finally, EFDf-treated animals did not show any alteration of motor coordination. The results suggest that the enrichment of 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and α-asarone enhances the anti-inflammatory activity of the EFDf compared to the EODf. In contrast, the antinociception promoted by the EFDf was similar to the EODf and was mediated via activation of adenosinergic and opioidergic receptors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-020-00775-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Disinfection and outcome of root canal treatment using single-file or multifile systems and Ca(OH)2 medication.

Braz Dent J 2020 Sep-Oct;31(5):493-498

Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, UNIG - Universidade Iguaçu, Nova Iguaçu, RJ, Brazil.

This clinical study reports on the antibacterial effects and outcome of endodontic treatment using either a single-file or a multifile system, associated with calcium hydroxide interappointment medication. The root canals of single-rooted teeth with apical periodontitis were treated by using either Reciproc or BioRaCe instrument systems, 2.5% NaOCl irrigation, and calcium hydroxide medication. Bacteriological samples taken before preparation and immediately before obturation were evaluated for total bacterial counts by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Patients were followed up and the treatment outcome was assessed by clinical and radiographic criteria. Decreasing lesions were classified as success in a lenient criterion or failure in a rigid one. Bacteria were detected in all initial samples (47 cases) and were significantly reduced after treatment in both groups (p<0.001). In the Reciproc and BioRaCe groups, 7/25 (28%) and 11/22 (50%) root canals yielded negative qPCR results before obturation, respectively (p>0.05). Quantitative bacterial reduction was similar between groups (p>0.05). The success rate in the BioRaCe group was 95.5% and 77% in the loose and rigid criterion, respectively. In the Reciproc group, corresponding figures were 88% and 76%. Differences in outcome were not significant (p>0.05). No diseased case showed negative qPCR results for bacteria. A difference of >1 Log10 counts was observed between healed and diseased cases. Root canal treatments of teeth with apical periodontitis using a single-file or a multifile system for preparation, associated with NaOCl irrigation and calcium hydroxide interappointment medication, showed similar antibacterial effectiveness and success rate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440202003245DOI Listing
November 2020

5HTTLPR Genetic Variant and Major Depressive Disorder: A Review.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Oct 26;11(11). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Campus Faculty of Ceilandia, University of Brasilia, Brasilia 72220-275, Brazil.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a disease that involves biological, psychological, and social interactions. Studies have shown the importance of genetics contribution to MDD development. The SCL6A4 protein (5HTTLPR) functions transporting serotonin, a neurotransmitter linked to mood and emotion, to the synaptic cleft. Hence, this study seeks, through a literature review, a better comprehension of the 5HTTLPR genetic variant association with MDD. For this purpose, a search was performed on the Virtual Health Library Portal for articles that related 5HTTLPR to MDD. Most of the articles found were conducted in the American continent, with one (1) study implemented in Brazil. 5HTTLPR associations were found regarding changes in the nervous system, pharmacology, and risk factors seen in MDD patients. When verifying the allelic distribution, the S allele had a higher frequency in most of the studies analyzed. Despite not finding a commonality in the different studies, the tremendous genetic variation found demonstrates the MDD complexity. For this reason, further studies in diverse populations should be conducted to assist in the understanding and treatment of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11111260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692865PMC
October 2020

Six Cases of Zika/Dengue Coinfection in a Brazilian Cohort, 2015-2019.

Viruses 2020 10 21;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goias, Goiania 74605-050, Brazil.

Brazil is one of the countries which has been most affected by dengue epidemics. This scenario became more challenging with the emergence of Zika virus after 2014. The cocirculation of dengue and Zika viruses makes their diagnosis and treatment a challenge for health professionals, especially due to their similar clinical outcomes. From 2015 to 2019, we followed a cohort of 2017 participants in Goiania, Goias, Central Brazil. Febrile cases were monitored weekly, and after identification of fever, the physician performed a home visit for clinical evaluation and collection of blood/urine for diagnosis of acute dengue/Zika infection in suspected cases. Dengue acute infection was investigated by NS1 antigen and real time RT-PCR and seroconversion of anti-dengue IgM. ZIKV infection was confirmed by real time RT-PCR. Six cases of Zika/dengue coinfection among participants were reported. The clinical outcomes were suggestive for both DENV and ZIKV infection. No coinfected patient had neurological clinical manifestation, warning signs or need for hospitalization. A continuous specific laboratory confirmation for both dengue and Zika viruses should be enforced as part of the surveillance systems even in the presence of very suggestive cases of dengue fever, minimizing the risk of a late detection of ZIKV circulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12101201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588971PMC
October 2020

Supplementing filling material removal with XP-Endo Finisher R or R1-Clearsonic ultrasonic insert during retreatment of oval canals from contralateral teeth.

Aust Endod J 2020 Oct 8. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Endodontics, Iguaçu University (UNIG), Nova Iguaçu, RJ, Brazil.

This study compared the efficacy of XP-Endo Finisher R and R1-Clearsonic insert in removing filling material remnants from oval canals. Twelve pairs of contralateral premolars were treated and subsequently retreated with Reciproc 50. A supplementary procedure with XP-Endo Finisher R or R1-Clearsonic was performed. Micro-computed tomography was used to quantify the filling material volume in the full canal and apical segment lengths. Intragroup analyses revealed significant reduction of filling material after both procedures, not only in the full canal but also in the apical segment (P < 0.05). The amount of filling material removed with XP-Endo Finisher R and R1-Clearsonic was 47.9% and 52.2% in the apical segment (P > 0.05), and 82.1% and 64.6% in the full canal (P < 0.05). None of the instruments was effective in completely removing the filling material from the apical canal, but better results were obtained with XP-Endo Finisher R in the total canal length.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aej.12451DOI Listing
October 2020

Balloon compression vs radiofrequency for primary trigeminal neuralgia: a randomized, controlled trial.

Pain 2021 Mar;162(3):919-929

LIM-62, Pain Center Department of Neurology, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract: Surgical procedures are necessary in up to 50% of trigeminal neuralgia patients. Although radiofrequency (RF) is more widely used, it is associated with high intraprocedural costs and long technical learning time. Other simpler procedures such as balloon compression (BC) require a lower training period and have significant lower costs. We evaluated the effects of BC and RF in pain control in primary trigeminal neuralgia in a randomized, double-blinded, head-to-head trial. Individuals were randomly allocated in 1 of 2 groups: BC and RF. Throughout pain, psychological and quality of life measurements were performed at baseline and after surgery. The main outcome was the worst pain in the last 24 hours (0-10) at 6 months postoperatively. After the inclusion of half of the estimated sample, a preplanned interim analysis was performed when 33 patients (62.1 ± 9.4 y.) completed the study. Pain intensity (confidence interval [CI] 95% 0.6 to 3.8, and -0.6 to 2.2, for BC and RF) did not significantly differ. Complications, interference of pain in daily life (CI 95% -0.1 to 2.3 and -0.4 to 2.3, for BC and RF), neuropathic pain symptoms (CI 95% 1.7 to 3.6 and 3.0 to 5.7, for BC and RF), mood (CI 95% 4.8 to 11.5 and 5.5 to 15.1, BC and RF, respectively), medication use, and quality of life (CI 95% 80.4 to 93.1 and 83.9 to 94.2, for BC and RF) were also not different. Radiofrequency presented more paresthetic symptoms than BC at 30 days after intervention. Based on these results, the study was halted due to futility because BC was not superior to RF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002070DOI Listing
March 2021

SARC-F has low correlation and reliability with skeletal muscle mass index in older gastrointestinal cancer patients.

Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 26;40(3):890-894. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Laboratory of Research in Clinical Nutrition and Sports (Labince), Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The evaluation of function and muscle mass in older cancer patients is essential to reduce comorbidities. We hypothesized that Simple Questionnaire to Rapidly Diagnose Sarcopenia (SARC-F) questionnaire is useful to assessment the muscle function, but not muscle mass. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation and reliability between the SARC-F and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) in older gastrointestinal cancer patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional observational study enrolled 108 (63.55 ± 8.9 y) gastrointestinal cancer patients. The patients were evaluated using the SARC-F questionnaire and the muscle mass index (SMI). SMI was calculated using Lee's equation: the appendicular muscle mass (ASM) was divided by height. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the correlation between SARC-F and SMI. The Bland-Altman plot and Cohen's kappa coefficient were used to determine the concordance and reliability between them. Statistical difference was set at p < 0.05.

Results: The Bland-Altman plot showed that the difference between methods were within agreement (±1.96; p = 0.001). However, SARC-F has low concordance (κ = 0.20; standard error = 0.14) and correlation (r = -0.303; p = 0.0014) with SMI.

Conclusion: In older cancer outpatients, we found that SARC-F has low correlation and reliability with SMI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.08.018DOI Listing
March 2021

Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in an iron mining area with intense migratory flow in Pará State, Brazilian amazon, 2005-2014.

Braz J Microbiol 2020 Dec 5;51(4):1737-1745. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Seção de Virologia/Instituto Evandro Chagas, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Rodovia BR-316 km 7 s/n, Levilândia,, Ananindeua, Pará, 67030-000, Brazil.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major global public health problem. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 infection in four municipalities of Pará State (Marabá, Parauapebas, Curionópolis, and Canaã dos Carajás), in northern, Brazil. The municipalities are located in the Carajás Complex iron mining area. The employment opportunities result in extensive migratory flow of people. A total of 4771 serum samples were obtained from 2005 to 2014 and were sent to Evandro Chagas Institute, Belém-Pará, where they were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with reactive samples confirmed by Western blot analysis. The samples were from individuals from 23 Brazilian states and the Federal District, mainly Maranhão (39.53%) and other municipalities of Pará (34.25%). The total positivity rate was 0.48% (23/4771). The rate was 0.47% (14/2975) in males and 0.50% (9/1796) in females. Of these, 0.33% (14/4275) were from asymptomatic individuals whose serum were collected during the serological survey, 1.81% (9/497) were from cases featuring clinical symptoms including fever/diarrhea/jaundice, which were included in febrile, diarrheal, and icteric syndromes analyzed during the study. The findings indicated the presence of HIV-1 infection in the general population studied. The majority of cases (60.9%, 14 of 23 positive cases) were asymptomatic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-020-00361-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688839PMC
December 2020

SARS-CoV-2 genomic and quasispecies analyses in cancer patients reveal relaxed intrahost virus evolution.

bioRxiv 2020 Aug 26. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Programa de Oncovirologia, Instituto Nacional de Câncer. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Numerous factors have been identified to influence susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease severity. Cancer patients are more prone to clinically evolve to more severe COVID-19 conditions, but the determinants of such a more severe outcome remain largely unknown. We have determined the full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences of cancer patients and healthcare workers (HCW; non-cancer controls) by deep sequencing and investigated the within-host viral quasispecies of each infection, quantifying intrahost genetic diversity. Naso- and oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 swabs from 57 cancer patients and 14 healthcare workers (HCW) from the Brazilian Cancer Institute were collected in April-May 2020. Complete genome amplification using ARTIC network V3 multiplex primers was performed followed by next-generation sequencing. Assemblies were conducted in Geneious R11, where consensus sequences were extracted and intrahost single nucleotide variants (iSNVs) were identified. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis was performed using PhyMLv.3.0 and lineages were classified using Pangolin and CoV-GLUE. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all but one strain belonged to clade B1.1. Four genetically linked mutations known as the globally dominant SARS-CoV-2 haplotype (C241T, C3037T, C14408T and A23403G) were found in the majority of consensus sequences. SNV signatures of previously characterized Brazilian genomes were also observed in most samples. Another 85 SNVs were found at a lower frequency (1.4-19.7%). Cancer patients displayed a significantly higher intrahost viral genetic diversity compared to HCW (p = 0.009). Intrahost genetic diversity in cancer patients was independent of SARS-CoV-2 Ct values, and was not associated with disease severity, use of corticosteroids, or use of antivirals, characteristics that could influence viral diversity. Such a feature may explain, at least in part, the more adverse outcomes to which cancer/COVID-19 patients experience.

Author Summary: Cancer patients are more prone to clinically evolve to more severe COVID-19 conditions, but the determinants of such a more severe outcome remain largely unknown. In this study, phylogenetic and variation analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes from cancer patients and non-cancer healthcare workers at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute were characterized by deep sequencing. Viral genomes showed signatures characteristic of Brazilian viruses, consistent with the hypothesis of local, community transmission rather than virus importation from abroad. Despite most genomes in patients and healthcare workers belonging to the same lineage, intrahost variability was higher in cancer patients when compared to non-cancer counterparts. The intrahost genomic diversity analysis presented in our study highlights the relaxed evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in a vulnerable population of cancer patients. The high number of minor variations can result in the selection of immune escape variants, resistance to potential drugs, and/or increased pathogenicity. The impact of this higher intrahost variability over time warrants further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.26.267831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457605PMC
August 2020

Impact of obesity on hospitalizations and mortality, due to COVID-19: A systematic review.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2020 Sep - Oct;14(5):398-403. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Internship Department - Medical School, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil. Electronic address:

The aim of the current review was to assess whether there was an association between obesity and higher levels of hospitalization, poor outcomes and mortality due to the disease of novel coronavirus (COVID-19).

Methodology: A systematic review of articles on the novel coronavirus, containing information on obesity and its association with COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. In the bibliographic research, four databases were used, with the terms ['COVID-19'] AND ['hospitalization'] AND ['obesity'] AND ['mortality']. Studies published from 12/01/2019 until 05/01/2020 were included. The research contains inclusive criteria targeting studies of humans adults infected by Sars-Cov-2, with or without comorbidities. This research was selected from publications in Spanish and English languages.

Results: 96 articles were identified, 15 being presented in two databases. Twenty articles were included, with a population total estimated from 1 to 7671 patients, with a prevalence of obesity ranging from 13.3% to 68.6%. The association of obesity and mortality has been observed in at least 4 studies, that 85.3% of the population was hospitalized. Among 19 of the 20 studies, more severe forms of the disease were observed and in 14 of them, higher rates of complications among obese people infected with the new coronavirus. Limitation differences in the definition of obesity was observed among publications, of which obesity was considered from a body mass index >25 kg/m².

Conclusions: In the current review, obesity and overweight were represented an unfavorable factor for infection of novel coronavirus, where the higher the BMI the worse the outcomes. This occurred by worsening the infection itself, as well as increasing the prevalence of hospitalizations, worst outcomes and greater lethality; especially when co-occurring with other chronic conditions and in the elderly as well. Given this evidence, greater attention is suggested to the obese and overweight population in the face of the current pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2020.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377684PMC
October 2020

Cone-beam Computed Tomographic and Micro-computed Tomographic Evaluations of the Root Apexes of Teeth with Posttreatment Apical Periodontitis.

J Endod 2020 Jul 16. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Endodontics and Dental Research Group, Iguaçu University, Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, University of Grande Rio, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Introduction: This study evaluated the association of different variables that may influence the outcome of root canal treatment through cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) assessments of root apexes obtained by endodontic microsurgery of teeth with posttreatment apical periodontitis (AP), the agreement between CBCT and micro-CT findings, and the association of these variables with symptoms or lesion size.

Methods: Clinical and CBCT records and root apexes obtained by endodontic microsurgery from 11 cases of symptomatic AP and 22 cases of asymptomatic AP were available. Apical root specimens were further scanned using micro-CT imaging. CBCT parameters included periapical radiolucency size, apical extent/density of root canal filling, and occurrence of procedural errors. Micro-CT images evaluated the same parameters plus the presence of filling material in lateral canals and ramifications, the volume of the filled/nonfilled apical root canal, and the percentage of the nonfilled canal space. The agreement between CBCT/micro-CT observations was evaluated.

Results: Mandibular teeth, a lesion size <5 mm, a nonfilled volume <0.04 mm, and the decreased percentage of the nonfilled canal volume were significantly associated with symptomatic AP. Maxillary teeth and inadequate apical filling density were significantly associated with larger lesions. Agreement between CBCT/micro-CT scores varied from fair (procedural errors) to satisfactory (extent/density of filling).

Conclusions: Tooth location, lesion size, the nonfilled apical canal volume, and the percentage of the nonfilled apical canal volume were associated with symptomatic AP. In addition, lesion size was significantly associated with tooth location and apical root canal filling density. CBCT imaging may not provide a reliable evaluation of procedural errors associated with posttreatment disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2020.07.009DOI Listing
July 2020